Publications by authors named "Alireza Farsad Naeimi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sugar consumption, sugar sweetened beverages and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Sep 16;53:102512. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Students' Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a significant neurobehavioral disorder in children and adolescence which may be affected by diet.

Objective: To evaluate the possible relationship between sugar consumption and the development of symptoms of ADHD.

Methods: In March 2020, an exhaustive systematic literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus. In this meta-analysis of observational studies, odds ratios, relative risks, hazard ratios, and their 95% confidence intervals, which was reported for ADHD regarding SSBS, soft drink consumption, and dietary sugars, were used to calculate ORs and standard errors. At first, a fixed-effects model was used to drive the overall effect sizes using log ORs and SEs. If there was any significant between-studies heterogeneity, the random-effects model was conducted. Cochran's Q test and I were used to measure potential sources of heterogeneity across studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the quality of the included articles.

Results: Seven studies, two cross-sectional, two case-control, and three prospective with a total of 25,945 individuals were eligible to include in the current meta-analysis. The association between sugar and soft drink consumption and the risk of ADHD symptoms were provided based on the random-effects model (pooled effect size: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.42, P = 0.01) (I² = 81.9%, P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicated a positive relationship between overall sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption and symptoms of ADHD; however, there was heterogeneity among included studies. Future well-designed studies that can account for confounds are necessary to confirm the effect of sugar on ADHD.
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September 2020

The association between dietary antioxidants and adipokines level among obese women.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Mar - Apr;13(2):1369-1373. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Adipokines are associated with several oxidative stress-related diseases and pathologic conditions. We aimed to assess the association between antioxidants and adipokines in obese adults.

Methods And Materials: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 160 obese women were included. Body composition and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Dietary intakes were assessed by 3-day, 24-h dietary recall. Blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting. Serum concentrations of adipokines including progranulin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) and Angiopoietin-related growth factor 6 (ANGPTL6) was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ANCOVA and the linear regression model analysis was performed to assess the relationship between Progranulin, RBP4, AnGPTL6, and antioxidants.

Results: Mean age of included women was 39.31 ± 12.10. Mean and standard deviation for BMI was 35.05 ± 4.26 in this obese population. There was a positive significant association between ANGPTL6 and vitamin D intake (p < 0.001). Also, there was a marginal association between RBP4 and vitamin A (p = 0.063) intake, but after adjustment age, and fat mass, we found a significant association (p = 0.008). However, the associations between dietary antioxidants, progranulin, and ANGPTL6 were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: ANGPTL6 and RBP4 levels directly associated with dietary vitamins D and A intake, respectively. But, according to the results, the association between ANGPTL6 and vitamin D was bidirectional. The suggested associations probably can be useful in the development of interventional studies for management of chronic diseases.
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December 2019

Chromium supplementation does not improve weight loss or metabolic and hormonal variables in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review.

Nutr Res 2018 08 13;56:1-10. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Nutrition Research Center, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht St, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, and recently, chromium was discussed as an adjuvant way to manage it. Herein, a systematic review was conducted which centered on the effects of chromium on ovarian physiology with a focus on body mass index, as well as hormonal and metabolic dysfunctions in women suffering from PCOS. This review was performed using the guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews. Clinical trials investigating chromium in women with PCOS with outcome measures related to metabolic and hormonal status were included. The search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases for clinical trials in the English language from the inception of the resources until May 2017 with the terms: chromium, chromium picolinate, CrP, polycystic ovary syndrome, PCOS, and sclerocystic ovary syndrome. The search resulted in 89 articles, and after inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 6 articles were selected for analysis. Two studies that evaluated the effect of chromium on body weight or body mass index reported no effect. Another study reported the beneficial effect of chromium on weight reduction. It seems that the effect of chromium in the reduction of blood glucose is insignificant, and results are inconsistent in relation to dyslipidemia. With regard to the effects of chromium on concentrations of sex hormones, a longer duration of treatment is needed to produce significant changes. The articles reviewed demonstrated that chromium supplementation has limited effects on weight reduction, glucose control, lipid profile, and hormonal disturbance of women with PCOS; however, more studies are needed due to the clinical changes observed in patients with PCOS after chromium supplementation.
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August 2018

Effect of fisetin supplementation on inflammatory factors and matrix metalloproteinase enzymes in colorectal cancer patients.

Food Funct 2018 Apr;9(4):2025-2031

Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

A growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation is associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemotherapeutic resistance in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Natural flavonoids are promising agents for inflammation-related tumor progression in patients with CRC. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of flavonoid fisetin supplementation on the inflammatory status and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels in these patients. In this double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, 37 CRC patients undergoing chemotherapy were assigned to receive either 100 mg fisetin (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19) for seven consecutive weeks. The supplementation began one week before chemotherapy and continued until the end of the second chemotherapy cycle. Levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), MMP-7, and MMP-9 were measured in plasma using ELISA, before and after the intervention. The trial was registered at (code: IRCT2015110511288N9). The participants were 55.59 ± 15.46 years old with 62.16% being male. After the intervention, the plasma levels of IL-8 and hs-CRP reduced significantly in the fisetin group (p < 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively). Additionally, fisetin supplementation suppressed the values of MMP-7 levels (p < 0.02). However, significant changes were observed only in IL-8 concentrations in the fisetin group when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.03). The changes in the levels of other metabolic factors were not statistically significant. According to the results, fisetin could improve the inflammatory status in CRC patients, suggesting it as a novel complementary antitumor agent for these patients and warranting further studies.
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April 2018

Eating disorders risk and its relation to self-esteem and body image in Iranian university students of medical sciences.

Eat Weight Disord 2016 Dec 23;21(4):597-605. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Diet Therapy, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Introduction And Objectives: Eating disorders are rapidly increasing in young adults. But, a few studies have examined the risk of eating disorders and body image in university students of non-Western societies. The current study aimed to assess eating disorders risk in relation to body image and self-esteem among Iranian university students.

Method: The participants were 430 students from Tabriz, between April and May 2015. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Questionnaires were used. EAT-26 score of 20 or more was considered as eating disorders risk cutoff.

Results: Majority of the students (68 %) were females. The overall eating disorders risk was 9.5 % (7.5 and 10.5 % in men and women, respectively). Further, the prevalence of poor body image and low self-esteem was 34.2 and 16 %, respectively. Neither of the gender differences was statistically significant (p > 0.05). In simple logistic regression, there were significant associations between self-esteem, body image, parental education and eating disorders risk (p < 0.025). But, after adjustments for gender, age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and marital status, only self-esteem (OR = 0.37, 95 % = 0.16-0.87) and mother's education level (OR = 2.78, 95 % = 1.30-5.93) were predictors of eating disorders risk.

Conclusions: The findings revealed that low self-esteem and mother's higher education may increase eating disorders risk and the predictive role of body image possibly is by other mediators such as self-esteem. This warrants awareness improvement and developing appropriate interventions targeting self-esteem and self-respect of students.
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December 2016

The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015 Nov 14;17(11):e20727. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran.

Patients And Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed.

Results: About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P < 0.05). In males, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P < 0.05) and the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.26, P < 0.01). In females, the EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P < 0.05) and the WP (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). In females, weight (P < 0.05), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.05), WP (P < 0.01), and waist-to-hip ratio (P < 0.05) were significantly different between disordered eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices.

Conclusions: Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.
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November 2015

Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric 2015 ;7(2):128-33

Nutrition Research center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Golgasht St, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk.

Material And Methods: Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined.

Results: Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil.

Conclusion: The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.
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July 2016

Lifestyle Modification through Dietary Intervention: Health Promotion of Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Health Promot Perspect 2011 20;1(2):147-54. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more common worldwide and no certain treatment apart from lifestyle modification has been established yet. Available data consistently show that energy intake is significantly higher in patients with NAFLD than in individuals with no evidence of fatty liver. Changing nutritional behaviors seems to be the primary approach for treatment, simultaneously addressing all the clinical and biochemical defects. This study was aimed to examine the effects of two different composition of low energy diet (diet I vs. diet II) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 44 ultrasonography-proven overweight non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were divided into two groups and received two low-energy diets (-500 kcal less than energy requirement individually) inc. diet I (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 55:25:20) and diet II (Carbohydrate: Fat: Protein: 40:40:20) for six weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical measures as well as liver enzymes were assessed after 12 hours fasting.

Results: After diet I and diet II, weight decreased significantly (%1.82 and %2.45, respectively). Liver enzymes and echogenicity decreased significantly by both diet I and diet II. Mean of triglyceride concentration decreased (%18.09) after diet II (P=0.023), while there was no significant change after diet I. Significant correlations were found between changes in aspartate aminotransferase with triglyceride and LDL-C diet I.

Conclusion: Low energy diets can decrease liver enzymes regardless of their composition, while diet II seems to be more effective than diet I in reduction of weight and triglyceride level.
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April 2014