Publications by authors named "Alireza Izadi"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New weapons to fight a new enemy: A systematic review of drug combinations against the drug-resistant fungus Candida auris.

Mycoses 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Candida auris is an emerging and drug-resistant pathogen. Drug combination is a promising approach against such pathogens. This study was conducted to provide an overview of all the studied drug combinations against C. auris. Relevant articles reporting results of any drug/non-drug combinations against C. auris were found by a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (ISI), and in Google Scholar up to 1 October 2020. From 187 articles retrieved in the primary search, 23 met the inclusion criteria. In total, 124 different combinations including antifungal with antifungal (45), antifungal with other antimicrobials (11), antifungal with non-antimicrobials (32), antifungal with natural compounds (25) and between natural compounds (11) have been reported. Complete or partial synergistic effects have been reported for 3 out of 45 (6.67%) combinations of two antifungal agents, 8 out of 11 (72.73%) combinations involving antifungal agents and antimicrobials, 15 out of 32 (46.88%) of combinations between antifungal agents with non-antimicrobials, 16 out of 25 (64%) of combinations involving antifungal agents and natural compounds, and 3 out of 11 (22.27%) of combinations involving multiple natural compounds. Antagonistic interactions have been reported for 1 out of 32 (3.13%) and 8 out of 25 (32%) of combinations between antifungal drugs with non-antimicrobials and with natural compounds, respectively. Different drugs/compounds could potentiate the activity of antifungal drugs using this approach. However, despite the availability of this promising initial data, many more studies will be required to elucidate whether favourable interactions observed in vitro might translate into tangible clinical benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13277DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical and mycological characteristics of keratitis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides: A case report and review of literature.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Mar 7;15(2):301-305. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Colletotrichum species are well-known plant pathogens, which have been increasingly reported as the cause of keratitis or subcutaneous lesions in humans. In this study we reported a rare case of fungal keratitis from Iran and reviewed the literature.

Case Presentation: A 69-year-old man whose right eye was injured by herbal material was examined by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and mycology investigation of corneal scrapings was done. The grown filamentous fungal was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region. The isolated strain was sensitive to amphotericin B, caspofungin, anidolafungin, micafungin, voriconazole, and relatively resistant to fluconazole, and itraconazole. Patient was successfully treated with voriconazole.

Conclusions: This report highlights that the early and accurate identification and therapy can helpful to management keratitis caused by C. gloeosporioides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.14492DOI Listing
March 2021

Interpretation of Hematological, Biochemical, and Immunological Findings of COVID-19 Disease: Biomarkers Associated with Severity and Mortality.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):46-66. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly all over the world in late 2019 and caused critical illness and death in some infected patients. This study aimed at examining several laboratory factors, especially inflammatory and immunological mediators, to identify severity and mortality associated biomarkers. Ninety-three hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were classified based on disease severity. The levels of biochemical, hematological, immunological, and inflammatory mediators were assessed, and their association with severity and mortality were evaluated. Hospitalized patients were mostly men (77.4%) with an average (standard deviation) age of 59.14 (14.81) years. The mortality rate was significantly higher in critical patients (85.7%). Increased serum levels of blood sugar, urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, total bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin were significantly prevalent (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.014, p=0.047, p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, P<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) in COVID-19 patients. Decreased red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly prevalent among COVID-19 patients than healthy control subjects (p<0.001 for all). Troponin-I, interleukin-6, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin, and D-dimer showed a significant association with the mortality of patients with specificity and sensitivity more than 60%. Age, sex, underlying diseases, blood oxygen pressure, complete blood count along with C-reactive protein, lactic dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 evaluation help to predict the severity and required management for COVID-19 patients. Further investigations are highly recommended in a larger cohort study for validation of the present findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i1.5412DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of photo core, LuxaCore, and core max II core building materials on fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and ParaPosts.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2020 Jul-Aug;17(4):244-250. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Dentist, Private Practice, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Post and core treatment is commonly performed for endodontically treated teeth to replace the lost tooth structure and reinforce and protect the remaining dental tissue. This study aimed to compare the effect of three-core building materials on fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and ParaPosts.

Materials And Methods: This , experimental study evaluated 108 sound, single-rooted mandibular first premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The teeth were randomly divided into nine groups ( = 12) of control (no endodontic or restorative treatment), FRC + Photo Core (Group 2), FRC + LuxaCore (Group 3), FRC + Core Max II with bonding agent (Group 4), FRC + Core Max II without bonding agent (Group 5), ParaPost + Photo Core (Group 6), ParaPost + LuxaCore (Group 7), ParaPost + Core Max II with bonding agent (Group 8), and ParaPost + Core Max II without bonding agent (Group 9). The fracture resistance was measured by applying the load at 45° angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the tooth with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min using a universal testing machine. Data were through descriptive statistics, Tukey's test, and one-way analysis of variance (α = 0.05).

Results: The mean fracture resistance was 454.0 ± 62.7, 410.8 ± 48.3, 365.1 ± 42.1, 423.7 ± 111.7, 392.4 ± 90.0, 292.3 ± 83.9, 242.3 ± 73.4, 278.2 ± 67.9, and 247.3 ± 49.6 N in Groups 1-9, respectively. Group 4 showed the highest fracture resistance, which was significantly higher than this study the value in all ParaPost and control groups ( < 0.05) but had no significant difference with the fracture resistance of other groups ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Fracture resistance is independent of the type of core building material used, and the tested products had no superiority over each other. The mean fracture resistance of FRC post groups were significantly higher than that of ParaPost groups. Furthermore, Core Max II + bonding agent yielded insignificantly higher fracture resistance than Core Max II without bonding agent.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688039PMC
August 2020

Current diagnostic tools and management modalities of Nocardia keratitis.

J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2020 Dec 2;10(1):36. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nocardia species are an uncommon but important cause of keratitis. The purpose of this review is to discus previous published papers relation to the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and management of Nocardia keratitis. Nocardia asteroides is the most frequently reported from Nocardia keratitis. Pain, photophobia, blepharospasm and lid swelling are mainly clinical manifestations. Usual risk factors for Nocardia keratitis are trauma, surgery, corticosteroids, and contact lens wear. Several antibiotics were used for treatment of Nocardia infection but according to studies, topical amikacin is the drug of choice for Nocardia keratitis. Topical steroid should not prescribe in these patients. In conclusion, although Nocardia keratitis is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent any scar formation and preserve a good visual acuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12348-020-00228-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710777PMC
December 2020

Distribution, antifungal susceptibility pattern and intra-Candida albicans species complex prevalence of Candida africana: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(8):e0237046. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Candida africana is a pathogenic species within the Candida albicans species complex. Due to the limited knowledge concerning its prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles, a comprehensive study is overdue. Accordingly, we performed a search of the electronic databases for literature published in the English language between 1 January 2001 and 21 March 2020. Citations were screened, relevant articles were identified, and data were extracted to determine overall intra-C. albicans complex prevalence, geographical distribution, and antifungal susceptibility profiles for C. africana. From a total of 366 articles, 41 were eligible for inclusion in this study. Our results showed that C. africana has a worldwide distribution. The pooled intra-C. albicans complex prevalence of C. africana was 1.67% (95% CI 0.98-2.49). Prevalence data were available for 11 countries from 4 continents. Iran (3.02%, 95%CI 1.51-4.92) and Honduras (3.03%, 95% CI 0.83-10.39) had the highest values and Malaysia (0%) had the lowest prevalence. Vaginal specimens were the most common source of C. africana (92.81%; 155 out of 167 isolates with available data). However, this species has also been isolated from cases of balanitis, from patients with oral lesions, and from respiratory, urine, and cutaneous samples. Data concerning the susceptibility of C. africana to 16 antifungal drugs were available in the literature. Generally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal drugs against this species were low. In conclusion, C. africana demonstrates geographical variation in prevalence and high susceptibility to antifungal drugs. However, due to the relative scarcity of existing data concerning this species, further studies will be required to establish more firm conclusions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237046PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440629PMC
October 2020

In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles in Comparison to Conventional Antifungal Drugs Against Trichophyton Interdigitale, Trichophyton Rubrum and Epidermophyton Floccosum.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Jul 14. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: Dermatophytosis is a globally distributed fungal infection. Treatment failure and relapse is common in this disease. Silver nanoparticle are known for their promising antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal activity of these nanoparticles against common dermatophyte species.

Methods: A set of 30 molecularly identified dermatophytes including Trichophyton interdigitale (n=10), Trichophyton rubrum (n=10), and Epidermophyton floccosum (n=10) were used in this study. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using chicory (Cichorium intybus) were tested for their antifungal activity in comparison to fluconazole, itraconazole and terbinafine. Interspecies differences in minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal drugs and silver nanoparticles were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test in SPSS software version 21.

Results: The highest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) among antifungal drugs were observed for fluconazole [range: 4-64 µg/mL, geometric mean (GM) =17.959 µg/mL], followed by itraconazole (range: 0.008-0.5, GM= 0.066) and terbinafine (range: 0.004- 0.25 µg/mL, GM=0.027 µg/mL). Silver nanoparticles showed potent antifungal activity against all dermatophyte isolates with MICs (range: 0.25-32 µg/mL, GM=4.812 µg/mL) higher than those of itraconazole and terbinafine, but lower than fluconazole. MIC values of silver nanoparticles demonstrated significant differences between species (P=0.044), with E. floccosum having the highest MICs (GM=9.849 µg/mL) compared to T. interdigitale (GM=3.732 µg/mL) and T. rubrum (GM=3.031 µg/mL).

Conclusion: Silver nanoparticles demonstrated promising anti-dermatophyte activity against the studied dermatophytes. Due to their widespectrum activity against other fungal and bacterial pathogens, they could be a potential choice, at least in the case of cutaneous and superficial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200715095744DOI Listing
July 2020

Oropharyngeal candidiasis in hospitalised COVID-19 patients from Iran: Species identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern.

Mycoses 2020 Aug 23;63(8):771-778. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. Apparently, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is armed by special abilities to spread and dysregulate the immune mechanisms. The likelihood of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) development in COVID-19 patients with a list of attributable risk factors for oral infections has not yet been investigated.

Objectives: We here aim to investigate the prevalence, causative agents and antifungal susceptibility pattern of OPC in Iranian COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: A total of 53 hospitalised COVID-19 patients with OPC were studied. Relevant clinical data were mined. Strain identification was performed by 21-plex PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Antifungal susceptibility testing to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin was performed according to the CLSI broth dilution method.

Results: In 53 COVID-19 patients with OPC, cardiovascular diseases (52.83%) and diabetes (37.7%) were the principal underlying conditions. The most common risk factor was lymphopaenia (71%). In total, 65 Candida isolates causing OPC were recovered. C albicans (70.7%) was the most common, followed by C glabrata (10.7%), C dubliniensis (9.2%), C parapsilosis sensu stricto (4.6%), C tropicalis (3%) and Pichia kudriavzevii (=C krusei, 1.5%). Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to all three classes of antifungal drugs.

Conclusion: Our data clarified some concerns regarding the occurrence of OPC in Iranian COVID-19 patients. Further studies should be conducted to design an appropriate prophylaxis programme and improve management of OPC in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361944PMC
August 2020

Comparison of Optical Properties of Laminate Veneers Made of Zolid FX and Katana UTML Zirconia and Lithium Disilicate Ceramics.

Front Dent 2019 Sep-Oct;16(5):357-368. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the optical properties of Zolid FX, Katana UTML, and lithium disilicate laminate veneers.

Materials And Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, the maxillary left lateral incisor of a phantom received a laminate veneer preparation. An impression was made, and a die was fabricated using dental stone. The die was scanned using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing scanner. Ten dies were fabricated from each of the A1, A2, and A3 shades of composite resin. Laminate veneers were fabricated using A1 shade of Katana UTML, Zolid FX, and IPS e.max CAD ceramics (n=10) and placed on composite abutments using bleach and white colors of trial insertion paste (TIP). The optical properties were measured at the incisal, middle, and cervical thirds using a spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test.

Results: The effect of laminate material on the L*, a*, and b* parameters was significant in all areas (P<0.001), except for the L* parameter in the middle and cervical thirds. All color parameters were affected by TIP color in all three regions in most samples (P<0.05). The effect of composite abutment shade was also significant in most cases (P<0.05). The effect of laminate material, abutment shade, and TIP color on the b* parameter was significant (P<0.001). The L* parameter was almost the same in the two zirconia and lithium disilicate ceramic groups.

Conclusion: The composite abutment shade, TIP color, and laminate material should be carefully selected to achieve optimal aesthetics in laminate veneers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/fid.v16i5.2284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040555PMC
October 2019

Nickel-Doped Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis Using and Protective Effect against Harmful Ultraviolet Rays.

Molecules 2019 Dec 4;24(24). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19857-17443, Iran.

Nanoparticles of cerium oxide CeO are important nanomaterials with remarkable properties for use in both industrial and non-industrial fields. In a general way, doping of oxide nanometric with transition metals improves the properties of nanoparticles. In this study, nickel- doped cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from extract. Both doped and non-doped nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Raman spectroscopy, and Vibrating-Sample Magnetometry analysis. According to X-ray diffraction, Raman and Energy Dispersive X-ray crystalline and single phase of CeO and Ni doped CeO nanoparticles exhibiting fluorite structure with F2g mode were synthesized. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy shows that CeO and Ni doped nanoparticles have spherical shape and sizes ranging of 8 to 10 nm. Ni doping of CeO results in an increasing of magnetic properties. The enhancement of ultraviolet protector character via Ni doping of CeO is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24244424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943421PMC
December 2019

In vitro synergy of echinocandins with triazoles against fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2020 06 9;21:331-334. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) is a common non-albicans Candida species ranked as the second common cause of bloodstream infections. Azole resistance and elevated echinocandin MICs have been reported for these fungi. This study was conducted to determine the interactions between azoles and echinocandins against C. parapsilosis species complex.

Materials And Methods: Fifteen fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were included: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 7), C. orthopsilosis (n = 5) and C. metapsilosis (n = 3). The activity of azoles (fluconazole, itraconazole) and echinocandins (anidulafungin, micafungin) alone and in combination was determined using checkerboard broth microdilution. The results were determined based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI).

Results: In vitro combination of fluconazole with anidulafungin was found to be synergistic (FICI 0.07-0.37) and decreased the MIC range from 4-64 μg/mL to 0.5-16 μg/mL for fluconazole and from 2-8 μg/mL to 0.125-1 μg/mL for anidulafungin. Similarly, interactions of fluconazole with micafungin (FICI 0.25-0.5), itraconazole with anidulafungin (FICI 0.15-0.37) and itraconazole with micafungin (FICI 0.09-0.37) were synergistic.

Conclusion: The combination of fluconazole and itraconazole with either anidulafungin or micafungin demonstrated synergistic interactions against C. parapsilosis species complex, especially against isolates with elevated MIC values. However, the use of these combinations in clinical practice and the clinical relevance of in vitro combination results remain unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.11.003DOI Listing
June 2020

Outcomes of Implementation of Sacral Nerve Stimulation in Incontinent Patients in Shiraz.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 20;8:21. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Fecal incontinence is a common disorder in old age; however, it may not threaten life, but it can cause morbidity and many problems. Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed by chronic electrical stimulation of the nerves in the sacral plexus through a lead implanted at the S3 foramen. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of SNS in Shiraz.

Materials And Methods: Data from patients who underwent implantation of an SNS device from 2012 to 2018 were reviewed in Shiraz. Thirty patients who had incontinence were evaluated by a committee. Pre- and postoperative assessments of the severity of incontinence were performed using Wexner Incontinence Score. Statistical analysis was performed using paired -test.

Results: Twenty-seven patients proceeded to insertion in the temporary SNS, and of these, 16 were elected to have a permanent SNS. Finally, seven patients were satisfied with their treatment. There was a significant reduction in the pre- and post-SNS Wexner Incontinence Scores from a median of 15-10, respectively ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: In our study, 16 patients underwent SNS protocol, and 43.7% of them showed a good response and recovered. It is recommended as a method for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Permanent SNS is effective, showing a significant improvement in fecal incontinence scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_202_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446578PMC
March 2019

Evaluation of dimensional accuracy of dental bridges manufactured with conventional casting technique and CAD/CAM system with Ceramill Sintron blocks using CMM.

J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2018 19;12(4):264-271. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Prosthodontic Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Recently, non-presintered chromium-cobalt (Cr-Co) blocks with the commercial name of Ceramill Sintron were introduced to the market. However, comprehensive studies on the dimensional accuracy and fit of multi-unit frameworks made of these blocks using the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) are lacking. This study aimed to assess and compare the dimensional changes and fit of conventional casting and milled frameworks using Ceramill Sintron. A metal model was designed and scanned and 5-unit frameworks were fabricated using two techniques: (I) the conventional casting method (n=20): the wax model was designed, milled in the CAD/CAM machine, flasked and invested; (II) the milling method using Ceramill Sintron blocks (n=20): the wax patterns of group 1 were used; Ceramill Sintron blocks were milled and sintered. Measurements were made on the original reference model and the fabricated frameworks using the CMM in all the three spatial dimensions, and dimensional changes were recorded in a checklist. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the two groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). The fabricated frameworks in both groups showed significant dimensional changes in all the three dimensions. Comparison of dimensional changes between the two groups revealed no significant differences (P>0.05) except for transverse changes (arch) that were significantly greater in Ceramill Sintron frameworks (P<0.05). The two manufacturing processes were the same regarding dimensional changes and the magnitude of marginal gaps and both processes resulted in significant dimensional changes in frameworks. Ceramill Sintron frameworks showed significantly greater transverse changes than the conventional frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/joddd.2018.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368946PMC
December 2018

The study of the serum level of IL-4, TGF-β, IFN-γ, and IL-6 in overweight patients with and without diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

J Cell Biochem 2019 03 27;120(3):4147-4157. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Background: Obesity increases the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension. We aimed to analyze the serum levels of cytokines that have relevance to the pathologies including, interleukin-4 (IL-4), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and IL-6 cytokines of overweight men with DM and/or hypertension.

Methods: The study collected serum from 164 men. The sample population contained, 54 overweight men without DM or hypertension (control [CTL] group), 36 men with both DM and hypertension (DH group), 20 men with DM but no hypertension (D group), and 54 had hypertension without DM (H).

Results: The main results showed that the concentration of IFN-γ in the DH group was significantly higher than the D, H, and CTL groups, IL-6 in DH and D groups was significantly lower than the CTL group. The serum level of TGF-β and IL-4 cytokines did not show any significant differences across the four groups. Serum levels of IL-6 were also significantly lower in untreated patients in D group than controls and in DH when compared with H groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, it appears that the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines either play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and DM or serve as markers for these pathologies. Accordingly, increased serum levels of IFN-γ may participate in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the diabetic patients and decreased IL-6 is associated with type 2 DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27700DOI Listing
March 2019

Comparative Study of Dimensional Accuracy in Three Dental Implant Impression Techniques: Open Tray, Closed Tray with Impression Coping, and Snap Cap.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2018 Aug 1;19(8):974-981. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Science, Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Phone: +989188185838, e-mail:

Aim: Several impression techniques have been proposed to result passive fitness between the prosthesis and osseointe-grated implant. The aim of the study was to compare dimensional accuracy of three impression methods: Open tray, closed tray with impression coping, and closed tray with snap cap.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, a mandibular acrylic model was prepared with a milling machine to place three holes for dental implant analogs (Dio SM) with the dimension of 3.8 × 10 mm into the intended sites (one in midline and two others on the side at a distance of 10 mm) parallel with each other and perpendicular to the plane. Twenty-seven casts were prepared with impression material of polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) and dental stone type IV and divided into three groups. Implant situations were measured by coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and results were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test to perform pairwise comparison among the groups.

Results: The mean ΔR values for open tray, closed tray with impression coping, and closed tray with snap cap were respectively, 0.070 ± 0.088, 0.173 ± 0.205, and 0.142 ± 0.044. There were statistically significant differences between open tray and closed tray as well as open tray and snap cap methods (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference between closed tray and snap cap method (p = 0.1).

Conclusion: Regarding the results, open tray impression technique had the highest dimensional accuracy compared with the other two methods. There were no statically significant differences between closed tray with snap cap and closed tray with impression coping technique.

Clinical Significance: Snap cap technique is less time consuming with similar dimensional accuracy in comparison with open tray impression technique.
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August 2018

The Effects of Opium Addiction on the Immune System Function in Patients with Fungal Infection.

Addict Health 2016 ;8(4):218-226

Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: The use of narcotics such as opium exposes addicts as susceptible targets of different diseases so that they might easily be exposed to different diseases such as fungal infections. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to opium and fungal infection on plasma levels of certain cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Methods: Present study included 72 individuals who were divided into 4 groups: 1) opium-addicted with fungal infection; 2) opium-addicted without fungal infection; 3) non-opium-addicted with fungal infection; and 4) normal individuals (non-opium-addicted and non-fungal infection). The fungal samples, after being detected and confirmed by a physician, were prepared based on clinical symptoms and then analyzed by direct smear and culture method. The measurement of the plasma level of cytokines was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.

Findings: The comparison of the mean of the plasma level of cytokines showed that addiction to opium and fungal infection had significant effect on the plasma levels of IL-17, IFN-γ, TGF-β cytokines in all studied groups. The interaction of addiction to opium and fungal infection was only significant in the case of plasma level of IL-6.

Conclusion: Addiction to opium and fungal infection, either separately or simultaneously, poses significant effect on the immune system and causes disorders in the cytokine network and the immune system and also provides a suitable environment for fungal infection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554801PMC
January 2016

Epidemiology of dermatomycoses in Kerman province, southeast of Iran: A 10-years retrospective study (2004-2014).

Microb Pathog 2017 Sep 27;110:561-567. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran.

Objectives: Superficial and cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are an important public health problem and are common in tropical and subtropical countries. Pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytosis, erythrasma, onychomycosis, and otomycosis are the major diseases associated with SCFIs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of dermatomycoses over a period of 10 years in Kerman province, southeast of Iran.

Methods: A number of 1782 subjects, including 1096 females and 686 males, with cutaneous disorders in their skin, nail, and hair suspected to have SCFIs participated in this study. The collected specimens were examined using direct microscopy examination, staining, culture on specific media and PCR-RFLP technique.

Results: In total, 617 (34.62%) subjects had SCFIs, of whom 290 (47%) were female and 327 (53%) were male. Identified SCFIs included yeast infections, dermatophytosis, saprophyte onychomycosis, erythrasma, and otomycosis due to non-dermatophytic molds (NDMs). The highest prevalence of dermatomycoses was found among the 41-50-year and 31-40-year age groups. Tinea unguium was the most common clinical pattern of dermatomycoses, and T. mentagrophytes was the predominant agent. Also, Aspergillus spp. were the most common NDMs agents of onychomycosis and otomycosis.

Conclusions: This study summarized the epidemiological trends and etiologic agents of SCFIs in a 10-year period in Kerman, southeast of Iran. Consideration of the current epidemiologic trends in the prevalence and knowledge of the exact causative agents of SCFIs may play an important key role towards further investigations, diagnosis, and modification of current treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.07.043DOI Listing
September 2017

Plasma Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-Positive Patients With Oral Candidiasis.

Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016 Feb 17;9(2):e32021. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Department of Medical Mycology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran.

Background: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by CD4 + Th (T helper)-type cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against Oral Candidiasis (OC) in HIV-infected individuals. Weakened CMI and depletion of CD4 + T cells are the main factor contributing to the output of OC in HIV-positive individuals. The cytokines produced by Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells play a role in mediating an increased susceptibility to OC during HIV infection.

Objectives: The present study investigated plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-1 patients suffering from OC.

Patients And Methods: In total, 98 samples in four groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with and without OC) were obtained from the oral cavities and cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Also blood samples were obtained to assess plasma level of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 using ELISA technique.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 but not about IL-4. Our findings suggest a significant interaction between fungal infection and HIV on expression of assessed cytokines.

Conclusions: Fungal infection and HIV alone and together could seriously alter immune system function as assessed by measuring the levels of the plasma cytokines. Therefore, these results provide important new information relative to the putative immune-based factors associated with resistance and/or susceptibility to OC in HIV-positive persons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/jjm.32021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4842255PMC
February 2016

Flexural Strength of Cold and Heat Cure Acrylic Resins Reinforced with Different Materials.

J Dent (Tehran) 2015 May;12(5):316-23

Postgraduate Student, Department of Prosthodontic Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Heat-polymerized acrylic resin has been the most commonly used denture base material for over 60 years. However, the mechanical strength of acrylic resin is not adequate for long-term clinical performance of dentures. Consequently, fracture is a common clinical occurrence, which often develops in the midline of the denture base. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cold-cure and heat-cure acrylic resins, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire for denture base repair.

Materials And Methods: Ninety specimens were prepared and allocated to nine groups. Ten specimens were considered as controls, and 80 were divided into 8 experimental groups. In the experimental groups, the specimens were sectioned into two halves from the middle, and were then divided into two main groups: one group was repaired with heat cure acrylic resin, and the other with cold cure acrylic resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups: unreinforced, reinforced with glass fibers, polyethylene fibers, and metal wire. All specimens were subjected to a 3-point bending test, and the flexural strength was calculated.

Results: The group repaired with heat cure acrylic resin and reinforced with glass fiber showed the highest flexural strength; however, the group repaired with cold cure acrylic resin and reinforced with polyethylene fibers had the lowest flexural strength. There was no significant difference between the groups repaired with heat cure and cold cure acrylic resins without reinforcement.

Conclusion: Repairing denture base with heat cure acrylic resin, reinforced with glass fibers increases the flexural strength of denture base.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749095PMC
May 2015

Effect of eugenol-containing sealer and post diameter on the retention of fiber reinforced composite posts.

J Conserv Dent 2013 Jan;16(1):61-4

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) posts are cemented with resin cements. It is reported that using resin cements in canals sealed with eugenol-containing sealers reduces the post retention. However, there is controversy on the subject.

Aims: The aim was to investigate the influence of eugenol-containing sealers and the amount of dentin removal from root canal with different post diameters on retention of FRC posts.

Settings And Design: It was an in vitro study

Materials And Methods: The roots of sixty teeth were cut with 14 mm distance from the apex and were instrumented to the working-length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 30). Following storage in normal saline for 7 days, the samples in both the groups were further divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10). Canals in the experimental subgroups (I, II, III) were obturated by gutta-percha and eugenol-containing sealer; and in the control subgroups (IV, V, VI) without any sealer. After storage in normal saline for 7 days, the post space was prepared by #3, #2, and #1 drills of DT Light-Post system. Post was cemented with Panavia-F2.0 resin-cement. A composite core was built for each sample. All samples were thermo cycled for 1000 cycles. The samples were tested for post retention with a mechanical testing machine.

Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test.

Results: There was not a significant difference in retention between FRC posts #1 and #2 (P > 0.05). Post #3 was more retentive than posts #1and #2 (P < 0.05). ZOE sealer significantly reduced the retention of posts (P = 0.024), however, increasing post-space diameter significantly increased post retention in canals coated with ZOE sealer (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Eugenol-containing sealer reduced the retention of FRC posts cemented with resin cement. Removing more dentin from root-canals treated with eugenol-containing sealer for placing larger diameter posts caused an increase in post retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.105301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548349PMC
January 2013