Publications by authors named "Alireza Farsi"

4 Publications

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Assessment of motor skill accuracy and coordination variability after application of local and remote experimental pain.

Res Sports Med 2021 Feb 11:1-17. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Motor learning is a relatively permanent change in motor performance. Also, one of the factors that can affect movement acquisition and movement patterns is pain and injury. The present study aims to investigate the effect of the induced local and remote pain during dart-throwing skill acquisition by examining motor skill accuracy and coordination variability. Three groups of 30 participants with a mean age of 18-25 were randomly assigned to local and remote pain or control groups. Capsaicin gel was applied to the pain groups for measuring the severity of pain using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The results revealed that pain had no impact on dart-throwing skill acquisition, and there was no significant difference (p = 0.732) among the three groups at three stages of retention test. The results also showed that there was a significant difference among the three groups in terms of variability in shoulder-elbow (p = 0.025) and elbow-wrist joints (p = 0.000) in the deceleration and dart-throwing phases. The Central Nervous System seems to make adjustments when the task is associated with pain during the acquisition phase. Also, the groups with or without pain have notably various strategies, so differently, to perceive motor skills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2021.1888104DOI Listing
February 2021

Visual deprivation is met with active changes in ground reaction forces to minimize worsening balance and stability during walking.

Exp Brain Res 2020 Feb 11;238(2):369-379. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Previous studies suggest that visual information is essential for balance and stability of locomotion. We investigated whether visual deprivation is met with active reactions tending to minimize worsening balance and stability during walking in humans. We evaluated effects of vision on kinetic characteristics of walking on a treadmill-ground reaction forces (GRFs) and shifts in the center of mass (COM). Young adults (n = 10) walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed. We measured three orthogonal components of GRFs and COM shifts during no-vision (NV) and full-vision (FV) conditions. We also computed the dynamic balance index (D)-the perpendicular distance from the projection of center of mass (pCOM) to the inter-foot line (IFL) normalized to half of the foot length. Locally weighted regression smoothing with alpha-adjusted serial T tests was used to compare GRFs and D between two conditions during the entire stance phase. Results showed significant differences in GRFs between FV and NV conditions in vertical and ML directions. Variability of peak forces of all three components of GRF increased in NV condition. We also observed significant increase in D for NV condition in eight out of ten subjects. The pCOM was kept within BOS during walking, in both conditions, suggesting that body stability was actively controlled by adjusting three components of GRFs during NV walking to minimize stability loss and preserve balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-020-05722-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Using the locus of slack logic to determine whether the output form of inhibition of return affects an early or late stage of processing.

Cortex 2020 01 7;122:123-130. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Canada.

Slower reaction times to targets presented at a previously cued or attended location are often attributed to inhibition of return (IOR). It has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the output end of processing continuum when it is generated while the oculomotor system is activated. Following the path set by Kavyani, Farsi, Abdoli, and Klein (2017) we used the locus of slack logic embedded in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to test this idea. We generated what we expected would be the output form of IOR by beginning each with participants making a target directed saccade which was followed by two tasks. Task 1, was a 2-choice auditory discrimination task and Task 2 was a 2-choice visual localization task. We varied the interval between the onsets of the two targets associated with these two tasks (using TTOAs of 200, 400, or 800 msec). As expected the visual task suffered from a robust PRP effect (substantially delayed RTs at the shorter TTOAs). There was also a robust IOR effect with RTs to localize visual targets being slower when the targets were presented at a previously fixated location. Importantly, and in striking to our previous results wherein we generated the input form of IOR, in the present study there was an additive effect between IOR and TTOA on RT2. As implied by the locus of slack logic, we therefore conclude that the form of IOR generated when the oculomotor system is activated affects a late stage of processing. Converging evidence for this conclusion, from a variety of neuroscientific methods, is presented and the dearth of such evidence about the input form of IOR is noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.10.023DOI Listing
January 2020

Using the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether inhibition of return in a cue-target paradigm is delaying early or late stages of processing.

Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 12;71(1):63-70. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University.

Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). To test this theory, we employed a modified psychological refractory period paradigm designed to elicit input IOR with visual stimuli, allowing us to use the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether an early or late stage of processing was inhibited by IOR. On each trial a visual cue was presented, followed by an auditory target (T1) and visual target (T2) separated by a target-target onset asynchrony (TTOA) of varying lengths (200 ms, 400 ms, or 800 ms). Participants (31 young adults) were instructed to ignore the cue and respond to the targets as quickly and accurately as possible. Eye tracking was used to ensure that participants actively suppressed eye movements during trials. As predicted, the inhibitory effect of the cue was observed at the longest TTOA but not when TTOAs were short, supporting our hypothesis that, when generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed, IOR affects processing before response selection. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000102DOI Listing
March 2017