Publications by authors named "Alicia Estirado"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interneuron Heterotopia in the Lis1 Mutant Mouse Cortex Underlies a Structural and Functional Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:693919. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Instituto de Neurociencias, UMH-CSIC, Alicante, Spain.

is one of the principal genes related to Type I lissencephaly, a severe human brain malformation characterized by an abnormal neuronal migration in the cortex during embryonic development. This is clinically associated with epilepsy and cerebral palsy in severe cases, as well as a predisposition to developing mental disorders, in cases with a mild phenotype. Although genetic variations in the gene have been associated with the development of schizophrenia, little is known about the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. We have studied how the gene might cause deficits associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia using the murine model, which involves the deletion of the first coding exon of the gene. Homozygous mice are not viable, but heterozygous animals present abnormal neuronal morphology, cortical dysplasia, and enhanced cortical excitability. We have observed reduced number of cells expressing GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate area, as well as fewer parvalbumin-expressing cells in the anterior cingulate cortex in mutants compared to control mice. The cFOS protein expression (indicative of neuronal activity) in mice was higher in the medial prefrontal (mPFC), perirhinal (PERI), entorhinal (ENT), ectorhinal (ECT) cortices, and hippocampus compared to control mice. Our results suggest that deleting the first coding exon of the gene might cause cortical anomalies associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.693919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313859PMC
July 2021

Dopaminergic control of ADAMTS2 expression through cAMP/CREB and ERK: molecular effects of antipsychotics.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 11 18;9(1):306. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, Santander, 39011, Cantabria, Spain.

A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that participate in the development and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia can lead to improve our ability to diagnose and treat this disease. Previous data strongly associated the levels of deregulated ADAMTS2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients at first episode of psychosis (up) as well as in clinical responders to treatment with antipsychotic drugs (down). In this current work, we performed an independent validation of such data and studied the mechanisms implicated in the control of ADAMTS2 gene expression. Using a new cohort of drug-naïve schizophrenia patients with clinical follow-up, we confirmed that the expression of ADAMTS2 was highly upregulated in PBMCs at the onset (drug-naïve patients) and downregulated, in clinical responders, after treatment with antipsychotics. Mechanistically, ADAMTS2 expression was activated by dopaminergic signalling (D-class receptors) and downstream by cAMP/CREB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signalling. Incubation with antipsychotic drugs and selective PKA and MEK inhibitors abrogated D-mediated activation of ADAMTS2 in neuronal-like cells. Thus, D receptors signalling towards CREB activation might participate in the onset and clinical responses to therapy in schizophrenia patients, by controlling ADAMTS2 expression and activity. The unbiased investigation of molecular mechanisms triggered by antipsychotic drugs may provide a new landscape of novel targets potentially associated with clinical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0647-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861307PMC
November 2019

Safety and Biodistribution of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Injected Intrathecally in Non-Obese Diabetic Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mice: Preclinical Study.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2019 10 26;16(5):525-538. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

4Neuroscience Institute UMH-CSIC, University Miguel Hernández of Elche, Carretera de Valencia, Km 18, 03550 San Juan, Alicante, Spain.

Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties, and have been tested in neurodegenerative diseases resulting in meaningful clinical improvements. Regulatory guidelines specify the need to perform preclinical studies prior any clinical trial, including biodistribution assays and tumourigenesis exclusion. We conducted a preclinical study of human bone marrow MSCs (hBM-MSCs) injected by intrathecal route in Non-Obese Diabetic Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice, to explore cellular biodistribution and toxicity as a privileged administration method for cell therapy in Friedreich's Ataxia.

Methods: For this purpose, 3 × 10 cells were injected by intrathecal route in 12 animals (experimental group) and the same volume of culture media in 6 animals (control group). Blood samples were collected at 24 h (n = 9) or 4 months (n = 9) to assess toxicity, and nine organs were harvested for histology and safety studies. Genomic DNA was isolated from all tissues, and mouse GAPDH and human β2M and β-actin genes were amplified by qPCR to analyze hBM-MSCs biodistribution.

Results: There were no deaths nor acute or chronic toxicity. Hematology, biochemistry and body weight were in the range of normal values in all groups. At 24 h hBM-MSCs were detected in 4/6 spinal cords and 1/6 hearts, and at 4 months in 3/6 hearts and 1/6 brains of transplanted mice. No tumours were found.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that intrathecal injection of hBM-MSCs is safe, non toxic and do not produce tumors. These results provide further evidence that hBM-MSCs might be used in a clinical trial in patients with FRDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13770-019-00202-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778571PMC
October 2019

Prevalence of asymptomatic infection and associated risk factors, after an outbreak in the south-western Madrid region, Spain, 2015.

Euro Surveill 2019 May;24(22)

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Center for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

BackgroundA large outbreak of leishmaniasis with 758 cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis cases occurred in 2009 in Fuenlabrada, in the south-west of the Madrid region of Spain.AimWe aimed to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic infection after this outbreak, and its associated risk factors.MethodsA cross-sectional study of 804 healthy individuals living in Fuenlabrada who had no history of leishmaniasis, was conducted between January and July 2015. Asymptomatic infections were sought by either a combination of PCR, immunofluorescent antibody titre, and direct agglutination tests, or by whole blood stimulation assay (WBA) with interleukin-2 (IL-2) quantification.ResultsUsing the first approach, prevalence of asymptomatic individuals was 1.1% (9/804), while the second returned a value of 20.7% (143/804). Older age, being male, proximity to the park where the focus of infection was identified, and living in a detached house, were all strongly associated with the prevalence of asymptomatic infection.ConclusionsThe true number of infected individuals may be underestimated if only serological methods are used. The combination of WBA with IL-2 quantification may allow to better determine the prevalence of asymptomatic infection, which would be useful in establishing control measures and in quantifying their impact. In our study, the use of WBA with IL-2 quantification also helped establish the risk factors that influence exposure to and infection by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.22.1800379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549460PMC
May 2019

Vascular pattern of the dentate gyrus is regulated by neural progenitors.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 May 6;223(4):1971-1987. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Instituto de Neurociencias, UMH-CSIC, Campus de San Juan, 03550, Alicante, Spain.

Neurogenesis is a vital process that begins during early embryonic development and continues until adulthood, though in the latter case, it is restricted to the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG). In particular, the DG's neurogenic properties are structurally and functionally unique, which may be related to its singular vascular pattern. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis share molecular signals and act synergistically, supporting the concept of a neurogenic niche as a functional unit between neural precursors cells and their environment, in which the blood vessels play an important role. Whereas it is well known that vascular development controls neural proliferation in the embryonary and in the adult brain, by releasing neurotrophic factors; the potential influence of neural cells on vascular components during angiogenesis is largely unknown. We have demonstrated that the reduction of neural progenitors leads to a significant impairment of vascular development. Since VEGF is a potential regulator in the neurogenesis-angiogenesis crosstalk, we were interested in assessing the possible role of this molecule in the hippocampal neurovascular development. Our results showed that VEGF is the molecule involved in the regulation of vascular development by neural progenitor cells in the DG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-017-1603-zDOI Listing
May 2018

Stem cell injection in the hindlimb skeletal muscle enhances neurorepair in mice with spinal cord injury.

Regen Med 2014 ;9(5):579-91

Neuroscience Institute, University Miguel Hernández (UMH-CSIC), San Juan, Alicante, Spain.

Aims: To develop a low-risk, little-invasive stem cell-based method to treat acute spinal cord injuries. methods: Adult mice were submitted to an incomplete spinal cord injury, and mesenchymal stem cells injected intramuscularly into both hindlimbs. Behavior tests and MRI of the spinal cord were periodically performed for up to 6 months, along with immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemical and PCR analysis of the muscles were used to detect the grafted cells as well as the soluble factors released.

Results: The stem cell-treated mice presented significant improvements in their motor skills 5 months after treatment. Spinal cord repair was detected by magnetic resonance and immunohistochemistry. In the hindlimb muscles, the stem cells activated muscle and motor neuron repair mechanisms, due to the secretion of several neurotrophic factors.

Conclusion: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell injection into hindlimb muscles stimulates spinal cord repair in acute spinal cord lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/rme.14.38DOI Listing
July 2015

FGF8 activates proliferation and migration in mouse post-natal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(9):e108241. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Neuroscience Institute, University Miguel Hernández (UMH-CSIC), San Juan, Alicante, Spain.

Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) is a key molecular signal that is necessary for early embryonic development of the central nervous system, quickly disappearing past this point. It is known to be one of the primary morphogenetic signals required for cell fate and survival processes in structures such as the cerebellum, telencephalic and isthmic organizers, while its absence causes severe abnormalities in the nervous system and the embryo usually dies in early stages of development. In this work, we have observed a new possible therapeutic role for this factor in demyelinating disorders, such as leukodystrophy or multiple sclerosis. In vitro, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were cultured with differentiating medium and in the presence of FGF8. Differentiation and proliferation studies were performed by immunocytochemistry and PCR. Also, migration studies were performed in matrigel cultures, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were placed at a certain distance of a FGF8-soaked heparin bead. The results showed that both migration and proliferation was induced by FGF8. Furthermore, a similar effect was observed in an in vivo demyelinating mouse model, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were observed migrating towards the FGF8-soaked heparin beads where they were grafted. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that FGF8 is a novel factor to induce oligodendrocyte progenitor cell activation, migration and proliferation in vitro, which can be extrapolated in vivo in demyelinated animal models.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0108241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4178127PMC
June 2015

Mesenchymal stem cells improve motor functions and decrease neurodegeneration in ataxic mice.

Mol Ther 2015 Jan 29;23(1):130-8. Epub 2014 Jul 29.

1] Neuroscience Institute, University Miguel Hernández (UMH-CSIC), San Juan, Alicante, Spain [2] IMIB-Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Univ. Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

The main objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using bone marrow-derived stem cells in treating a neurodegenerative disorder such as Friedreich's ataxia. In this disease, the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord are the first to degenerate. Two groups of mice were injected intrathecally with mesenchymal stem cells isolated from either wild-type or Fxntm1Mkn/Tg(FXN)YG8Pook (YG8) mice. As a result, both groups presented improved motor skills compared to nontreated mice. Also, frataxin expression was increased in the dorsal root ganglia of the treated groups, along with lower expression of the apoptotic markers analyzed. Furthermore, the injected stem cells expressed the trophic factors NT3, NT4, and BDNF, which bind to sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and increase their survival. The expression of antioxidant enzymes indicated that the stem cell-treated mice presented higher levels of catalase and GPX-1, which are downregulated in the YG8 mice. There were no significant differences in the use of stem cells isolated from wild-type and YG8 mice. In conclusion, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, both autologous and allogeneic, is a feasible therapeutic option to consider in delaying the neurodegeneration observed in the dorsal root ganglia of Friedreich's ataxia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mt.2014.143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426789PMC
January 2015

Stem cells from wildtype and Friedreich's ataxia mice present similar neuroprotective properties in dorsal root ganglia cells.

PLoS One 2013 9;8(5):e62807. Epub 2013 May 9.

Department of Experimental Embryology, Neuroscience Institute-Miguel Hernandez University (UMH-CSIC), Alicante, Spain.

Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common susceptibility to oxidative stress, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson Disease, Huntington Disease and Friedreich's ataxia. In a previous work, we proved that stem cell-conditioned medium increased the survival of cells isolated from Friedreich's ataxia patients, when submitted to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work is to confirm this same effect in dorsal root ganglia cells isolated from YG8 mice, a mouse model of Friedreich's ataxia. In this disorder, the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia are the first to degenerate. Also, in this work we cultured mesenchymal stem cells isolated from YG8 mice, in order to compare them with their wildtype counterpart. To this end, dorsal root ganglia primary cultures isolated from YG8 mice were exposed to oxidative stress and cultured with conditioned medium from either wildtype or YG8 stem cells. As a result, the conditioned medium increased the survival of the dorsal root ganglia cells. This coincided with an increase in oxidative stress-related markers and frataxin expression levels. BDNF, NT3 and NT4 trophic factors were detected in the conditioned medium of both wild-type and YG8 stem cells, all which bind to the various neuronal cell types present in the dorsal root ganglia. No differences were observed in the stem cells isolated from wildtype and YG8 mice. The results presented confirm the possibility that autologous stem cell transplantation may be a viable therapeutic approach in protecting dorsal root ganglia neurons of Friedreich's ataxia patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0062807PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3650052PMC
December 2013

Human adipose stem cell-conditioned medium increases survival of Friedreich's ataxia cells submitted to oxidative stress.

Stem Cells Dev 2012 Oct 11;21(15):2817-26. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Neuroscience Institute UMH-CSIC, University Miguel Herna´ndez, San Juan, Spain.

Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by progressive gait, ataxia, and cardiomyopathy. There are few treatments for this disease; thus, we analyzed in vitro the possible beneficial effect of adult stem cells in FA. To this end, human adipose stem cells from healthy individuals and periodontal ligament cells from FA patients were isolated and cultured. FA cells are especially vulnerable to oxidative stress; thus, they were submitted to this condition and cultured in adipose stem cell-conditioned medium. This resulted in increased cell survival and upregulation of oxidative-stress-related genes as well as frataxin, among other genes. A number of trophic factors were shown to be expressed by the adipose stem cells, especially brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which was also identified in the conditioned medium. The culture of the ataxic cells under oxidative stress and in the presence of this trophic factor confirmed its protective effect. Thus, this work demonstrates that adipose stem cell-conditioned medium from healthy individuals is capable of changing the transcription levels of oxidative-stress-related genes in cells that are particularly susceptible to this condition, avoiding cellular degeneration. Also, this work shows how neurotrophic factors, particularly BDNF, are capable of increasing cell survival in response to oxidative stress, which occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2012.0029DOI Listing
October 2012

Palliative performance status, heart rate and respiratory rate as predictive factors of survival time in terminally ill cancer patients.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2006 Jun;31(6):485-92

Home Care Support Team (C.M.S., F.V.S.), Madrid's Area 7, Spain.

To determine which symptoms, signs, and characteristics that define the patient's functional status predict the survival time in terminally ill cancer patients, a prospective longitudinal study was conducted with terminally ill cancer patients followed by a Home Care Support Team. Patients were followed up with at least weekly visits until death, collecting variables at each visit. A Cox multivariate regression analysis took into account all the follow-ups in the same patient. Ninety-eight patients were studied, and 250 evaluations were done. The mean age was 72 years. The median survival was 32 days. In the multivariate analysis, three independent variables were identified: Palliative Performance Score of 50 or under, heart rate of 100/minute or more, and respiratory rate of 24/minute or more. The variables that were found to be prognostic in our study are objective, easy, and quick to measure, and do not require that the professional have special training or experience. The prediction of survival time may be improved by considering these variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2005.10.007DOI Listing
June 2006
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