Publications by authors named "Alicia Alonso"

126 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof 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Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R 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Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Feb 8:1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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February 2021

Endophytic Bacteria From the Roots of the Medicinal Plant Tausch (): Exploration of Plant Growth Promoting Properties and Potential Role in the Production of Plant Secondary Metabolites.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:633488. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Department Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Alkannin and shikonin (A/S) are enantiomeric naphthoquinones produced in the roots of certain plants from the Boraginaceae family such as spp. and spp. They possess antimicrobial, anti-tumoral and wound healing properties. The production of secondary metabolites by might be influenced by its endomicrobiome. To study the interaction between this medicinal plant and its bacterial endophytes, we isolated bacteria from the roots of wild growing collected near to Athens and Thessaloniki in Greece. Representative strains selected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In total, 197 distinct phylotypes of endophytic bacteria were detected. The most abundant genera recovered were , , , , , , and . Several bacteria were then tested for their plant growth promoting activity and the production of cell-wall degrading enzymes. Strains of , , and showed positive plant growth properties whereas those of Bacteroidetes and showed pectinase and cellulase activity . In addition, bacterial responses to alkannin and shikonin were investigated through resistance assays. Gram negative bacteria were found to be resistant to the antimicrobial properties of A/S, whereas the Gram positives were sensitive. A selection of bacteria was then tested for the ability to induce A/S production in hairy roots culture of . Four strains belonging to sp., sp., sp., and sp., resulted in significantly more A/S in the hairy roots than the uninoculated control. As these bacteria can produce cell-wall degrading enzymes, we hypothesize that the A/S induction may be related with the plant-bacteria interaction during colonization.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901983PMC
February 2021

The interaction of Aβ42 peptide in monomer, oligomer or fibril forms with sphingomyelin/cholesterol/ganglioside bilayers.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 18;168:611-619. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Aβ42 peptide binds neuronal membranes and aggregates into plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ42 peptide has been proposed to be generated in membrane (nano) domains in the liquid-ordered phase, ganglioside GM1 being a major facilitator of peptide binding to the membrane. The peptide exists in solution in various degrees of aggregation, either monomers, oligomers or fibrils, of which oligomers appear to be particularly toxic. The present study reports on the binding of Aβ42 peptide, in monomer, oligomer or fibril form, to model membranes (lipid vesicles or monolayers), composed of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in equimolar ratios, to which 1-5 mol% of different gangliosides were incorporated. Thermodynamic binding parameters obtained from calorimetric data indicate a strong tendency to bind the membrane (ΔG ≈ 7 kcal/mol peptide), in a process dominated in most cases by the increase in entropy. ΔG was virtually invariant with the ganglioside species and the aggregation state of the peptide. The Langmuir balance demonstrated the capacity of all peptide preparations to become inserted in lipid monolayers of any composition and initial π in the range 10-30 mN/m, although fibrils were less capable to do so than oligomers or monomers, their maximum initial π being ≈25 mN/m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.112DOI Listing
January 2021

Exploring polar headgroup interactions between sphingomyelin and ceramide with infrared spectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2020 10 19;10(1):17606. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

Ceramide is a major actor in the sphingolipid signaling pathway elicited by various kinds of cell stress. Under those conditions ceramide (Cer) is produced in the plasma membrane as a product of sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis, and this may lead to apoptosis. Thus, SM and Cer coexist in the membrane for some time, and they are known to separate laterally from the (more abundant) glycerolipids, giving rise to highly rigid domains or platforms. The properties of these domains/platforms are rather well understood, but the underlying SM:Cer molecular interactions have not been explored in detail. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that provides information on all the chemical groupings in a molecule, and that can be applied to membranes and lipid bilayers in aqueous media. IR spectra can be conveniently retrieved as a function of temperature, thus revealing the thermotropic transitions of SM and its mixtures with Cer. Four regions of the IR spectrum of these sphingolipids have been examined, two of them dominated by the hydrophobic regions in the molecules, namely the C-H stretching vibrations (2800-3000 cm), and the CH scissoring vibrations (1455-1485 cm), and two others arising from chemical groups at the lipid-water interface, the sphingolipid amide I band (1600-1680 cm), and the phosphate vibrations in the 1000-1110 cm region. The latter two regions have been rarely studied in the past. The IR data from the hydrophobic components show a gel (or ripple)-fluid transition of SM at 40 °C, that is shifted up to about 70 °C when Cer is added to the bilayers, in agreement with previous studies using a variety of techniques. IR information concerning the polar parts is more interesting. The amide I (carbonyl) band of pure SM exhibits a maximum at 1638 cm at room temperature, and its position is shifted by about 10 cm in the presence of Cer. Cer causes also a change in the overall band shape, but no signs of band splitting are seen, suggesting that SM and Cer carbonyl groups are interacting tightly, presumably through H-bonds. The 1086 cm band, corresponding to PO vibrations, appears more stable in SM than in DPPC, and it is further stabilized by Cer, again suggesting an important role of H-bonds in the formation of SM:Cer clusters. Thus, SM and Cer can interact through their polar headgroups, in a way that is not accessible to other lipid classes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74781-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573612PMC
October 2020

Phase-selective staining of model and cell membranes, lipid droplets and lipoproteins with fluorescent solvatochromic pyrene probes.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jan 6;1863(1):183470. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Campus Universitario, 48940 Leioa, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, B. Sarriena, 48940 Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

The push-pull solvatochromic pyrene derivatives PA and PK have been applied to the study of model membrane vesicles, cells and purified human serum lipoproteins, using both confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. These polarity-sensitive probes provide information similar to that obtained by Laurdan or Prodan, i.e. mainly lipid order in biomembranes, but they have the essential advantage of being excitable by a standard 405 nm laser light, bypassing the use of multiphoton excitation. In addition, they are brighter and much more photostable than those dimethylamino naphthalene derivatives. Our results with model membrane spectroscopy (multilamellar vesicles) and with microscopy (giant unilamellar vesicles) showed the capacity of PA and PK to report differently on liquid-disordered, liquid-ordered and gel phase bilayers. Moreover, a ratiometric parameter, the Red/Blue Intensity Ratio (RBIR) could be used for inter-domain, inter-vesicle and even inter-technique comparison, and the appropriate microscopy-spectroscopy conversion coefficients could be estimated. In studies at the cellular level, PA probe stained almost exclusively the plasma membrane of red blood cells, revealing its high degree of lipid order. Using Chinese Hamster Ovary cells PA was shown to be an excellent probe for the detection of cytoplasmic lipid droplets, superior to Nile Red in that PA provides simultaneously a detailed information of membrane order in the whole cell, in which the lipid droplets appear with a very good contrast. Moreover, spectrofluorometric data of PA-stained serum lipoproteins indicated an essentially identical value of RBIR for lipid droplets and for high-density lipoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2020.183470DOI Listing
January 2021

β-Amyloid (1-42) peptide adsorbs but does not insert into ganglioside-containing phospholipid membranes in the liquid-disordered state: modelling and experimental studies.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 23;164:2651-2658. Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

β-Amyloid (Aβ) is a 39-43 residue peptide involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ deposits onto the cells and gives rise to the plaques that are characteristic of the disease. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanism of plaque formation, we have examined the interaction of Aβ42, considered to be the most pathogenic of the peptides, with lipid bilayers consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) to which small amounts of GM1 ganglioside (1-5 mol%) were incorporated. POPC bilayers exist in the fluid, or liquid-disordered state at room temperature, mimicking the fluidity of cell membranes. An Aβ42 preparation consisting essentially of peptide monomers was used. A combination of molecular dynamics (MD), isothermal calorimetry and Langmuir balance measurements was applied. Our results show that Aβ binds POPC bilayers, and that binding increases (ΔG of binding decreases) with GM1, but only up to 3 mol% of the ganglioside, larger concentrations appearing to have a lower effect. MD and Langmuir balance measurements concur in showing that the peptide adsorbs onto the bilayer surface, but does not become inserted into it at surface pressures compatible with the cell membrane conditions. Thioflavin T measurements agree with MD in revealing a very low degree of peptide oligomerization/aggregation under our conditions. This is in contrast with previous studies showing peptide aggregation and insertion when interacting with membranes in the liquid-ordered state. The present contribution underlines the importance of bilayer lipid composition and properties for Aβ plaque formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.165DOI Listing
December 2020

C24:0 and C24:1 sphingolipids in cholesterol-containing, five- and six-component lipid membranes.

Sci Rep 2020 08 24;10(1):14085. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), 48940, Leioa, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.

The biophysical properties of sphingolipids containing lignoceric (C24:0) or nervonic (C24:1) fatty acyl residues have been studied in multicomponent lipid bilayers containing cholesterol (Chol), by means of confocal microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and atomic force microscopy. Lipid membranes composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were prepared, with the addition of different combinations of ceramides (C24:0 and/or C24:1) and sphingomyelins (C24:0 and/or C24:1). Results point to C24:0 sphingolipids, namely lignoceroyl sphingomyelin (lSM) and lignoceroyl ceramide (lCer), having higher membrane rigidifying properties than their C24:1 homologues (nervonoyl SM, nSM, or nervonoyl Cer, nCer), although with a similar strong capacity to induce segregated gel phases. In the case of the lSM-lCer multicomponent system, the segregated phases have a peculiar fibrillar or fern-like morphology. Moreover, the combination of C24:0 and C24:1 sphingolipids generates interesting events, such as a generalized bilayer dynamism/instability of supported planar bilayers. In some cases, these sphingolipids give rise to exothermic curves in thermograms. These peculiar features were not present in previous studies of C24:1 combined with C16:0 sphingolipids. Conclusions of our study point to nSM as a key factor governing the relative distribution of ceramides when both lCer and nCer are present. The data indicate that lCer could be easier to accommodate in multicomponent bilayers than its C16:0 counterpart. These results are relevant for events of membrane platform formation, in the context of sphingolipid-based signaling cascades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71008-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445262PMC
August 2020

Rivaroxaban or apixaban in fragile patients with acute venous thromboembolism.

Thromb Res 2020 09 23;193:160-165. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: The efficacy and safety of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in fragile patients (age ≥ 75 years and/or creatinine clearance [CrCl] levels ≤50 mL/min and/or body weight ≤50kg) with venous thromboembolism (VTE) have not been consistently compared.

Material And Methods: We used the RIETE database to compare the rates of the composite of VTE recurrences or major bleeding during anticoagulation in fragile patients with VTE, according to the use of rivaroxaban or apixaban for initial and long-term therapy.

Results: From January 2013 to October 2019, 36,889 patients were recruited, of whom 14,831 (40%) were fragile. Overall, 999 fragile patients (15%) received DOACs starting within the first 48 h: rivaroxaban 711 and apixaban 288. Median duration of therapy was: 113 vs. 111 days. A substantial amount of patients in both subgroups (25% vs. 40%) received non-recommended doses of DOACs. During anticoagulation, 13 patients developed VTE recurrences, 18 had major bleeding and 36 died. When only considering patients receiving recommended doses (n = 705), there were no differences between drugs in the rate of the composite outcome (rate ratio [RR]: 1.08; 95%CI: 0.35-3.30) or all-cause death (RR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.32-3.08). On multivariable analysis, patients receiving rivaroxaban or apixaban at recommended doses had a similar risk for the composite outcome (hazard ratio: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.35-5.06).

Conclusion: The use of rivaroxaban or apixaban at recommended doses in fragile patients with VTE was associated with a similar risk for VTE recurrences or major bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.06.035DOI Listing
September 2020

Epigenomically Bistable Regions across Neuron-Specific Genes Govern Neuron Eligibility to a Coding Ensemble in the Hippocampus.

Cell Rep 2020 06;31(12):107789

Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Sensory inputs activate sparse neuronal ensembles in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but how eligibility of individual neurons to recruitment is determined remains elusive. We identify thousands of largely bistable (CpG methylated or unmethylated) regions within neuronal gene bodies, established during mouse dentate gyrus development. Reducing DNA methylation and the proportion of the methylated epialleles at bistable regions compromises novel context-induced neuronal activation. Conversely, increasing methylation and the frequency of the methylated epialleles at bistable regions enhances intrinsic excitability. Single-nucleus profiling reveals enrichment of specific epialleles related to a subset of primarily exonic, bistable regions in activated neurons. Genes displaying both differential methylation and expression in activated neurons define a network of proteins regulating neuronal excitability and structural plasticity. We propose a model in which bistable regions create neuron heterogeneity and constellations of exonic methylation, which may contribute to cell-specific gene expression, excitability, and eligibility to a coding ensemble.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440841PMC
June 2020

Patches and Blebs: A Comparative Study of the Composition and Biophysical Properties of Two Plasma Membrane Preparations from CHO Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 10;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Campus Universitario, 48940 Leioa, Spain.

This study was aimed at preparing and characterizing plasma membranes (PM) from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Two methods of PM preparation were applied, one based on adhering cells to a poly-lysine-coated surface, followed by hypotonic lysis and removal of intracellular components, so that PM patches remain adhered to each other, and a second one consisting of bleb induction in cells, followed by separation of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMV). Both methods gave rise to PM in sufficient amounts to allow biophysical and biochemical characterization. Laurdan generalized polarization was used to measure molecular order in membranes, PM preparations were clearly more ordered than the average cell membranes (GP ≈0.450 vs. ≈0.20 respectively). Atomic force microscopy was used in the force spectroscopy mode to measure breakthrough forces of PM, both PM preparations provided values in the 4-6 nN range, while the corresponding value for whole cell lipid extracts was ≈2 nN. Lipidomic analysis of the PM preparations revealed that, as compared to the average cell membranes, PM were enriched in phospholipids containing 30-32 C atoms in their acyl chains but were relatively poor in those containing 34-40 C atoms. PM contained more saturated and less polyunsaturated fatty acids than the average cell membranes. Blebs (GPMV) and patches were very similar in their lipid composition, except that blebs contained four-fold the amount of cholesterol of patches (≈23 vs. ≈6 mol% total membrane lipids) while the average cell lipids contained 3 mol%. The differences in lipid composition are in agreement with the observed variations in physical properties between PM and whole cell membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177368PMC
April 2020

Epigenetic reprogramming sensitizes immunologically silent EBV+ lymphomas to virus-directed immunotherapy.

Blood 2020 05;135(21):1870-1881

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and.

Despite advances in T-cell immunotherapy against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphomas that express the full EBV latency III program, a critical barrier has been that most EBV+ lymphomas express the latency I program, in which the single Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1) is produced. EBNA1 is poorly immunogenic, enabling tumors to evade immune responses. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified decitabine as a potent inducer of immunogenic EBV antigens, including LMP1, EBNA2, and EBNA3C. Induction occurs at low doses and persists after removal of decitabine. Decitabine treatment of latency I EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma (BL) sensitized cells to lysis by EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (EBV-CTLs). In latency I BL xenografts, decitabine followed by EBV-CTLs results in T-cell homing to tumors and inhibition of tumor growth. Collectively, these results identify key epigenetic factors required for latency restriction and highlight a novel therapeutic approach to sensitize EBV+ lymphomas to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243148PMC
May 2020

The Binding of Aβ42 Peptide Monomers to Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol/Ganglioside Bilayers Assayed by Density Gradient Ultracentrifugation.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 29;21(5). Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU) and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, 48080 Bilbao, Spain.

The binding of Aβ42 peptide monomers to sphingomyelin/cholesterol (1:1 mol ratio) bilayers containing 5 mol% gangliosides (either GM1, or GT1b, or a mixture of brain gangliosides) has been assayed by density gradient ultracentrifugation. This procedure provides a direct method for measuring vesicle-bound peptides after non-bound fraction separation. This centrifugation technique has rarely been used in this context previously. The results show that gangliosides increase by about two-fold the amount of Aβ42 bound to sphingomyelin/cholesterol vesicles. Complementary studies of the same systems using thioflavin T fluorescence, Langmuir monolayers or infrared spectroscopy confirm the ganglioside-dependent increased binding. Furthermore these studies reveal that gangliosides facilitate the aggregation of Aβ42 giving rise to more extended β-sheets. Thus, gangliosides have both a quantitative and a qualitative effect on the binding of Aβ42 to sphingomyelin/cholesterol bilayers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084322PMC
February 2020

Circulating tumor DNA profile recognizes transformation to castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer.

J Clin Invest 2020 04;130(4):1653-1668

Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology (CIBIO), University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Loss of androgen receptor (AR) signaling dependence occurs in approximately 15%-20% of advanced treatment-resistant prostate cancers, and this may manifest clinically as transformation from a prostate adenocarcinoma histology to a castration-resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer (CRPC-NE). The diagnosis of CRPC-NE currently relies on a metastatic tumor biopsy, which is invasive for patients and sometimes challenging to diagnose due to morphologic heterogeneity. By studying whole-exome sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) and of matched metastatic tumor biopsies from patients with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma and CRPC-NE, we identified CRPC-NE features detectable in the circulation. Overall, there was markedly higher concordance between cfDNA and biopsy tissue genomic alterations in patients with CRPC-NE compared with castration-resistant adenocarcinoma, supporting greater intraindividual genomic consistency across metastases. Allele-specific copy number and serial sampling analyses allowed for the detection and tracking of clonal and subclonal tumor cell populations. cfDNA methylation was indicative of circulating tumor content fraction, reflective of methylation patterns observed in biopsy tissues, and was capable of detecting CRPC-NE-associated epigenetic changes (e.g., hypermethylation of ASXL3 and SPDEF; hypomethylation of INSM1 and CDH2). A targeted set combining genomic (TP53, RB1, CYLD, AR) and epigenomic (hypo- and hypermethylation of 20 differential sites) alterations applied to ctDNA was capable of identifying patients with CRPC-NE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI131041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108892PMC
April 2020

Mixing brain cerebrosides with brain ceramides, cholesterol and phospholipids.

Sci Rep 2019 09 16;9(1):13326. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), and Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

The properties of bilayers composed of pure brain cerebroside (bCrb) or of binary mixtures of bCrb with brain ceramide, cholesterol, egg phosphatidylcholine or brain sphingomyelin have been studied using a combination of physical techniques. Pure bCrb exhibits a rather narrow gel-fluid transition centred at ≈65 °C, with a half-width at half-height T ≈ 3 °C. bCrb mixes well with both fluid and gel phospholipids and ceramide, and it rigidifies bilayers of egg phosphatidylcholine or brain sphingomyelin when the latter are in the fluid state. Cholesterol markedly widens the bCrb gel-fluid transition, while decreasing the associated transition enthalpy, in the manner of cholesterol mixtures with saturated phosphatidylcholines, or sphingomyelins. Laurdan and DPH fluorescence indicate the formation of fluid ordered phases in the bCrb:cholesterol mixtures. Macroscopic phase separation of more and less fluid domains is observed in giant unilamellar vesicles consisting of bCrb:egg phosphatidylcholine or bCrb:sphingomyelin. Crb capacity to induce bilayer permeabilization or transbilayer (flip-flop) lipid motion is much lower than those of ceramides. The mixtures explored here contained mostly bCrb concentrations >50 mol%, mimicking the situation of cell membranes in Gaucher's disease, or of the Crb-enriched microdomains proposed to exist in healthy cell plasma membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50020-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746848PMC
September 2019

Fast and slow biomembrane solubilizing detergents: Insights into their mechanism of action.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 Nov 7;183:110430. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC), Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Detergents are water-soluble amphiphiles. Above a critical concentration they self-organize in micelles and in the presence of phospholipids mixed micelles are formed. Much information is available on the structure of these self-assemblies and on the thermodynamics of their formation. The aim of this study was to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of solubilization. Solubilization of lipid vesicles made of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) by twenty one commercially available, structurally heterogeneous detergents, has been assessed by a decrease in turbidity of the vesicle suspension. Both steady-state and time-resolved measurements have been performed. The results show that the detergents under study fall into one of two categories, namely fast-solubilizing and slow-solubilizing detergents. This categorization is independent of detergent concentration, i.e. a "slow" cannot be converted into a "fast" surfactant by increasing its bulk concentration. P-NMR spectra indicate that slow-acting detergents cause either a gradual, monotonic micellization of bilayers (sodium dodecyl sulphate), or formation of more complex, perhaps non-lamellar, non-micellar intermediates (dodecylmaltoside). In contrast, fast detergents (e.g. Triton X-100) cause lysis and reassembly of vesicles before bulk solubilization takes place. These results support the idea that membrane solubilization by detergents is rapid only when surfactant transbilayer (flipping) motion is easy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.110430DOI Listing
November 2019

Lamellar Phases Composed of Phospholipid, Cholesterol, and Ceramide, as Studied by H NMR.

Biophys J 2019 07 19;117(2):296-306. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Sphingolipids constitute a significant fraction of cellular plasma membrane lipid content. Among sphingolipids, ceramide levels are usually very low. However, in some cell processes like apoptosis, cell membrane ceramide levels increase markedly because of the activation of enzymes like acid sphingomyelinase. This increase can change the physical state of the membrane by promoting molecular order and inducing solid-ordered (S) phase domains. This effect has been observed in a previous H NMR study on membranes consisting of palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM) and palmitoyl ceramide (PCer). Cholesterol (Chol), too, is present at high concentrations in mammalian plasma membranes and has a favorable interaction with sphingomyelin (SM), together forming domains in the liquid-ordered phase in model membranes. There are reports that Chol is able to displace ceramide (Cer) in SM bilayers and abolish the S phase domains formed by SM:Cer. This ability of Chol appears to be concentration dependent; in membranes with low Chol and high Cer contents, S phase domains rich in Cer coexist with the continuous fluid phase of the membrane. Here, we studied the effect of increasing PCer concentration in PSM:Chol bilayers, using H NMR. Chol:PCer mole ratios were 3:1, 3:2, and 3:3, at a fixed 7:3 phospholipid:cholesterol mol ratio. Both PSM and PCer were monitored in separate samples for changes in their physical state by introducing a perdeuterated palmitoyl chain in either molecule. Moreover, the effect of replacing PSM with DPPC was investigated to test the impact on membrane phase behavior of replacing the sphingosine with a palmitoylated glycerol backbone. We found that PCer can increase acyl chain order in both PSM:Chol and DPPC:Chol bilayers. Especially in bilayers with Chol:PCer 1:1 molar ratios, PCer induces highly stable S phase domains in both PSM and DPPC bilayers near 37°C. However, PCer has a more pronounced ordering effect on PSM compared to DPPC bilayers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2019.05.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6702149PMC
July 2019

Somatic mutations and cell identity linked by Genotyping of Transcriptomes.

Nature 2019 07 3;571(7765):355-360. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA.

Defining the transcriptomic identity of malignant cells is challenging in the absence of surface markers that distinguish cancer clones from one another, or from admixed non-neoplastic cells. To address this challenge, here we developed Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT), a method to integrate genotyping with high-throughput droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing. We apply GoT to profile 38,290 CD34 cells from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms to study how somatic mutations corrupt the complex process of human haematopoiesis. High-resolution mapping of malignant versus normal haematopoietic progenitors revealed an increasing fitness advantage with myeloid differentiation of cells with mutated CALR. We identified the unfolded protein response as a predominant outcome of CALR mutations, with a considerable dependency on cell identity, as well as upregulation of the NF-κB pathway specifically in uncommitted stem cells. We further extended the GoT toolkit to genotype multiple targets and loci that are distant from transcript ends. Together, these findings reveal that the transcriptional output of somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms is dependent on the native cell identity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1367-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6782071PMC
July 2019

Epigenetic evolution and lineage histories of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Nature 2019 05 15;569(7757):576-580. Epub 2019 May 15.

New York Genome Center, New York, NY, USA.

Genetic and epigenetic intra-tumoral heterogeneity cooperate to shape the evolutionary course of cancer. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a highly informative model for cancer evolution as it undergoes substantial genetic diversification and evolution after therapy. The CLL epigenome is also an important disease-defining feature, and growing populations of cells in CLL diversify by stochastic changes in DNA methylation known as epimutations. However, previous studies using bulk sequencing methods to analyse the patterns of DNA methylation were unable to determine whether epimutations affect CLL populations homogeneously. Here, to measure the epimutation rate at single-cell resolution, we applied multiplexed single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing to B cells from healthy donors and patients with CLL. We observed that the common clonal origin of CLL results in a consistently increased epimutation rate, with low variability in the cell-to-cell epimutation rate. By contrast, variable epimutation rates across healthy B cells reflect diverse evolutionary ages across the trajectory of B cell differentiation, consistent with epimutations serving as a molecular clock. Heritable epimutation information allowed us to reconstruct lineages at high-resolution with single-cell data, and to apply this directly to patient samples. The CLL lineage tree shape revealed earlier branching and longer branch lengths than in normal B cells, reflecting rapid drift after the initial malignant transformation and a greater proliferative history. Integration of single-cell bisulfite sequencing analysis with single-cell transcriptomes and genotyping confirmed that genetic subclones mapped to distinct clades, as inferred solely on the basis of epimutation information. Finally, to examine potential lineage biases during therapy, we profiled serial samples during ibrutinib-associated lymphocytosis, and identified clades of cells that were preferentially expelled from the lymph node after treatment, marked by distinct transcriptional profiles. The single-cell integration of genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional information thus charts the lineage history of CLL and its evolution with therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1198-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533116PMC
May 2019

Corrupted coordination of epigenetic modifications leads to diverging chromatin states and transcriptional heterogeneity in CLL.

Nat Commun 2019 04 23;10(1):1874. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

New York Genome Center, New York, 10013, NY, USA.

Cancer evolution is fueled by epigenetic as well as genetic diversity. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), intra-tumoral DNA methylation (DNAme) heterogeneity empowers evolution. Here, to comprehensively study the epigenetic dimension of cancer evolution, we integrate DNAme analysis with histone modification mapping and single cell analyses of RNA expression and DNAme in 22 primary CLL and 13 healthy donor B lymphocyte samples. Our data reveal corrupted coherence across different layers of the CLL epigenome. This manifests in decreased mutual information across epigenetic modifications and gene expression attributed to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Disrupted epigenetic-transcriptional coordination in CLL is also reflected in the dysregulation of the transcriptional output as a function of the combinatorial chromatin states, including incomplete Polycomb-mediated gene silencing. Notably, we observe unexpected co-mapping of typically mutually exclusive activating and repressing histone modifications, suggestive of intra-tumoral epigenetic diversity. Thus, CLL epigenetic diversification leads to decreased coordination across layers of epigenetic information, likely reflecting an admixture of cells with diverging cellular identities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09645-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6478836PMC
April 2019

Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Bilayers of Ternary Lipid Compositions Containing Equimolar Ceramide and Cholesterol.

Langmuir 2019 04 8;35(15):5305-5315. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), and Departamento de Bioquímica , Universidad del País Vasco , 48940 Leioa , Spain.

Cell membranes have been proposed to be laterally inhomogeneous, particularly in the case of mammalian cells, due to the presence of "domains" enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol (Chol). Among membrane sphingolipids, sphingomyelin (SM) in the cell plasma membrane is known to be degraded to ceramide (Cer) by acid sphingomyelinases under stress conditions. Since cholesterol (Chol) is abundant in the plasma membrane, the study of ternary mixtures SM:Chol:Cer is interesting from the point of view of membrane biophysics, and it might be physiologically relevant. In previous studies, we have described the homogeneous gel phase formed by phospholipid:Chol:Cer at 54:23:23 mol ratios, where phospholipid was either SM or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). We now provide new data, based on trans-parinaric acid and diphenylhexatriene fluorescence, supporting that the gel phase includes all three components in a single bilayer. The main question addressed in this paper is the stability of the ternary gel phase when bilayer composition is changed, specifically when the SM proportion is varied. To this aim, we have prepared bilayers of composition phospholipid:Chol:Cer at X:Y:Y ratios, in which phospholipid increased between 54 and 70 mol %. The N-palmitoyl derivatives of SM (pSM) and Cer (pCer) have been used. We observe that for X = 54 or 60 mol %, a gel phase is clearly predominant. However, when the proportion of phospholipid increases beyond 60 mol %, i.e., in 66:17:17 or 70:15:15 mixtures, a lateral phase separation occurs at the micrometer scale. These data can be interpreted in terms of a pCer:Chol interaction, that would predominate at the lower phospholipid concentrations. The putative pCer:Chol complexes (or nanodomains) would mix well with the phospholipid. At the higher SM concentrations pSM:pCer and pSM:Chol interactions would become more important, giving rise to the coexisting gel and liquid-ordered phases respectively. Heterogeneity, or lateral phase separation, occurs more easily with pSM than with DPPC, indicating a higher affinity of SM over DPPC for Chol or Cer. The observation that heterogeneity, or lateral phase separation, occurs more easily with pSM than with DPPC, indicates a higher affinity of SM over DPPC for Chol or Cer, and can be related to cell regulation through the sphingolipid signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b00324DOI Listing
April 2019

Biophysical Studies of LC3 Family Proteins.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1880:91-117

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Bilbao, Spain.

Autophagy is an important cellular process in which cell components are degraded in a controlled way and their building blocks are recycled into new macromolecules. Autophagy starts within a double-membrane container, the autophagosome, itself the result of a number of interconversions of cell membranous elements. In our recent work, we have described reconstituted model systems for the interactions of autophagy proteins with membrane lipid bilayers and for the autophagy protein-mediated vesicle tethering and fusion, with the aim of ultimately reconstituting the autophagosome formation. The present chapter describes in detail (a) the steps required for the preparation of semisynthetic lipid vesicles (liposomes), including giant unilamellar vesicles, (b) ultracentrifugation and fluorescence methods for assaying protein binding to membranes, and (c) procedures for assessing vesicle-vesicle aggregation and fusion. The latter include methods for intervesicular total lipid mixing, mixing of lipids in the vesicle inner monolayers, and aqueous contents mixing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8873-0_5DOI Listing
June 2019

The interaction of lipid-liganded gold clusters (Aurora ) with lipid bilayers.

Chem Phys Lipids 2019 01 28;218:40-46. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Instituto Biofisika (UPV/EHU, CSIC), Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Lipid bilayers of different phospholipid compositions have been prepared, in the form of vesicles, or of supported lipid bilayers, and doped with Aurora at 0.1 mol%. Aurora consists of an Au gold nanoparticle (about 1.4 nm in diameter) capped with triphenylphosphine ligands and a single diglyceride (distearoyl glycerol) ligand. Gold nanoparticles have been incorporated in the past inside liposomes, or grafted onto their surfaces, with diagnostic or therapeutic aims. Including the gold nanoparticles in a stable form within the lipid bilayers has serious technical difficulties. We have tested the hypothesis that, because of the diglyceride ligand, Aurora would allow the easy incorporation of gold nanoclusters into cell membranes or lipid bilayers. Our results show that Aurora readily incorporates into lipid bilayers, particularly when they are in the fluid phase, i.e. the state in which cell membranes exist. Calorimetric, fluorescence polarization or fluorescence confocal microscopy concur in showing that bilayer-embedded Aurorahardly changes the physical properties of the bilayers, nor does it perturb the phase equilibrium in lipid mixtures giving rise to lateral phase separation in the plane of the membrane. Atomic force microscopy shows, in fluid bilayers, well-resolved particles, 1.2-2.9 nm in height, that are interpreted as single Auroraconjugates. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy allows the clear observation of lipid bilayers with an enhanced contrast due to the Aurora gold nanoparticles; the single particles can be resolved at high magnification. Our studies support the applicability of Aurora as a membrane-friendly form of nano-gold particles for biological research or clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2018.11.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not fluidify bilayers in the liquid-crystalline state.

Sci Rep 2018 11 2;8(1):16240. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), B. Sarriena s/n, 48940, Leioa, Spain.

This work reports on the effects of two omega-3 fatty acids, namely docosahexaenoic (C22:6) acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) acid (EPA), with oleic (C18:1) acid (OA) as a control, on the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Mainly differential scanning calorimetry has been used, together with Laurdan fluorescence, and confocal fluorescence microscopy. All three fatty acids DHA, EPA and OA exhibited fluidifying properties when added to the DPPC bilayers, decreasing the main transition temperature. DHA and EPA were somewhat more effective than OA in this respect, but the effects of all three were of the same order of magnitude, thus the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids failed to exhibit any peculiar fluidifying potency. The same was true when the omega-3 fatty acids were esterified in the sn-2 position of a phosphatidylcholine. Moreover the omega-3 fatty acids had very small or no effects on the fluidity of bilayers in the liquid-crystalline, or fluid disordered state (egg phosphatidylcholine and others), or in the fluid ordered state (phospholipid: cholesterol mixtures). The hypothesis that some physiological effects of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids could be related to their special fluidifying properties is not supported by these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34264-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214938PMC
November 2018

The fatty acids of sphingomyelins and ceramides in mammalian tissues and cultured cells: Biophysical and physiological implications.

Chem Phys Lipids 2018 12 22;217:29-34. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), Campus Universitario, 48940 Leioa, Spain; Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidad del País Vasco, B. Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Sphingolipids consist of a sphingoid base N-linked to a fatty acyl chain. Among them, sphingomyelins (SM) are major components of mammalian cells, while ceramide (Cer) plays an important role as a lipid second messenger. We have performed a quantitative lipidomic study of Cer and SM species in different mammalian tissues (adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood serum of human, mice, rat and dog), as well as in cell cultures of mammalian origin (primary hepatocytes, immortalized MDCK cells, mice melanoma b16 cells, and mice primary CD4 + T lymphocytes) using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS)-based platform. The data have been compared with published, in general semi-quantitative, results from 20 other samples, with good agreement. The sphingoid base was predominantly d18-1 sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) in all cases. The fatty acid composition of SM was clearly different from that of Cer. In virtually all samples the most abundant Cer species were those containing C24:0 and C24:1 in their N-acyl chains, while the main species contained in SM was C16:0. Brain was the most divergent tissue, in which Cer and SM C18:0 were very abundant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Clearly Detectable, Kinetically Restricted Solid-Solid Phase Transition in cis-Ceramide Monolayers.

Langmuir 2018 10 24;34(39):11749-11758. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU) , B. Sarriena s/n , 48940 Leioa , Spain.

Sphingosine [(2 S,3 R,4 E)-2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol] is the most common sphingoid base in mammals. Ceramides are N-acyl sphingosines. Numerous small variations on this canonical structure are known, including the 1-deoxy, the 4,5-dihydro, and many others. However, whenever there is a Δ4 double bond, it adopts the trans (or E) configuration. We synthesized a ceramide containing 4 Z-sphingosine and palmitic acid ( cis-pCer) and studied its behavior in the form of monolayers extended on an air-water interface. cis-pCer acted very differently from the trans isomer in that, upon lateral compression of the monolayer, a solid-solid transition was clearly observed at a mean molecular area ≤44 Å·molecule, whose characteristics depended on the rate of compression. The solid-solid transition, as well as states of domain coexistence, could be imaged by atomic force microscopy and by Brewster-angle microscopy. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations provided results compatible with the experimentally observed differences between the cis and trans isomers. The data can help in the exploration of other solid-solid transitions in lipids, both in vitro and in vivo, that have gone up to now undetected because of their less obvious change in surface properties along the transition, as compared to cis-pCer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b02198DOI Listing
October 2018

Histone Native Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1832:77-104

Departments of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is becoming the standard method to study genome-wide distribution of histone variants and histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). In this chapter, we describe a detailed native ChIP protocol and downstream procedures for the preparation of DNA libraries for next-generation sequencing. Compared to cross-linked ChIP, "native" ChIP has been shown to produce occupancy pattern data of histone PTMs and histone variants, with higher resolution and higher signal to noise ratio. We further present an adaptation of this protocol to perform native ChIP from as low as 50,000 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8663-7_5DOI Listing
April 2019

Surveillance of microcephaly and selected brain anomalies in Argentina: Relationship with Zika virus and other congenital infections.

Birth Defects Res 2018 07 19;110(12):1016-1026. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

National Network of Congenital Abnormalities Argentina (RENAC) under the National Center of Medical Genetics (CENAGEM), Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission may lead to microcephaly and other congenital anomalies. In March and April 2016, the first outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Argentina. The objective was to describe the surveillance of newborns with microcephaly and other selected brain anomalies in Argentina, and evaluation different etiologies.

Methods: Participants were enrolled between April 2016 and March 2017.

Cases: newborns from the National Network of Congenital Abnormalities of Argentina (RENAC) with head circumference lower than the 3rd percentile according to gestational age and sex, or selected brain anomalies. Blood and urine samples from cases and their mothers were tested for ZIKV by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), antigen-specific Immunoglobulin M (MAC-ELISA) and plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT ). Toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were also tested.

Results: A total of 104 cases were reported, with a prevalence of 6.9 per 10,000 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7-8.4], a significant increase when compared with the data prior to 2016, Prevalence Rate Ratio 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.3). In five cases positive serology for ZIKV (IgM and IgG by PRNT) was detected. The five cases presented microcephaly with craniofacial disproportion. We detected four cases of CMV infection, three cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, two cases of herpes simplex infection, and one case of congenital syphilis.

Conclusion: The prevalence of microcephaly was significantly higher when compared with the previous period. The system had the capacity to detect five cases with congenital ZIKV syndrome in a country with limited viral circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1347DOI Listing
July 2018

"Same difference": comprehensive evaluation of four DNA methylation measurement platforms.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2018 05 25;11(1):21. Epub 2018 May 25.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Epigenomics Core Facility, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background: DNA methylation in CpG context is fundamental to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in higher eukaryotes. Changes in methylation patterns are implicated in many diseases, cellular differentiation, imprinting, and other biological processes. Techniques that enrich for biologically relevant genomic regions with high CpG content are desired, since, depending on the size of an organism's methylome, the depth of sequencing required to cover all CpGs can be prohibitively expensive. Currently, restriction enzyme-based reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and its modified protocols are widely used to study methylation differences. Recently, Agilent Technologies, Roche NimbleGen, and Illumina have ventured to both reduce sequencing costs and capture CpGs of known biological relevance by marketing in-solution custom-capture hybridization platforms. We aimed to evaluate the similarities and differences of these four methods considering each platform targets approximately 10-13% of the human methylome.

Results: Overall, the regions covered per platform were as expected: targeted capture-based methods covered > 95% of their designed regions, whereas the restriction enzyme-based method covered > 70% of the expected fragments. While the total number of CpG loci shared by all methods was low, ~ 24% of any platform, the methylation levels of CpGs covered by all platforms were concordant. Annotation of CpG loci with genomic features revealed roughly the same proportions of feature annotations across the four platforms. Targeted capture methods comprise similar types and coverage of annotations and, relative to the targeted methods, the restriction enzyme method covers fewer promoters (~ 9%), CpG shores (~ 8%) and unannotated loci (~ 11%).

Conclusions: Although all methods are largely consistent in terms of covered CpG loci, the commercially available capture methods result in covering nearly all CpG sites in their target regions with few off-target loci and covering similar proportions of annotated CpG loci, the restriction-based enrichment results in more off-target and unannotated CpG loci. Quality of DNA is very important for restriction-based enrichment and starting material can be low. Conversely, quality of the starting material is less important for capture methods, and at least twice the amount of starting material is required. Pricing is marginally less for restriction-based enrichment, and the number of samples that can be prepared is not restricted to the number of capture reactions a kit supports. However, the advantage of capture libraries is the ability to custom design areas of interest. The choice of the technique would be decided by the number of samples, the quality and quantity of DNA available and the biological areas of interest since comparable data are obtained from all platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-018-0190-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5970534PMC
May 2018

Pb(II) Induces Scramblase Activation and Ceramide-Domain Generation in Red Blood Cells.

Sci Rep 2018 05 10;8(1):7456. Epub 2018 May 10.

Instituto Biofisika (CSIC, UPV/EHU), 48080, Bilbao, Spain.

The mechanisms of Pb(II) toxicity have been studied in human red blood cells using confocal microscopy, immunolabeling, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and atomic force microscopy. The process follows a sequence of events, starting with calcium entry, followed by potassium release, morphological change, generation of ceramide, lipid flip-flop and finally cell lysis. Clotrimazole blocks potassium channels and the whole process is inhibited. Immunolabeling reveals the generation of ceramide-enriched domains linked to a cell morphological change, while the use of a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor greatly delays the process after the morphological change, and lipid flip-flop is significantly reduced. These facts point to three major checkpoints in the process: first the upstream exchange of calcium and potassium, then ceramide domain formation, and finally the downstream scramblase activation necessary for cell lysis. In addition, partial non-cytotoxic cholesterol depletion of red blood cells accelerates the process as the morphological change occurs faster. Cholesterol could have a role in modulating the properties of the ceramide-enriched domains. This work is relevant in the context of cell death, heavy metal toxicity and sphingolipid signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25905-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5945622PMC
May 2018