Publications by authors named "Alicia Siston"

8 Publications

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Legionellosis Outbreak Associated With a Hotel Fountain.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2015 Dec 28;2(4):ofv164. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Chicago Department of Public Health, Illinois.

Background.  In August 2012, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of acute respiratory illness, including 1 fatality, among a group of meeting attendees who stayed at a Chicago hotel during July 30-August 3, 2012. Suspecting Legionnaires' disease (LD), CDPH advised the hotel to close their swimming pool, spa, and decorative lobby fountain and began an investigation. Methods.  Case finding included notification of individuals potentially exposed during July 16-August 15, 2012. Individuals were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. An environmental assessment was performed. Results.  One hundred fourteen cases were identified: 11 confirmed LD, 29 suspect LD, and 74 Pontiac fever cases. Illness onsets occurred July 21-August 22, 2012. Median age was 48 years (range, 22-82 years), 64% were male, 59% sought medical care (15 hospitalizations), and 3 died. Relative risks for hotel exposures revealed that persons who spent time near the decorative fountain or bar, both located in the lobby were respectively 2.13 (95%, 1.64-2.77) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09-1.44) times more likely to become ill than those who did not. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from samples collected from the fountain, spa, and women's locker room fixtures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 environmental isolates and a clinical isolate had matching sequence-based types. Hotel maintenance records lacked a record of regular cleaning and disinfection of the fountain. Conclusions.  Environmental testing identified Legionella in the hotel's potable water system. Epidemiologic and laboratory data indicated the decorative fountain as the source. Poor fountain maintenance likely created favorable conditions for Legionella overgrowth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofv164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4692259PMC
December 2015

Notes from the Field: Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei Infection with Decreased Susceptibility to Azithromycin Among Men Who Have Sex with Men - Chicago and Metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul, 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015 Jun;64(21):597-8

Increasing rates of shigellosis among adult males, particularly men who have sex with men (MSM), have been documented in the United States, Canada, and Europe, and MSM appear to be at greater risk for infection with shigellae that are not susceptible to ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Azithromycin is the first-line empiric antimicrobial treatment for shigellosis among children and is a second-line treatment among adults. Isolates collected in 2014 in two U.S. cities from outbreaks of shigellosis displayed highly similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and decreased susceptibility to azithromycin (DSA). This report summarizes and compares the findings from investigations of the two outbreaks, which occurred among MSM in metropolitan Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, and Chicago, Illinois.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584772PMC
June 2015

Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Adults Due to Rotavirus Genotype G12P[8].

Clin Infect Dis 2015 Aug 13;61(4):e20-5. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Chicago Department of Public Heath, Illinois.

Background: Rotavirus infection in adults is poorly understood and few rotavirus outbreaks among US adults have been reported in the literature. We describe an outbreak due to genotype G12P[8] rotavirus among medical students, faculty, and guests who attended a formal dinner event in April 2013.

Methods: A web-based questionnaire was distributed to event attendees to collect symptom and exposure data. A clinical case was defined as a person who developed diarrhea after attending the formal event. A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a clinical case who attended the formal event, with rotavirus detected in stool by enzyme immunoassay or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.

Results: Among 334 dinner attendees, 136 (41%) completed the web-based questionnaire; 58 (43%) respondents reported illness. Symptom onset ranged from 1 to 8 days, with peak onset 3 days after the event. In addition to diarrhea, predominant symptoms included fever (91%), abdominal pain (84%), and vomiting (49%). The median duration of illness was 2.5 days. Thirteen (22%) of 58 cases sought medical attention; none were hospitalized. Analysis of food exposures among questionnaire respondents did not identify significant associations between any specific food or drink item and illness. Stool specimens were negative for bacterial pathogens by culture and negative for norovirus by RT-PCR assay; 4 specimens were positive for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay or PCR. G12P[8]-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1 was identified as the causative full-genome genotype.

Conclusions: Rotavirus outbreaks can occur among adults, including young adults. Health professionals should consider rotavirus as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ294DOI Listing
August 2015

Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States.

JAMA 2010 Apr;303(15):1517-25

Epidemic Intelligence Service, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Context: Early data on pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) suggest pregnant women are at increased risk of hospitalization and death.

Objective: To describe the severity of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) illness and the association with early antiviral treatment among pregnant women in the United States.

Design, Setting, And Patients: Surveillance of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in pregnant women reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with symptom onset from April through December 2009.

Main Outcome Measures: Severity of illness (hospitalizations, intensive care unit [ICU] admissions, and deaths) due to 2009 influenza A(H1N1) among pregnant women, stratified by timing of antiviral treatment and pregnancy trimester at symptom onset.

Results: We received reports on 788 pregnant women in the United States with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) with symptom onset from April through August 2009. Among those, 30 died (5% of all reported 2009 influenza A[H1N1] influenza deaths in this period). Among 509 hospitalized women, 115 (22.6%) were admitted to an ICU. Pregnant women with treatment more than 4 days after symptom onset were more likely to be admitted to an ICU (56.9% vs 9.4%; relative risk [RR], 6.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5-10.6) than those treated within 2 days after symptom onset. Only 1 death occurred in a patient who received treatment within 2 days of symptom onset. Updating these data with the CDC's continued surveillance of ICU admissions and deaths among pregnant women with symptom onset through December 31, 2009, identified an additional 165 women for a total of 280 women who were admitted to ICUs, 56 of whom died. Among the deaths, 4 occurred in the first trimester (7.1%), 15 in the second (26.8%), and 36 in the third (64.3%);

Conclusions: Pregnant women had a disproportionately high risk of mortality due to 2009 influenza A(H1N1). Among pregnant women with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) influenza reported to the CDC, early antiviral treatment appeared to be associated with fewer admissions to an ICU and fewer deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823273PMC
April 2010

Outbreak of antiviral drug-resistant influenza a in long-term care facility, Illinois, USA, 2008.

Emerg Infect Dis 2009 Dec;15(12):1973-6

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.

An outbreak of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1) occurred in a long-term care facility. Eight (47%) of 17 and 1 (6%) of 16 residents in 2 wards had oseltamivir-resistant influenza A virus (H1N1) infections. Initial outbreak response included treatment and prophylaxis with oseltamivir. The outbreak abated, likely because of infection control measures.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3044511PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1512.081644DOI Listing
December 2009

Outbreak of catheter-associated Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter cloacae bloodstream infections in an oncology chemotherapy center.

Arch Intern Med 2005 Dec 12-26;165(22):2639-43

Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: In March 2004, the Chicago Department of Public Health was notified of a cluster of bloodstream infections with Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterobacter cloacae at a chemotherapy center. Our purpose was to identify the source of the outbreak and prevent further cases.

Methods: The investigation included 103 oncology patients seen at an outpatient oncology chemotherapy center in Chicago during the 16 days before its closure. The outbreak investigation included case identification, retrospective cohort study, review of medical records, microbiologic testing of blood specimens, environmental cultures, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The main outcome measure was infection with K oxytoca, E cloacae, or both, and the Mantel-Haenszel chi(2) test was used to assess risk of infection in relation to presence of central venous catheter.

Results: Among the 103 patients, risk of infection was associated with the presence of central venous catheter (relative risk undefined, P<.001). Twenty-seven patients had blood cultures that grew K oxytoca, E cloacae, or both, and all had central venous catheters that were flushed with isotonic sodium chloride solution at the clinic from February 17 through March 3, 2004. Isolates of K oxytoca and E cloacae were matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to K oxytoca and E cloacae isolates obtained from multiple predrawn syringes and from the intravenous fluid and administration set in use in the clinic at the time of its closing.

Conclusions: The injection of contaminated isotonic sodium chloride solution through the venous catheters of attendees at the clinic likely provided the opportunity for bloodstream infections in these 27 case patients. This outbreak highlights the need for continued emphasis on safe injection practices and suggests the need for guidelines and recommendations tailored to outpatient settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.22.2639DOI Listing
January 2006

Outbreak of food-borne illness associated with plant material containing raphides.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2005 ;43(1):17-21

Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Many botanicals, particularly ornamental house-plants, contain crystals of calcium oxalate called raphides. Raphides have known toxic effects when chewed, including painful edema, vesicle formation, and dysphagia. We report a food-borne illness outbreak associated with ingestion of raphides.

Methods: On February 24, 2003, the Chicago Department of Public Health was notified of multiple cases of oral burning and facial edema associated with lunch in an office cafeteria on February 21. The investigation included a case-control study, interviews with kitchen staff, an environmental inspection, and laboratory analysis of leftover foods.

Results: Ten cases were identified, including one admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for potential airway obstruction secondary to severe edema, and another seen by Emergency Department staff for oral edema and pain. Ten of 10 case-patients reported oral stinging and burning, and 8 of 10 reported dysphagia. Four of 10 case-patients continued to have symptoms 2 weeks later. Food from the cafeteria's international buffet was consumed by 10 of 10 case-patients and by 1 of 22 control subjects (odds ratio=undefined); each of the 10 case-patients reported consumption of a Chinese vegetable entrée from the international buffet and had no other foods in common. Plant material from the Chinese vegetable entrée contained raphides.

Conclusion: This outbreak was associated with consumption of raphides resembling those from common botanicals. Clinicians and public health practitioners should be aware of raphide-containing plants as a potential cause of food-borne illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/clt-44721DOI Listing
March 2005

Clinical characteristics and functional outcomes of West Nile Fever.

Ann Intern Med 2004 Sep;141(5):360-5

Chicago Department of Public Health, IL 60612, USA.

Background: West Nile fever, considered a nonsevere manifestation of West Nile virus infection, has not been clinically well described in the United States. In 2002, Illinois had 884 documented cases of West Nile virus infection with 66 associated deaths.

Objective: To describe the symptoms and functional outcomes of West Nile fever.

Design: Case series.

Setting: Illinois.

Patients: 98 community-dwelling patients with laboratory evidence of West Nile virus infection but no history of clinical evidence of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis.

Intervention: Outpatient interviews.

Measurements: Presence and duration of patient-reported symptoms of infection, symptom-associated absenteeism, health care use, and impact on daily activities.

Results: Of 98 patients, 96% had fatigue for a median of 36 days, 81% had fever for a median of 5 days, 71% had headache for a median of 10 days, 61% had muscle weakness for a median of 28 days, and 53% had difficulty concentrating for a median of 14 days. Thirty respondents reported hospitalization, with a median stay of 5 days. At 30 days after onset, 63% of respondents continued to have symptoms. Duration did not vary significantly with increased age. Among the 72 patients who normally attended work or school, 57 (79%) could not attend because of illness (median absence, 10 days).

Limitations: Recall bias could have been introduced by the delay between illness onset and interview and by self-reporting of illness information.

Conclusions: West Nile fever is a more severe illness than has previously been documented. Mandatory reporting of West Nile fever cases in addition to West Nile meningoencephalitis cases could allow more accurate and timely recognition of the geographic distribution of West Nile virus infections and could inform public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-141-5-200409070-00010DOI Listing
September 2004
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