Publications by authors named "Ali-Asghar Kolahi"

78 Publications

Prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability due to polycystic ovary syndrome in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.

Hum Reprod 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Study Question: What is the global, regional and national burden of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), by age and socio-demographic index (SDI), over the period 1990-2019?

Summary Answer: In 2019, the global age-standardized point prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLD) of PCOS were 30.4, 29.5 and 29.9 per 100 000 population, respectively.

What Is Known Already: Data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2017 showed that the global age-standardized PCOS incidence rate increased 1.45% over the period 1990-2017.

Study Design, Size, Duration: A systematic analysis of the PCOS prevalence, incidence and YLDs across 204 countries and territories was performed.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Data on the point prevalence, annual incidence and YLDs due to PCOS were retrieved from the GBD study 2019 for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. The counts and age-standardized rates (per 100 000) are presented, along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: In 2019, the global age-standardized point prevalence and annual incidence rates for PCOS were 1677.8 (95% UI: 1166.0 to 2192.4) and 59.8 (95% UI: 41.7 to 78.9) per 100 000, which represents a 30.4% and 29.5% increase since 1990, respectively. Moreover, the global age-standardized YLD rate in 2019 was 14.7 (6.3-29.5), an increase of 29.9% since 1990. In 2019, Italy (7897.0), Japan (6298.7) and New Zealand (5419.1) had the highest estimated age-standardized point prevalences of PCOS. Globally, the number of prevalent cases and the point prevalence of PCOS peaked in the 25-29 years and 40-44 years age groups, respectively. Positive associations were found between the burden of PCOS and the SDI at the regional and national levels.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: Variations in how PCOS was defined is a major limitation that prevents valid comparisons between different regions.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Globally, the burden of PCOS has increased at an alarming rate, making it a major public health concern. Increasing public awareness about this common condition, improving management options and increasing support to reduce factors which lead to further complications, need to be public health priorities.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, who were not involved in any way in the preparation of this manuscript, funded the GBD study. The Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Grant No. 28709) also supported the present report. The authors declare no competing interests.

Trial Registration Number: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deac091DOI Listing
May 2022

Burden of polycystic ovary syndrome in the Middle East and North Africa region, 1990-2019.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 29;12(1):7039. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most important contributing factors to infertility. In this study, we report the burden of PCOS by age and sociodemographic index (SDI) for the 21 countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Publicly available data on the point prevalence, incidence and years lived with disability (YLDs), from 1990 to 2019, were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 study for the 21 countries in MENA. The results are presented with age-standardised numbers and rates per 100,000 population, along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). In 2019, the age-standardised point prevalence and incidence rate for PCOS in the MENA region were 2079.7 (95% UI: 1392.0 to 2812.3) and 77.2 (95% UI: 51.6 to 105.4) per 100,000, respectively, which represents a 37.9% (95% UI: 31.7 to 45.0) and a 33.7% (95% UI: 27.7 to 40.3) increase since 1990, respectively. Also in 2019, the age-standardised YLD rate of PCOS in this region was 18.7 (95% UI: 7.8 to 37.9) per 100,000 women, which has increased by 36.1% (95% UI: 29.4 to 43.4) since 1990. Kuwait [25.4 (10.7, 51.2)] had the highest age-standardised YLD rate, while Afghanistan [10.8 (10.1, 49.2)] had the lowest. Moreover, the largest increase in the YLD rate, from 1990 to 2019, was seen in Sudan [90.3% (64.1, 120.9)], whereas no country decreased during the measurement period. The total prevalent number and point prevalence of PCOS (per 100,000) were both highest in the 20-24 age group. The prevalence of PCOS was highest among women of reproductive age, but decreased rapidly after 45 years of age. Moreover, at the country level there was a positive association between SDI and the age-standardised YLD rates of PCOS. The growing prevalence and burden of PCOS in the MENA region highlights the need to implement cost-effective preventive programs, especially for women in their third decade of life, and in MENA countries with higher SDI levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11006-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9052181PMC
April 2022

Knowledge and Preventive Practices About Osteoporosis Among Elementary School Teachers of Bandar-Abbas in 2020.

Front Nutr 2022 4;9:849639. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To assess knowledge and preventive practices about osteoporosis among elementary school teachers of Bandar-Abbas in 2020.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the schools were selected using simple random sampling, and the teachers were invited to fill out an online questionnaire. The knowledge section of the questionnaire assessed general knowledge and knowledge regarding risk/protective factors, nutrition, and physical activity. The preventive practices section assessed dietary habits using a food frequency questionnaire, asking about 16 items in six groups, intakes of which were compared to the recommendations of the Iranian food pyramid. This section also assessed physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.

Results: Totally, 377 school teachers with a mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of 38 (6.7) participated in this study. The level of overall knowledge of 128 (33.9%) teachers was high, 222 (58.9%) moderate, and 27 (7.2%) low. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] intakes of fruits [2 (1-2)] and meats/eggs [1.7 (1.4-2.2)] were adequate, while those of dairy products [1.5 (0.9-2.3)], nuts/legumes [0.5 (0.2-1.1)], and vegetables [0.3 (0.1-1)] were inadequate. The median (IQR) intakes of tea/coffee [1 (0.6-2)] and cola [0.1 (0-0.3)] were considered limited. The physical activity level of 121 (32.1%) teachers was high, 124 (32.9%) moderate, and 135 (35%) low.

Conclusion: Knowledge of the teachers about osteoporosis was moderate, and their preventive practices were somewhat adequate concerning dietary habits and moderate concerning physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.849639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9014264PMC
April 2022

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices About COVID-19 Among Healthcare Workers in Iran During the First Wave of the Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2022 16;10:827817. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Investigating the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers (HCWs) could be an early step toward identifying their potential educational needs and possible factors involved in misinformation. The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices about COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Iran during the first wave of the pandemic.

Materials And Methods: The current descriptive-correlational study was conducted during the 1st days of the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran from March 24th to April 3rd, 2020. Participants included all healthcare workers at hospitals, including physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, midwives, laboratory and radiology assistants, and other hospital professionals during the study period. Data were collected through an online self-administrative questionnaire.

Results: The responses of 1,310 participants were analyzed, of which 900 (68.7%) were female. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 25.4 (3.3), 84.7% out of 30. More than 90% of participants correctly recognized the main symptoms, transmission route, and preventive measures for COVID-19. The mean (SD) attitude score was 16.9 (1.1), 93.9% out of 18. Most participants agreed with keeping safe physical distancing, self-isolation upon symptom onset, and city lockdowns. The mean (SD) score for general practices about COVID-19 was 20.8 (2.0), 86.7% of 24.

Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of HCWs were appropriate, and their attitudes were mainly positive. However, there is still room for improvement regarding concerning misinformation and quackeries about COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.827817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965810PMC
April 2022

Prevalence, Deaths and Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALYs) Due to Type 2 Diabetes and Its Attributable Risk Factors in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990-2019: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 25;13:838027. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To report the point prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) due to type 2 diabetes and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories during the period 1990-2019.

Methods: We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 to report number and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population of type 2 diabetes. Estimates were reported with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: In 2019, the global age-standardised point prevalence and death rates for type 2 diabetes were 5282.9 and 18.5 per 100 000, an increase of 49% and 10.8%, respectively, since 1990. Moreover, the global age-standardised DALY rate in 2019 was 801.5 per 100 000, an increase of 27.6% since 1990. In 2019, the global point prevalence of type 2 diabetes was slightly higher in males and increased with age up to the 75-79 age group, decreasing across the remaining age groups. American Samoa [19876.8] had the highest age-standardised point prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes in 2019. Generally, the burden of type 2 diabetes decreased with increasing SDI (Socio-demographic Index). Globally, high body mass index [51.9%], ambient particulate matter pollution [13.6%] and smoking [9.9%] had the three highest proportions of attributable DALYs.

Conclusion: Low and middle-income countries have the highest burden and greater investment in type 2 diabetes prevention is needed. In addition, accurate data on type 2 diabetes needs to be collected by the health systems of all countries to allow better monitoring and evaluation of population-level interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.838027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915203PMC
April 2022

Prevalence, Deaths and Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years (DALYs) Due to Type 2 Diabetes and Its Attributable Risk Factors in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990-2019: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 25;13:838027. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To report the point prevalence, deaths and disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) due to type 2 diabetes and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories during the period 1990-2019.

Methods: We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 to report number and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population of type 2 diabetes. Estimates were reported with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: In 2019, the global age-standardised point prevalence and death rates for type 2 diabetes were 5282.9 and 18.5 per 100 000, an increase of 49% and 10.8%, respectively, since 1990. Moreover, the global age-standardised DALY rate in 2019 was 801.5 per 100 000, an increase of 27.6% since 1990. In 2019, the global point prevalence of type 2 diabetes was slightly higher in males and increased with age up to the 75-79 age group, decreasing across the remaining age groups. American Samoa [19876.8] had the highest age-standardised point prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes in 2019. Generally, the burden of type 2 diabetes decreased with increasing SDI (Socio-demographic Index). Globally, high body mass index [51.9%], ambient particulate matter pollution [13.6%] and smoking [9.9%] had the three highest proportions of attributable DALYs.

Conclusion: Low and middle-income countries have the highest burden and greater investment in type 2 diabetes prevention is needed. In addition, accurate data on type 2 diabetes needs to be collected by the health systems of all countries to allow better monitoring and evaluation of population-level interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.838027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8915203PMC
April 2022

Global, regional, and national cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to alcohol consumption in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.

Cancer 2022 May 3;128(9):1840-1852. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for a number of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including several types of cancer. This article reports the burden of cancers attributable to alcohol consumption by age, sex, location, sociodemographic index (SDI), and cancer type from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: The Comparative Risk Assessment approach was used in the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study to report the burden of cancers attributable to alcohol consumption between 1990 and 2019.

Results: In 2019, there were globally an estimated 494.7 thousand cancer deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 439.7 to 554.1) and 13.0 million cancer disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; 95% UI, 11.6 to 14.5) that were attributable to alcohol consumption. The alcohol-attributable DALYs were much higher in men (10.5 million; 95% UI, 9.2 to 11.8) than women (2.5 million; 95% UI, 2.2 to 2.9). The global age-standardized death and DALY rates of cancers attributable to alcohol decreased by 14.7% (95% UI, 6.4% to 23%) and 18.1% (95% UI, 9.2% to 26.5%), respectively, over the study period. Central Europe had the highest age-standardized death rates that were attributable to alcohol consumption(10.3; 95% UI, 8.7 to12.0). Moreover, there was an overall positive association between SDI and the regional age-standardized DALY rate for alcohol-attributable cancers.

Conclusions: Despite decreases in age-standardized deaths and DALYs, substantial numbers of cancer deaths and DALYs are still attributable to alcohol consumption. Because there is a higher burden in males, the elderly, and developed regions (based on SDI), these groups and regions should be prioritized in any prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.34111DOI Listing
May 2022

Priorities Towards Fair Allocation of Ventilators During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Delphi Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:769508. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in severe shortage in vital resources, including invasive mechanical ventilators. The current imbalance between demand and supply of mechanical ventilators has called for investigations on the fair allocation of mechanical ventilators.

Objective: To determine the priorities of the medical experts towards the fair allocation of ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This study was conducted from May 28 to Aug 20, 2020. The questionnaire was sent to 50 medical specialists as the Delphi panel. Participants were asked to rate each prioritising factor: "-1" for low priority, "+1" for high priority, and "Zero" for equal priority.

Results: Among 38 experts who responded to the email, the responses of 35 were analysed. 31 (88.6%) participants recommended that pregnant women be considered high priority in allocating ventilators, 27 (77.1%) mothers of children <5 years, 26 (74.3%) patients under 80-years, and 23 (65.7%) front-line-healthcare-workers. In contrast, 28 (80.0) participants recommended that patients who are terminally ill should be considered as a low priority, 27 (77.1%) patients with active-malignancy, 25 (71.4%) neurodegenerative diseases, and 16 (45.7%) patients aged >80. The panel did not reach a consensus regarding the role of patients' laboratory profiles, underlying diseases, or drug abuse in the prioritisation of ventilators.

Conclusions: The panel considered pregnant mothers, mothers of children under 5 years, age groups younger than 80, and front-line healthcare workers to have high priority in allocating mechanical ventilators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.769508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8818721PMC
January 2022

Potential Immune Indicators for Predicting the Prognosis of COVID-19 and Trauma: Similarities and Disparities.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:785946. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Although cellular and molecular mediators of the immune system have the potential to be prognostic indicators of disease outcomes, temporal interference between diseases might affect the immune mediators, and make them difficult to predict disease complications. Today one of the most important challenges is predicting the prognosis of COVID-19 in the context of other inflammatory diseases such as traumatic injuries. Many diseases with inflammatory properties are usually polyphasic and the kinetics of inflammatory mediators in various inflammatory diseases might be different. To find the most appropriate evaluation time of immune mediators to accurately predict COVID-19 prognosis in the trauma environment, researchers must investigate and compare cellular and molecular alterations based on their kinetics after the start of COVID-19 symptoms and traumatic injuries. The current review aimed to investigate the similarities and differences of common inflammatory mediators (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, and serum amyloid A), cytokine/chemokine levels (IFNs, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-4), and immune cell subtypes (neutrophil, monocyte, Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg and CTL) based on the kinetics between patients with COVID-19 and trauma. The mediators may help us to accurately predict the severity of COVID-19 complications and follow up subsequent clinical interventions. These findings could potentially help in a better understanding of COVID-19 and trauma pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.785946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8815083PMC
February 2022

Global, regional, and national burden of cancers attributable to excess body weight in 204 countries and territories, 1990 to 2019.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2022 02 18;30(2):535-545. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to report the level and trends of 13 cancers that are attributable to excess body weight (EBW) for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: Using publicly available data, the burden of cancers attributable to EBW was reported from 1990 to 2019 based on the comparative risk assessment approach used in the Global Burden of Disease study 2019. [Correction added on 27 January 2022, after first online publication: 'Using publicly available data,' has been added before the first sentence and 'estimated' was corrected to 'reported'.] RESULTS: In 2019, EBW caused 11.2 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), or 4.4% of all cancer-related DALYs. Between 1990 and 2019, the global EBW-attributable age-standardized cancer DALY rates (per 100,000) increased from 109.9 to 133.9, a relative increase of 21.9%. The age-standardized DALY rates (per 100,000) of cancers attributable to EBW in 2019 were highest and lowest in Mongolia (611.8) and Bangladesh (30.2), respectively. The 60- to 64-year age group had the highest number of DALYs attributable to EBW, whereas there were no large sex differences in the cancer-related burden attributable to EBW. Furthermore, the association between the age-standardized DALY rates and the sociodemographic index was generally positive.

Conclusions: Overall, the EBW-attributable burden of cancers has increased in the past three decades. Public health efforts should focus on identifying appropriate preventive interventions at the population and individual levels, especially in the regions and countries with the highest burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23355DOI Listing
February 2022

Neck pain: global epidemiology, trends and risk factors.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jan 3;23(1):26. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Neurosciences Research Center, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, having an age-standardised prevalence rate of 27.0 per 1000 population in 2019. This literature review describes the global epidemiology and trends associated with neck pain, before exploring the psychological and biological risk factors associated with the initiation and progression of neck pain.

Methods: The PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine were searched up to May 21, 2021. Studies were included that used human subjects and evaluated the effects of biological or psychological factors on the occurrence or progression of neck pain, or reported its epidemiology.

Results: Psychological risk factors, such as long-term stress, lack of social support, anxiety, and depression are important risk factors for neck pain. In terms of the biological risks, neck pain might occur as a consequence of certain diseases, such as neuromusculoskeletal disorders or autoimmune diseases. There is also evidence that demographic characteristics, such as age and sex, can influence the prevalence and development of neck pain, although further research is needed.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study provide a comprehensive and informative overview that should be useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of neck pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04957-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725362PMC
January 2022

Public Opinion on Priorities Toward Fair Allocation of Ventilators During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey.

Front Public Health 2021 14;9:753048. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The rapidly growing imbalance between supply and demand for ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the principles for fair allocation of scarce resources. Failing to address public views and concerns on the subject could fuel distrust. The objective of this study was to determine the priorities of the Iranian public toward the fair allocation of ventilators during the COVID-19 pandemic. This anonymous community-based national study was conducted from May 28 to Aug 20, 2020, in Iran. Data were collected via the Google Forms platform, using an online self-administrative questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed participants' assigned prioritization scores for ventilators based on medical and non-medical criteria. To quantify participants' responses on prioritizing ventilator allocation among sub-groups of patients with COVID-19 who need mechanical ventilation scores ranging from -2, very low priority, to +2, very high priority were assigned to each response. Responses of 2,043 participants, 1,189 women, and 1,012 men, were analyzed. The mean (SD) age was 31.1 (9.5), being 32.1 (9.3) among women, and 29.9 (9.6) among men. Among all participants, 274 (13.4%) were healthcare workers. The median of assigned priority score was zero (equal) for gender, age 41-80, nationality, religion, socioeconomic, high-profile governmental position, high-profile occupation, being celebrities, employment status, smoking status, drug abuse, end-stage status, and obesity. The median assigned priority score was +2 (very high priority) for pregnancy, and having <2 years old children. The median assigned priority score was +1 (high priority) for physicians and nurses of patients with COVID-19, patients with nobel research position, those aged <40 years, those with underlying disease, immunocompromise status, and malignancy. Age>80 was the only factor participants assigned -1 (low priority) to. Participants stated that socioeconomic factors, except for age>80, should not be involved in prioritizing mechanical ventilators at the time of resources scarcity. Front-line physicians and nurses of COVID-19 patients, pregnant mothers, mothers who had children under 2 years old were given high priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.753048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8712311PMC
January 2022

A Review on the Possible Pathophysiology of Potassium Abnormalities in COVID-19.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 12;15(6):397-407

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a catastrophic contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Electrolyte disturbances are common complications of COVID-19. The present article examined the potential mechanisms of hypokalemia and hyperkalemia in patients suffering from COVID-19, in order to raise awareness of potassium disorders in SARS-CoV-2 infections. PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched with keywords, such as "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "2019-nCoV", "Hypokalemia", "Hyperkalemia", "Serum potassium", and "Etiology", "Pathophysiology" up to April 20, 2021 without any search filters. We included articles that proposed potential mechanisms for potassium abnormalities in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we used backward and forward citation searching. Potassium abnormalities are considered to be important electrolyte disturbances, with reported incidences ranging from < 5% to > 50% in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, understanding the etiologies of potassium abnormalities could help to improve disease outcome. Utilization of ACE2 by SARS-CoV-2 in the renal cells, viral-induced tubular injury, and gastrointestinal abnormalities, such as anorexia, diarrhea, and vomiting may predispose COVID-19 patients to developing hypokalemia. Furthermore, depleted magnesium levels make hypokalemia refractory to treatments. In addition, hyperkalemia may occur because of reduced urinary output, as a consequence of renal failure. Changes in blood pH and medication-induced side-effects are other possible reasons for the deviation of potassium levels from the normal range. The etiology of potassium abnormalities in COVID-19 patients is multifactorial. Therefore, the early detection and management of potassium disorders is vital and would improve the outcome of patients with COVID-19. DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6552.
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December 2021

Global, regional, and national quality of care of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 1990-2017.

Int J Equity Health 2021 12 18;20(1):259. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: To improve health outcomes to their maximum level, defining indices to measure healthcare quality and accessibility is crucial. In this study, we implemented the novel Quality of Care Index (QCI) to estimate the quality and accessibility of care for patients with gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (GBBTC) in 195 countries, 21 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions, Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintiles, and sex groups.

Method: This cross-sectional study extracted estimates on GBBTC burden from the GBD 2017, which presents population-based estimates on GBBTC burden for higher than 15-year-old patients from 1990 to 2017. Four secondary indices indicating quality of care were chosen, comprising Mortality to incidence, Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) to prevalence, prevalence to incidence, and years of life lost (YLL) to years lived with disability (YLD) ratios. Then, the whole dataset was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis to combine the four indices and create a single all-inclusive measure named QCI. The QCI was scaled to the 0-100 range, with 100 indicating the best quality of care among countries. Gender Disparity Ratio (GDR) was defined as the female to male QCI ratio to show gender inequity throughout the regions and countries.

Results: Global QCI score for GBBTC was 33.5 in 2017, which has increased by 29% since 1990. There was a considerable gender disparity in favor of men (GDR = 0.74) in 2017, showing QCI has moved toward gender inequity since 1990 (GDR = 0.85). Quality of care followed a heterogeneous pattern among regions and countries and was positively correlated with the countries' developmental status reflected in SDI (r = 0.7; CI 95%: 0.61-0.76; P value< 0.001). Accordingly, High-income North America (QCI = 72.4) had the highest QCI; whereas, Eastern Sub-Saharan Africa (QCI = 3) had the lowest QCI among regions. Patients aged 45 to 80 had lower QCI scores than younger and older adults. The highest QCI score was for the older than 95 age group (QCI = 54), and the lowest was for the 50-54 age group (QCI = 26.0).

Conclusions: QCI improved considerably from 1990 to 2017; however, it showed heterogeneous distribution and inequity between sex and age groups. In each regional context, plans from countries with the highest QCI and best gender equity should be disseminated and implemented in order to decrease the overall burden of GBBTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-021-01596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8684179PMC
December 2021

Burden of ischemic heart disease and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2022 03;29(2):420-431

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: To report the prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex, and socio-demographic index (SDI).

Methods And Results: Ischemic heart disease was defined as acute myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic IHD (angina; asymptomatic IHD following MI). Cause of death ensemble modelling was used to produce fatality estimates. The prevalence of the non-fatal sequalae of IHD was estimated using DisMod MR 2.1. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardized rates per 100 000 population. In 2019, IHD accounted for 197.2 million (177.7-219.5) prevalent cases, 9.1 million (8.4-9.7) deaths, and 182.0 million (170.2-193.5) DALYs worldwide. There were decreases in the global age-standardized prevalence rates of IHD [-4.6% (-5.7, -3.6)], deaths [-30.8% (-34.8, -27.2)], and DALYs [-28.6% (-33.3, -24.2)] from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, the global prevalence and death rates of IHD were higher among males across all age groups, while the death rate peaked in the oldest group for both sexes. A negative association was found between the age-standardized DALY rates and SDI. Globally, high systolic blood pressure (54.6%), high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.6%), and smoking (23.9%) were the three largest contributors to the DALYs attributable to IHD.

Conclusion: Although the global age-standardized prevalence, death, and DALY rates all decreased. Prevention and control programmes should be implemented to reduce population exposure to risk factors, reduce the risk of IHD in high-risk populations, and provide appropriate care for communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab213DOI Listing
March 2022

Cardiac complications following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A systematic review of case reports and case series.

Rev Med Virol 2021 Dec 17:e2318. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Research Center for Integrative Medicine in Aging, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

There have been several local and systemic adverse events associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Pericarditis, myocarditis and myocardial infarction are examples of cardiac complications related to these vaccines. In this article, we conducted a systematic review of case reports and case series to identify the clinical profile, investigations, and management of reported cardiac complications post-mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, as well as the medRxiv preprint server, with terms including: 'SARS-CoV-2', 'COVID-19', 'messenger RNA vaccine*', 'mRNA-1273 vaccine', 'BNT162 vaccine', 'myocarditis', 'pericarditis', 'stroke' and 'Myocardial Ischemia' up to 25 September 2021. Studies were excluded if they were not case reports or case series, or reported cases from non-mRNA vaccines. Case reports and case series were included that investigated the potential cardiac complications associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. The JBI checklist was used to assess quality and data synthesis was conducted using a qualitative methodology called narrative synthesis. Sixty-nine studies, including 43 case reports and 26 case series, were included. Myocarditis/myopericarditis and pericarditis were the most common adverse events among the 243 reported cardiac complications, post mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Males with a median age of 21 years had the highest frequency of myocarditis. Almost three quarters (74.4%) of cases with myocarditis had received the BNT162b2 vaccine and 87.7% had received the second dose of the vaccine. Chest pain (96.1%) and fever (38.2%) were the most common presentations. CK-MB, troponin, and NT-proBNP were elevated in 100%, 99.5% and 78.3% of subjects, respectively. ST-segment abnormality was the most common electrocardiogram feature. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which is the gold-standard approach for diagnosing myocarditis, was abnormal in all patients diagnosed with myocarditis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most prescribed medication for the management of myocarditis. Apart from inflammatory conditions, some rare cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries, and isolated tachycardia were also reported following immunisation with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. We acknowledge that only reviewing case reports and case series studies is one potential limitation of our study. We found that myocarditis was the most commonly reported adverse cardiac event associated with mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, which presented as chest pain with a rise in cardiac biomarkers. Further large-scale observational studies are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2318DOI Listing
December 2021

Global, regional and national burden of bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2019.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 11;6(11)

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

Introduction: The current study determined the level and trends associated with the incidence, death and disability rates for bladder cancer and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2019, by age, sex and sociodemographic index (SDI; a composite measure of sociodemographic factors).

Methods: Various data sources from different countries, including vital registration and cancer registries were used to generate estimates. Mortality data and incidence data transformed to mortality estimates using the mortality to incidence ratio (MIR) were used in a cause of death ensemble model to estimate mortality. Mortality estimates were divided by the MIR to produce incidence estimates. Prevalence was calculated using incidence and MIR-based survival estimates. Age-specific mortality and standardised life expectancy were used to estimate years of life lost (YLLs). Prevalence was multiplied by disability weights to estimate years lived with disability (YLDs), while disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are the sum of the YLLs and YLDs. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 population.

Results: Globally, there were 524 000 bladder cancer incident cases (95% uncertainty interval 476 000 to 569 000) and 229 000 bladder cancer deaths (211 000 to 243 000) in 2019. Age-standardised death rate decreased by 15.7% (8.6 to 21.0), during the period 1990-2019. Bladder cancer accounted for 4.39 million (4.09 to 4.70) DALYs in 2019, and the age-standardised DALY rate decreased significantly by 18.6% (11.2 to 24.3) during the period 1990-2019. In 2019, Monaco had the highest age-standardised incidence rate (31.9 cases (23.3 to 56.9) per 100 000), while Lebanon had the highest age-standardised death rate (10.4 (8.1 to 13.7)). Cabo Verde had the highest increase in age-standardised incidence (284.2% (214.1 to 362.8)) and death rates (190.3% (139.3 to 251.1)) between 1990 and 2019. In 2019, the global age-standardised incidence and death rates were higher among males than females, across all age groups and peaked in the 95+ age group. Globally, 36.8% (28.5 to 44.0) of bladder cancer DALYs were attributable to smoking, more so in males than females (43.7% (34.0 to 51.8) vs 15.2% (10.9 to 19.4)). In addition, 9.1% (1.9 to 19.6) of the DALYs were attributable to elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (males 9.3% (1.6 to 20.9); females 8.4% (1.6 to 19.1)).

Conclusions: There was considerable variation in the burden of bladder cancer between countries during the period 1990-2019. Although there was a clear global decrease in the age-standardised death, and DALY rates, some countries experienced an increase in these rates. National policy makers should learn from these differences, and allocate resources for preventative measures, based on their country-specific estimates. In addition, smoking and elevated FPG play an important role in the burden of bladder cancer and need to be addressed with prevention programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8634015PMC
November 2021

Global, regional, and national burden of Guillain-Barré syndrome and its underlying causes from 1990 to 2019.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Nov 11;18(1):264. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Neurosciences Research Center, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: This article presents the first detailed analysis of the prevalence and disability burden of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from 1990 to 2019 by cause, age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countries and territories.

Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study (GBD) 2019 were used. GBD 2019 modelled the prevalence of GBS using hospital and claims data. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were estimated as the product of the GBS prevalence and the disability weight. This article also reported proportions in the age-standardised prevalence rate that were due to six underlying causes of GBS.

Results: In 2019, there were 150,095 [95% uncertainty intervals (UI) 119,924 to 188,309] total cases of GBS worldwide, which resulted in 44,407 (95% UI 28,016 to 64,777) YLDs. Globally, there was a 6.4% (95% UI 3.6 to 9.5) increase in the age-standardised prevalence of GBS per 100,000 population between 1990 and 2019. High-income Asia Pacific [1.9 (95% UI: 1.5 to 2.4)] and East Asia [0.8 (95% UI: 0.6 to 1.0)] had the highest and lowest age-standardised prevalence rates (per 100,000), respectively, in 2019. Nationally, Japan [6.4 (95% UI: 5.3 to 7.7)] and China [0.8 (95% UI: 0.6 to 1.0)] had the highest and lowest age-standardised prevalence rates (per 100,000). The age-standardised burden of GBS increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Furthermore, the age-standardised prevalence of GBS (per 100,000) had a positive association with the level of development, as measured by SDI, although this association was not strong. Upper respiratory infections and unknown causes accounted for the highest proportions of underlying causes.

Conclusions: Globally, the prevalence of GBS continues to increase. Geographical differences and strategies aimed at preventing infectious diseases should be considered in future health policy planning and decision-making processes. This study had several limitations, such as using the same disability weight for all causes and a reliance on hospital- and self-reported data, which should be addressed in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02319-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8581128PMC
November 2021

Burden of anemia and its underlying causes in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 11 4;14(1):185. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Background: Anemia is a common disease which affects around 40% of children and 30% of reproductive age women and can have major health consequences. The present study reports the global, regional and national burden of anemia and its underlying causes between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex and socio-demographic index (SDI).

Methods: Publicly available data on the point prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs) were retrieved from the global burden of disease (GBD) 2019 study for 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019. The point prevalence, YLD counts and rates per 100,000 population were presented, along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals.

Results: In 2019, the global age-standardized point prevalence and YLD rates for anemia were 23,176.2 (22,943.5-23,418.6) and 672.4 (447.2-981.5) per 100,000 population, respectively. Moreover, the global age-standardized point prevalence and YLD rate decreased by 13.4% (12.1-14.5%) and 18.8% (16.9-20.8%), respectively, over the period 1990-2019. The highest national point prevalences of anemia were found in Zambia [49327.1 (95% UI: 46,838.5-51,700.1)], Mali [46890.1 (95% UI: 44,301.1-49,389.8)], and Burkina Faso [46117.2 (95% UI: 43,640.7-48,319.2)]. In 2019, the global point prevalence of anemia was highest in the 15-19 and 95+ age groups in females and males, respectively. Also, the burden of anemia was lower in regions with higher socio-economic development. Globally, most of the prevalent cases were attributable to dietary iron deficiency, as well as hemoglobinopathies and hemolytic anemias.

Conclusions: Anemia remains a major health problem, especially among females in less developed countries. The implementation of preventive programs with a focus on improving access to iron supplements, early diagnosis and the treatment of hemoglobinopathies should be taken into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01202-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8567696PMC
November 2021

Prevalence, Deaths, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years Due to Asthma and Its Attributable Risk Factors in 204 Countries and Territories, 1990-2019.

Chest 2022 02 23;161(2):318-329. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Understanding global trends in the point prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for asthma will facilitate evidence-based decision-making.

Research Question: What are the global, regional, and national burdens of asthma in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019 by age, sex, and sociodemographic index (SDI)?

Study Design And Methods: Publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease study from 1990 through 2019 were used. All estimates were presented as counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000, along with their associated uncertainty intervals.

Results: In 2019, the global age-standardized point prevalence and death rates for asthma were 3,415.5 and 5.8 per 100,000, which represent a 24% and 51.3% decrease since 1990, respectively. Moreover, in 2019, the global age-standardized DALY rate was 273.6 and the global point prevalence of asthma was highest in the group 5 to 9 years of age. Also in 2019, the United States (10,399.3) showed the highest age-standardized point prevalence rate of asthma. Generally, the burden of asthma decreased with increasing SDI. Globally, high BMI (16.9%), smoking (9.9%), and occupational asthmagens (8.8%) contributed to the 2019 asthma DALYs.

Interpretation: Asthma remains an important public health issue, particularly in regions with low socioeconomic development. Future research is needed to examine thoroughly the associations asthma has with its risk factors and the factors impeding optimal self-management. Further research also is needed to understand and implement better the interventions that have reduced the burden of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.042DOI Listing
February 2022

ABO blood groups and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rev Med Virol 2022 May 30;32(3):e2298. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The last few decades have seen a pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. ABO blood groups are anthropological and genetic characteristics of a population whose associations with HIV infection are still controversial. This systematic review with meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate whether certain blood groups may have associations with HIV infection. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were systematically searched as of 6 September 2021. Grey literature was identified through screening Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant studies. All observational studies providing data on ABO blood group distribution among HIV-infected and uninfected participants were included. Using a random effect model, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to quantify this relationship. Fifty eligible studies with a total of 3,068,244 participants and 6508 HIV-infected cases were included. The overall analysis found that blood group AB increased the risk of HIV infection by 19% as compared with non-AB blood groups (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.39, p = 0.02). Pooled estimates for other blood groups failed to reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses identified a positive relationship between AB blood group and HIV infection within Asia, patient populations (as opposed to blood donors and general populations), studies with lower sample sizes, high-income countries and studies with a moderate quality score. The sequential omission and re-analysis of studies within sensitivity analyses produced no change in the overall pooled effect. In conclusion, this study identified that blood group AB carriers were more susceptible to HIV infection. Future investigations should be directed toward clarification of the exact role of ABO blood groups in HIV infection and the possible underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2298DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of on Metabolic Profiles in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2022 ;22(3):550-563

Research Center for Integrative Medicine in Aging, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) consumption on metabolic profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the findings are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials were performed to summarize the evidence of the effects of UD consumption on metabolic profiles in patients with T2DM.

Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved from searches of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases until December 2019. Cochran (Q) and I-square statistics were used to examine heterogeneity across included clinical trials. Data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model and expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: Among 1485 citations, thirteen clinical trials were found to be eligible for the current metaanalysis. UD consumption significantly decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (WMD = - 17.17 mg/dl, 95% CI: -26.60, -7.73, I2 = 93.2%), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (WMD = -0.93, 95% CI: - 1.66, -0.17, I2 = 75.0%), C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD = -1.09 mg/dl, 95% CI: -1.64, -0.53, I2 = 0.0%), triglycerides (WMD = -26.94 mg/dl, 95 % CI = [-52.07, -1.82], P = 0.03, I2 = 90.0%), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD = -5.03 mmHg, 95% CI = -8.15, -1.91, I2 = 0.0%) in comparison to the control groups. UD consumption did not significantly change serum levels of insulin (WMD = 1.07 μU/ml, 95% CI: -1.59, 3.73, I2 = 63.5%), total-cholesterol (WMD = -6.39 mg/dl, 95% CI: -13.84, 1.05, I2 = 0.0%), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (WMD = -1.30 mg/dl, 95% CI: -9.95, 7.35, I2 = 66.1%), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (WMD = 6.95 mg/dl, 95% CI: -0.14, 14.03, I2 = 95.4%), body max index (BMI) (WMD = -0.16 kg/m2, 95% CI: -1.77, 1.44, I2 = 0.0%), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD = -1.35 mmHg, 95% CI: -2.86, 0.17, I2= 0.0%) among patients with T2DM.

Conclusion: UD consumption may result in an improvement in levels of FBS, HbA1c, CRP, triglycerides, and SBP, but did not affect levels of insulin, total-, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol, BMI, and DBP in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557521666210929143112DOI Listing
April 2022

COVID-19 pandemic and methanol poisoning outbreak in Iranian children and adolescents: A data linkage study.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 09 6;45(9):1853-1863. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: During the first wave of COVID-19, many Iranians were poisoned by ingesting hand sanitizers and/or alcoholic beverages to avoid viral infection. To assess whether the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increased prevalence of accidental hand sanitizer/alcoholic beverage exposure in children and adolescents, we compared pediatric hospitalization rates during COVID-19 and the previous year. For poisoning admissions during COVID-19, we also evaluated the cause by age and clinical outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective data linkage study evaluated data from the Legal Medicine Organization (reporting mortalities) and hospitalization data from nine toxicology referral centers for alcohol-poisoned patients (age 0 to 18 years) for the study period (February 23 to June 22, 2020) and the pre-COVID-19 reference period (same dates in 2019).

Results: Hospitalization rates due to ethanol and methanol exposure were significantly higher in 2020 (n = 375) than 2019 (n = 202; OR [95% CI] 1.9 [1.6, 2.2], p < 0.001). During COVID-19, in patients ≤15 years, the odds of intoxication from hand sanitizers were significantly higher than from alcoholic beverages, while in 15- to 18-year-olds, alcoholic beverage exposure was 6.7 times more common (95% CI 2.8, 16.1, p < 0.001). Of 375 children/adolescents hospitalized for alcoholic beverage and hand sanitizer exposure in 2020, six did not survive. The odds of fatal outcome were seven times higher in 15- to 18-year-olds (OR (95% CI) 7.0 (2.4, 20.1); p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The Iranian methanol poisoning outbreak during the first wave of COVID-19 was associated with significantly increased hospitalization rates among children and adolescents-including at least six pediatric in-hospital deaths from poisoning. Public awareness needs to be raised of the risks associated with ingesting alcoholic hand sanitizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8653331PMC
September 2021

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Safety Practices About COVID-19 Among High School Students in Iran During the First Wave of the Pandemic.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:680514. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

School closures have inevitably deprived students of their traditional source of information. The objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices about COVID-19 among high school students in Iran. This study was conducted from March 24th-April 3rd, 2020. Data were collected via an online-parent-administrative questionnaire. Responses of 704 students were analyzed. Students' mean (SD) knowledge score was 21.5 (4.6) of 30. More than 90% of students knew about the cause of the disease, the routes of transmission, and the most renowned symptoms: dyspnea and cough. Social-and- audiovisual-media were the leading information source. Most students believed that people need to keep safe physical distancing, everyone should isolate themselves upon symptoms onset, people should avoid unnecessary in-person contact with family and friends, and that cities need to go under lockdowns if needed. Students' mean (SD) practice score was 20.2 (2.5) of 24. Most students did not go on a trip, and more than 80% said they would wear facemasks when going outside. High school students' knowledge and safety practices about COVID-19 were somewhat satisfactory, and their attitudes toward the disease were mainly positive. Nevertheless, some witnessed knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, and unsafe practices in the study highlighted the need for targeted education on the pandemic. Social and mass media's significant role and potential could be utilized to battle misinformation and deliver proper knowledge to young adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.680514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371395PMC
August 2021

How SARS-CoV-2 might affect potassium balance via impairing epithelial sodium channels?

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 15;48(9):6655-6661. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Electrolyte disorders particularly potassium abnormalities have been repeatedly reported as common clinical manifestations of COVID-19. Here, we discuss how SARS-CoV-2 may affect potassium balance by impairing the activity of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). The first hypothesis could justify the incidence of hypokalemia. SARS-CoV-2 cell entry through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may enhance the activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) classical axis and further leading to over production of aldosterone. Aldosterone is capable of enhancing the activity of ENaC and resulting in potassium loss from epithelial cells. However, type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) is able to inhibit the ENaC, but it is utilized in the case of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry, therefore the ENaC remains activated. The second hypothesis describe the incidence of hyperkalemia based on the key role of furin. Furin is necessary for cleaving both SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ENaC subunits. While the furin is hijacked by the virus, the decreased activity of ENaC would be expected, which causes retention of potassium ions and hyperkalemia. Given that the occurrence of hypokalemia is higher than hyperkalemia in COVID-19 patients, the first hypothesis may have greater impact on potassium levels. Further investigations are warranted to determine the exact role of ENaC in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06642-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8364628PMC
September 2021

National and Subnational Cancer Incidence for 22 Cancer Groups, 2000 to 2016: A Study Based on Cancer Registration Data of Iran.

J Cancer Epidemiol 2021 12;2021:6676666. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Cancer is an increasing public health concern, and detailed knowledge of the cancer incidence is required for developing effective cancer control plans. The objective of this study is to present the cancer incidence of 22 cancer groups in Iran and all 31 provinces of the country from 2000 to 2016, for both sexes across different age groups.

Method: To study the national and provincial cancer incidence in Iran, we extracted data from the Cancer Project, which collects the Iranian cancer registry data and visualizes it in the VIZIT data visualization system. The methodology and statistical analysis that is used in this study follow the cancer project study protocol. Joinpoint analysis was performed to calculate the average annual percent change of the crude rates and age-standardized rates from 2000 to 2016.

Results: Cancer incidence was 126,982 patients in 2016, and the crude rate (CR) of cancer in both sexes and all ages was 155 per 100,000 people. Cancer incidence approximately doubled between 2000 and 2016; however, the age-standardized rate (ASR) had a less drastic increase. The most incident cancers in 2016 were breast, skin, and colorectal cancers; however, the ranking of cancer groups by incidence was different in different age and sex groups and provinces. Some cancers exhibited a unique distribution pattern in the country with high-incidence local areas. . The study showed that cancer incidence, crude rate, and age-standardized rate (ASR) in Iran had increased in 2000-2016 with vast heterogeneity by cancer type, province, and sex. Moreover, it was shown that the crude rate of cancer in Iran was much less than the global cancer crude rate. Providing such data helps to allocate resources and develop effective national cancer control plans appropriately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6676666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292090PMC
July 2021

Effect of maternal education and encouragement on newborn care utilization: a health system intervention.

BMC Pediatr 2021 07 21;21(1):321. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Koodakyar Ave., Daneshju Blvd., Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The objective of this health system interventional study was to determine the effect of delivering newborn-care-oriented education and encouragement on newborn care utilization.

Methods: This study was performed in the urban health centers of the catchment area of Tehran Defined Population, which covered 10 of the 22 municipality districts of Tehran. The two catchment areas included 10,000 families in the intervention and 20,000 families in the control areas. As many as 4837 newborns (intervention = 1544, control = 3293) were enrolled and followed until the end of the second month of life. The utilization of the three newborn care visits, as recommended by national guidelines, was compared among the intervention and control groups.

Results: As many as 877 (56.8%) newborns in the intervention group and 1214 (36.9%) in the control group received all their three newborn care visits. The mean number of newborn care visits was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group: 2.26 (0.99) versus 1.84 (1.07), p < 0.001. The number of newborns who did not attend any of their three newborn care visits was 143 (9.3%) in the intervention group and 468 (14.2%) in the control group.

Conclusions: The intervention improved newborn care utilization during the first 2 months after birth. It could be suggested that active follow-up be added to newborn care guidelines. Parents need to be informed of the necessity and benefits of newborn care and be encouraged to perform all three newborn care visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02773-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293544PMC
July 2021

Environmental assessment of pediatric Lead exposure in Tehran; a prospective cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 07 21;21(1):1437. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Ingestion and inhalation are common routes of exposure for lead in humans. Developing countries still have unacceptably high rates of lead toxicity, especially in children. Studies on probable risk factors of lead poisoning in Iranian children are insufficient. In this study, we aimed to evaluate possible environmental factors in children with high blood lead concentrations living in Tehran and neighboring cities.

Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study between March 2018 and March 2019 we followed all children referred from two pediatric gastrointestinal clinics with blood lead level (BLL) > 5 μg/dL in metropolitan Tehran to investigate possible environmental risk factors in their home. Household specimens including scratched wall paint, house floor dust, windowsill dust, tap water, and consumed spice were evaluated using atomic absorption method to detect lead concentrations. Epidemiological and environmental data collected through in-depth interviews with parents/guardians. Industrial areas were defined based on municipality maps on industrial places.

Results: Thirty of 56 parents/guardians with BLL > 5 μg/dL agreed to be followed through environmental investigation. The only categorical statistically significant risk factor was a history of lead poisoning in the family and living in an industrial zone. There was a positive correlation between BLL and interior windowsills dust lead level, r = 0.46, p = 0.01. Scratched paint lead level and BLL showed a significant positive correlation, r = 0.50, p = 0.005. House floor dust lead level (median = 77.4, p < 0.001) and interior windowsill dust lead level (median = 291, p = 0.011) were both significantly higher than the environmental protection agency (EPA) standards of 40 μg/ft, 250 μg/ft. Interior windowsill dust lead concentrations were significantly higher in industrial areas (p = 0.026).

Conclusion: Children's playing environment should be cleaned more often to reduce dust. Moreover, specific rules may need to be implemented for paint lead concentrations and air pollution, especially in industrial areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11494-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296531PMC
July 2021

Potency of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 variants of concern: A systematic review of in vitro studies.

Rev Med Virol 2022 03 19;32(2):e2277. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are two types of mRNA-based vaccine platforms that have received emergency use authorization. The emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) variants has raised concerns of reduced sensitivity to neutralization by their elicited antibodies. We aimed to systematically review the most recent in vitro studies evaluating the effectiveness of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 induced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to bioRxiv and medRxiv with terms including 'SARS-CoV-2', 'BNT162b2', 'mRNA-1273', and 'neutralizing antibody' up to June 29, 2021. A modified version of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist was used for assessing included study quality. A total 36 in vitro studies meeting the eligibility criteria were included in this systematic review. B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) are four SARS-CoV-2 variants that have recently been identified as variants of concern. Included studies implemented different methods regarding pseudovirus or live virus neutralization assays for measuring neutralization titres against utilized viruses. After two dose vaccination by BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, the B.1.351 variant had the least sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies, while B.1.1.7 variant had the most sensitivity; that is, it was better neutralized relative to the comparator strain. P.1 and B.1.617.2 variants had an intermediate level of impaired naturalization activity of antibodies elicited by prior vaccination. Our review suggests that immune sera derived from vaccinated individuals might show reduced protection of individuals immunized with mRNA vaccines against more recent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420542PMC
March 2022

Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Iranian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study Using Data from the 2016 STEPS Survey.

Obes Facts 2021 8;14(3):298-305. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: This paper outlines the prevalence, disparities, and social determinants of preobesity and obesity in Iranian adults.

Methods: Data on 28,321 adults who participated in the 2016 National Survey of the Risk Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases (STEPS) survey were analyzed. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated from physically measured height and weight. To assess the association between sociodemographic factors and the prevalence of preobesity and obesity, a χ2 test and a logistic regression model were used. Socioeconomic inequality was quantified by a concentration index. Disparities in provincial mean BMI and concentration indices were shown on the map of Iran using geographic information system analysis.

Results: Overall, 60.3% of the participants were affected by preobesity or obesity. The preobesity prevalence was 39% in men and 35.2% in women. The obesity prevalence was 15.6% in men and 30.4% in women. The mean BMI for the country was 26.5. Higher ranges were observed across the northwestern and central territories. Female individuals in the age group 48-57 years who were married and lived in urban settings had an increased risk of being preobese or obese. The concentration index revealed a prorich inequality, with a greater magnitude among women.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that policies aimed at reducing preobesity and obesity should remain a public health priority in Iran. However, a greater emphasis should be placed on the northwestern and central territories and on higher socioeconomic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255641PMC
November 2021
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