Publications by authors named "Ali Rostami"

120 Publications

MicroRNA-365 promotes apoptosis in human melanoma cell A375 treated with hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

Microb Pathog 2021 Feb 17;153:104804. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Hydatid cyst fluid (HCF)-based therapeutics has experimentally targeted approaches for treating human cancer cell lines. MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) has been reported to be an important tumor suppressor miRNA in cancers. However, it remains unknown, how miR-365 plays a pivotal role in inducing apoptosis in HCF-treated cancer cells in vitro. The fertile/infertile HCF was aspirated from liver of infected sheep and in terms of molecular taxonomy was identified as G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. A375 human melanoma cancer cells were cultured into two groups: fertile and infertile HCF-treated A375 cells. To assess the cytotoxicity of various concentrations of HCF on melanoma cells, cell viability was determined by using MTT assay. The IC50 value of HCF on A375 cells was determined 85 μg/mL. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity was evaluated by fluorometric assay in the HCF-treated melanoma cells. In addition, the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-9 and miR-365 were determined by qRT-PCR. Findings of MTT assay showed that concentrations 85 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL of fertile HCF have the highest mortality (50%-52%) on A375 cells during 24 h. The fold change of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-9, miR-365 and Caspase-3 activity was higher in the fertile HCF-treated melanoma cells compared to infertile fluid treated A375 cells and human normal epithelial cell (as control cell). In conclusion, we over-expressed the miR-365 in melanoma A375 cells, via treatment of fertile HCF. Our findings suggested that inducing high expression of miR-365 might be a negative regulator of melanoma growth through activation of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 that are essential to intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These findings provide new insights into the use of Echinococcus HCF-derived metabolites in the design of drug therapies and in vivo tumor cell vaccine to combat melanoma progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104804DOI Listing
February 2021

The association between seropositivity to human toxocariasis and childhood asthma in northern Iran: a case-control study.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021 2;49(1):25-31. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran;

Background: Besides the well-known risk factors, Toxocara infection is thought to play a significant etiological role in the development of childhood asthma. To further explore this association, the prevalence of Toxocara infection in sera of asthmatic children and healthy controls in northern Iran was investigated.

Methods: In this case-control study, cases were 145 physician-confirmed asthmatic children diagnosed according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Controls were 115 age-sex-residence-matched children who did not have physician-diagnosed asthma. The presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) was tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used for case-control comparisons.

Results: Seropositivity rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 3.4-4.7%) in asthmatic children and 0.86% (95% CI, 0.71-1.0%) in controls, suggesting a strong association (P-value < 0.02). Moreover, Toxocara infection was not significantly more prevalent (P-value = 0.12) in children with moderate sustainable asthma (9.3%, 3/32) than in children with mild sustainable asthma (2.3%, 3/113). Mean total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level was significantly higher in Toxocara-infected children (222.3 ± 367.1) than in non-infected children (143.19 ± 218.05) in the case group (P-value < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that Toxocara infection can play an important role in childhood asthma. Further experimental and epidemiological studies are needed to clarify this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15586/aei.v49i1.15DOI Listing
January 2021

High-speed and high-precision PbSe/PbI solution process mid-infrared camera.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1533. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, 5166614761, Tabriz, Iran.

Infrared (IR) cameras based on semiconductors grown by epitaxial methods face two main challenges, which are cost and operating at room temperature. The alternative new technologies which can tackle these two difficulties develop new and facile material and methods. Moreover, the implementation of high speed camera, which makes high resolution images with normal methods, is very expensive. In this paper, a new nanostructure based on a cost-effective solution processed technology for the implementation of the high-speed mid-infrared light camera at room temperature is proposed. To this end, the chemically synthesized PbSe-PbI core-shell Quantum Dots (QDs) are used. In this work, a camera including 10 × 10 pixels is fabricated and synthesized QDs spin-coated on interdigitated contact (IDC) and then the fabricated system passivated by epoxy resin. Finally, using an electronic reading circuit, all pixels are converted to an image on the monitor. To model the fabricated camera, we solved Schrodinger-Poisson equations self consistently. Then output current from each pixel is modeled based on semiconductor physics and dark and photocurrent, as well as Responsivity and Detectivity, are calculated. Then the fabricated device is examined, and dark and photocurrents are measured and compared to the theoretical results. The obtained results indicate that the obtained theoretical and measured experimental results are in good agreement together. The fabricated detector is high speed with a rise time of 100 ns. With this speed, we can get 10 million frames per second; this means we can get very high-resolution images. The speed of operation is examined experimentally using a chopper that modulates input light with 50, 100, 250, and 500 Hz. It is shown that the fabricated device operates well in these situations, and it is not limited by the speed of detector. Finally, for the demonstration of the proposed device operation, some pictures and movies taken by the camera are attached and inserted in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80847-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810890PMC
January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Mar 24;27(3):331-340. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: COVID-19 has been arguably the most important public health concern worldwide in 2020, and efforts are now escalating to suppress or eliminate its spread. In this study we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the global and regional seroprevalence rates in humans of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and to assess whether seroprevalence is associated with geographical, climatic and/or sociodemographic factors.

Methods: We systematically reviewed PubMed, Scopus, Embase, medRxiv and bioRxiv databases for preprints or peer-reviewed articles (up to 14 August 2020). Study eligibility criteria were population-based studies describing the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 (IgG and/or IgM) serum antibodies. Participants were people from different socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds (from the general population), whose prior COVID-19 status was unknown and who were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. We used a random-effects model to estimate pooled seroprevalence, and then extrapolated the findings to the global population (for 2020). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses explored potential sources of heterogeneity in the data, and relationships between seroprevalence and sociodemographic, geographical and/or climatic factors.

Results: In total, 47 studies involving 399 265 people from 23 countries met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity (I = 99.4%, p < 0.001) was seen among studies; SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the general population varied from 0.37% to 22.1%, with a pooled estimate of 3.38% (95%CI 3.05-3.72%; 15 879/399 265). On a regional level, seroprevalence varied from 1.45% (0.95-1.94%, South America) to 5.27% (3.97-6.57%, Northern Europe), although some variation appeared to relate to the serological assay used. The findings suggested an association of seroprevalence with income levels, human development indices, geographic latitudes and/or climate. Extrapolating to the 2020 world population, we estimated that 263.5 million individuals had been exposed or infected at the time of this study.

Conclusions: This study showed that SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence varied markedly among geographic regions, as might be expected early in a pandemic. Longitudinal surveys to continually monitor seroprevalence around the globe will be critical to support prevention and control efforts, and might indicate levels of endemic stability or instability in particular countries and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584920PMC
March 2021

p-Phenylenediaminium iodide capping agent enabled self-healing perovskite solar cell.

Sci Rep 2020 Nov 17;10(1):20011. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Tabriz, 5166616471, Tabriz, Iran.

In this study, p-Phenylenediaminium iodide (PDAI) is used to in-situ growth of 2D (PDA)PbI perovskite layer between (FAPbI)(MAPbBr) 3D perovskite and CuSCN as a cheap hole transport layer. The results indicate that the incorporation of 5 mg mL PDAI leads to enlarged grain sizes, compact grain boundaries, reduced trap density, efficient charge extraction, and enhanced stability of perovskite film. Passivation of perovskite film with the appropriate amount of PDAI helps in achieving efficient perovskite solar cell with a PCE as high as 16.10%, a J of 21.45 mA cm, a V of 1.09 V, and FF of 70.21%, with negligible hysteresis and excellent moisture stability which remains 99.01% of its initial PCE value after 5 h in high relative humidity of 90 ± 5% and shows unchanged PCE after 1440 h in low relative humidity of 15 ± 5%. Most strikingly, this ultra-thin 2D passivation layer by the use of PDA cations as a bulky spacer not only passivates the defects on the surface of perovskite film but also induces self-healing properties in PSCs which can be rapidly recovered after keeping away from water vapor exposure. This study introduces the cheap and extra stable perovskite solar cells with outstanding self-healing ability towards commercialization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76365-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672076PMC
November 2020

"Begging the Question"-Does Infection/Exposure Associate with Multiple Sclerosis-Risk?

Pathogens 2020 Nov 11;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010, VIC, Australia.

Although the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unclear, infectious agents, including some parasitic roundworms (nematodes), have been proposed as possible risk factors or contributors. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published observational studies to evaluate whether there is a possible association between infection with, or exposure to, one or more members of the genus (phylum Nematoda; superfamily Ascaridoidea) and MS. We undertook a search of public literature databases to identify relevant studies and then used a random-effects meta-analysis model to generate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This search identified six of a total of 1371 articles that were relevant to the topic; these published studies involved totals of 473 MS patients and 647 control subjects. Anti- IgG serum antibodies were detected in 62 MS patients and 37 controls, resulting in respective seroprevalences of 13.1% (95% CI: 8.2-20.3) and 4.8% (95% CI: 2.5-9.2), indicating an association (pooled OR, 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.21). Because of the publication bias identified (six eligible studies), well-designed and -controlled studies are required in the future to rigorously test the hypothesis that infection/exposure has an association with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696196PMC
November 2020

The association between the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities with intestinal Entamoeba spp infection risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(11):e0237102. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Intestinal protozoa infections are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, especially where the exposed population suffers from a lack of drinking water and sanitation facilities. In this study, the association between the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation (toilet) facilities with intestinal Entamoeba spp infection in the children (5-11 years), adult (18-55 years), and all age (5-55 years) were assessed. For this purpose, some of the international databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were screened to up to 7 June 2019 in order to retrieve the related citations. Also, the pooled odds ratios (ORs) following 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-nine articles with 36 studies were included while the OR extracted or calculated by using 2 × 2 contingency tables. However, the ingestion of contaminated water insignificantly can increase the odds ratio (OR) of Entamoeba spp infection (OR 1.01, (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58 to 1.43), no access to sanitation (toilet) facilities significantly can increase odds of Entamoeba spp infection (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.32). The meta-regression analysis showed that over time, odds of intestinal Entamoeba spp infection increased in both lack of safe drinking water (Coefficient: 3.24, P-value < 0.01) and sanitation (toilet) facilities (Coefficient: 2.36, P-value < 0.05) subgroups. Considering the findings, lack of safe drinking water resulted in a further increase in intestinal Entamoeba spp infection among adult (OR: 2.76), children (OR = 0.57) and all age groups (OR: 1.50), and also lack of sanitation (toilet) facilities resulted in further increase intestinal Entamoeba spp infection in children (OR: 1.06), adult (OR: 1.26) and all age (OR: 1.16). In this context, the lack of safe drinking water and sanitation facilities (toilet) was associated with a high risk of intestinal Entamoeba spp infection. Further attempts to providing public health facilities can control the prevalence of intestinal Entamoeba spp.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237102PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641376PMC
December 2020

The prevalence of latent and acute toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected pregnant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 30;149:104549. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: HIV in pregnancy is not only important for mother-to-child HIV transmission, but also it assumes additional importance because HIV increases susceptibility to opportunistic infections, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in mothers and neonates. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important opportunistic infections in HIV-infected pregnant women. The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) and acute toxoplasmosis (AT) infection in HIV-infected pregnant women.

Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and SciELO were searched to identify relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to estimate the overall and subgroup-pooled prevalences across studies. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed via the I test.

Results: A total of 14 articles that included 3256 subjects in nine countries met the inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence rates of LT and AT in HIV-infected pregnant women were 45.7% (95% CI, 32.3-59.7%) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.4-3.2%), respectively. The findings indicate that, worldwide, approximately 559,000 and 13,450 HIV-infected pregnant women are affected by LT and AT, respectively. From this review, it is estimated that approximately 3432 babies annually could be born with congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) from HIV-infected pregnant mothers.

Conclusions: The present study indicates that a large number of HIV-infected mothers are affected by LT and AT. This can lead to adverse complications such toxoplasmic encephalitis in mothers and CT in neonates. Our results suggest a need for screening programs using well-validated diagnostic platforms for both LT and AT for all HIV-infected pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104549DOI Listing
December 2020

Exposure to spp. and infections and risk of allergic rhinitis in children.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2020 30;16:69. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Substantial experimental studies suggest a role for helminthes infections in the pathogenesis of allergies, but epidemiologic data have been inconsistent. Unlike to asthma, the association between helminthes infection and allergic rhinitis (AR) has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the association between exposure to and infections and AR.

Methods: We did an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 81 children with physician-confirmed AR and 101 control subjects in a referral hospital for pediatric diseases in northern Iran. Exposure to and infections was evaluated by anti-- and anti-- IgG antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations were determined using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: seropositivity was higher in children with rhinitis than in controls (12.34 vs. 3.96%). seropositivity was positively associated with AR in univariate analysis (OR, 3.42; 95% CI 1.03-11.3; P value = 0.035), but this association was not significant after adjustment for potential confounders (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 0.42-8.18). Also seropositivity was higher in children with AR than in healthy subjects (3.7% vs. 0.99), indicating non-significant association with AR in both univariate (OR, 3.84; 95% CI 0.39-37.7) and multivariate analyses (OR, 0.8; 95% CI 0.04-15.44).

Conclusion: Our results revealed that AR is not associated with seropositivity to and infections in general; however, a higher seropositivity rate was found for both parasites in children with AR. More studies with longitudinal design and larger sample size are needed to elucidate this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-020-00468-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477835PMC
July 2020

An Aminopyridinium Ionic Liquid: A Simple and Effective Bifunctional Organocatalyst for Carbonate Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide and Epoxides.

Chempluschem 2020 07;85(7):1587-1595

Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center (NMSRC), University of Nizwa, 616, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman.

An aminopyridinium ionic liquid is presented as a green, tunable, and active metal-free one-component catalytic system for the atom-efficient transformation of oxiranes and CO to cyclic carbonates. Inclusion of a positively charged moiety into aminopyridines, through a simple single-step synthesis, provides a one-component ionic liquid catalytic system with superior activity; effective in ring opening of epoxide, CO inclusion, and stabilization of oxoanionic intermediates. An efficiency assessment of a variety of positively charged aminopyridines was pursued, and the impact of temperature, catalyst loading, and the kind of nucleophile on the catalytic performance was also investigated. Under solvent-free conditions, this bifunctional organocatalytic system was used for the preparation of 18 examples of cyclic carbonates from a broad range of alkyl- and aryl-substituted oxiranes and CO , where up to 98 % yield and high selectivity were achieved. DFT calculations validated a mechanism in which nucleophilic ring-opening and CO inclusion occur simultaneously towards cyclic carbonate formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202000367DOI Listing
July 2020

An investigation into seasonal variations of groundwater nitrate by spatial modelling strategies at two levels by kriging and co-kriging models.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 30;270:110843. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

The Centre for Advanced Modelling and Geospatial Information Systems (CAMGIS), Faculty of Engineering and IT, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia; Department of Energy and Mineral Resources Engineering, Choongmu-gwan, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05006, Republic of Korea.

Nitrate pollution of groundwater through spatial models is investigated in this paper by using a sample of nitrate values at monitoring wells using the data from four seasons of a year, in which data are sparse. Two spatial modelling strategies are formulated at two levels, in which Strategy 1 comprises: three variations of kriging-based models (ordinary kriging, simple kriging and universal kriging), which are constructed at Level 1 to predict nitrate concentrations; and a Multiple Co-Kriging (MCoK) model is used at Level 2 to enhance the accuracy of the predictions. Strategy 2 is also at two levels but employs Indicator Kriging (IK) at Level 1 as a probabilistic spatial model to predict areas at risk of exceeding two thresholds of 37.5 mg/L and 50 mg/L of nitrate concentration, and Multiple Co-Indicator Kriging (MCoIK) at Level 2 for a better accuracy. The improvements at Level 2 for both strategies are remarkable and hence they are used to gain an insight into inherent problems. The results of a study delineate areas with excessive nitrate concentrations, which are in the vicinity of urban areas and hence reflect poor planning practices since the 1990s. The results further reveal the patterns on sensitivities to seasonal variations driven by aquifer recharge and strong dilution processes in spring times; and on the role of pumpage impacting aquifers giving rise to possible hotspots of nitrate concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110843DOI Listing
September 2020

Global Prevalence Estimates of Infection in Dogs and Cats.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 23;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

is an ascaridoid nematode of dogs and cats; this parasite affects the health of these animals. This study estimated the global prevalence of infection in dogs and cats using random effects meta-analysis as well as subgroup, meta-regression and heterogeneity analyses. The data were stratified according to geographical region, the type of dogs and cats and environmental variables. A quantitative analysis of 135 published studies, involving 119,317 dogs and 25,364 cats, estimated prevalence rates of in dogs and cats at 2.9% and 3.4%, respectively. Prevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (7.2% for dogs and 10.0% for cats) and was significantly higher in stray dogs (7.0% vs. 1.5%) and stray cats (7.5% vs. 1.8%) than in pets. The findings indicate that, worldwide, ~26 million dogs and ~23 million cats are infected with ; these animals would shed substantial numbers of eggs into the environment each year and might represent reservoirs of infection to other accidental or paratenic hosts. It is important that populations of dogs and cats as well as other canids and felids be monitored and dewormed for and (other) zoonotic helminths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350385PMC
June 2020

Ultra High-efficiency Integrated Mid Infrared to Visible Up-conversion System.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 9;10(1):9325. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Quantum Photonics Research Lab (QPRL), University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614761, Iran.

In this paper, we have introduced and investigated an integrated optoelectronic chip for the up-conversion of mid-infrared to visible light. A thin layer of the nanocrystalline photoconductive PbSe is put on the Base of the NPN bipolar junction transistor and a doped phosphorescence organic light-emitting diode is placed on the Collector contacts. The incoming mid-infrared light is converted into an electric current by quantum dot photodetector, then amplified by the NPN bipolar junction transistor, and finally, the amplified current is driven through the Collector in the organic light-emitting diode. The organic light-emitting diode is designed to emit a green color. Our findings indicated that the proposed devices provide an up-conversion process from mid-infrared to visible light with a high-efficiency rate. The quantum dot photodetector is designed to detect 3 μm and also the organic light-emitting diode works at 523 nm. It is easy to tune the 3 ~ 5 μm incoming light by tuning the PbSe quantum dots, and the output light is tuned by tuning the organic light-emitting diode structure. Thus, the proposed structure is highly flexible regarding receiving mid-infrared and generating visible light. It is concluded that the external quantum efficiency for the proposed structure for 3 μm to 523 nm is 600. Also, the enhancement of the transistor current gain (β) can further increase the conversion efficiency of the proposed device. Moreover, different structures such as Darlington can be used instead of the bipolar junction transistor to enhance conversion efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66392-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283262PMC
June 2020

Clinical and laboratory findings from patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Babol North of Iran: a retrospective cohort study.

Rom J Intern Med 2020 Sep;58(3):161-167

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R. Iran.

Background: In December 2019, China has experienced an outbreak of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Coronavirus has now spread to all of the continents. We aimed to consider clinical characteristics, laboratory data of COVID-19 that provided more information for the research of this novel virus.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study on the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of a series of the 100 confirmed patients with COVID-19. These patients were admitted to the hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences (Ayatollah Rohani, Shahid Beheshti and Yahyanejad hospitals) form 25 February 2020 to 12 March 2020.

Results: Nineteen patients died during hospitalization and 81 were discharged. Non-survivor patients had a significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (MD: 46.37, 95% CI: 20.84, 71.90; P = 0.001), white blood cells (WBCs) (MD: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.67; P < 0.001) and lower lymphocyte (MD: -8.75, 95% CI: -12.62, -4.87; P < 0.001) compared to survivor patients Data analysis showed that comorbid conditions (aRR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.09, 8.21, P = 0.034), higher CRP levels (aRR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03, P = 0.044), and lower lymphocyte (aRR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.93, P = 0.003) were associated with increased risk of death.

Conclusions: Based on our findings, most non-survivors are elderly with comorbidities. Lymphopenia and increased levels of WBCs along with elevated CRP were associated with increased risk of death. Therefore, it is best to be regularly assessed these markers during treatment of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/rjim-2020-0013DOI Listing
September 2020

Global prevalence of Toxocara infection in cats.

Adv Parasitol 2020 25;109:615-639. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Zoonotic parasites, including Toxocara species, of pet and stray cats are of public health importance. Justification for, and the design and implementation of prevention and control of human toxocariasis may benefit from an understanding of the zoonotic potential and prevalence of parasites in this definitive host species. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxocara infection(s) in cats by geographical location, type (rural vs urban and stray vs pet), gender and age. Pooled data were assessed using a random effects-model as well as several meta-regression and stratified analyses conducted. Of 1733 peer-reviewed articles, 143 were included in this review and represented 2,158,069 cats from 51 countries. The global pooled (95% CI) prevalence of Toxocara infection in cats was 17.0% (16.1-17.8%), being highest in African (43.3%, 28.3-58.4%) and lowest in South American (12.6%, 8.2-17.0%) countries. In other WHO regions, prevalence rates of Toxocara were as follows: Eastern Mediterranean (21.6%, 15.1-28.1%), North America (18.3%, 15.4-21.2%), Europe (17.8%, 15.9-19.7%), Western Pacific (17.3%, 14.7-19.9%), and South-East Asia (14.9%, 9.8-20.1%). Prevalence of Toxocara was higher in low-income tropical countries and also in stray (28.6%, 25.1-32.1%) and young (≤12 months of age) (27.7%, 23.4-32.0%) cats than in pet (11.6%, 10.7-12.5%) and older cats (>12 months of age) (23.8%, 14.8-32.7%). This review indicates that ~118-150 million cats worldwide serve as definitive hosts of Toxocara, shedding eggs and thus contributing to the public health risk of human infection. Prevention and control of this zoonosis in cats should receive greater attention by health officials and cat owners, particularly in countries where risk factors and prevalence are highest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.025DOI Listing
April 2020

Global prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs.

Adv Parasitol 2020 26;109:561-583. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Dogs serve as the most important definitive hosts for Toxocara canis-a causative agent of human toxocariasis and one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth worldwide. The present study was undertaken to assess the global prevalence of T. canis infection in dogs. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and SciELO were searched to identify relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to estimate the overall and the subgroup-pooled prevalences across studies, and heterogeneity was assessed via the I test. The data were categorized according to WHO-region, different types of dogs, risk factors and environmental variables. From a total of 4370 peer-reviewed publications, 229 articles that studied 13,010,004 dogs in 60 countries met the final inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs was 11.1% (95% CI, 10.6-11.7%). The estimated prevalence in the different WHO-regions ranged from 6.4% to 19.2%: Eastern Mediterranean (19.2%, 13.7-25.5%), Africa (18.5%, 13.7-23.9%), South-East Asia (11.9%, 6.8-18.2%), North America (11.1%, 10.6-11.7%), South America (10.9%, 7.6-14.6%), Europe (10.8%, 8.9-12.9%) and Western Pacific (6.4%, 3.3-10.2%). Young (<1 year of age), stray, rural and male dogs had a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence of infection than older, pet, urban or female dogs. The prevalence was higher in low income countries and regions at a low geographical latitude, close to the equator, characterized as having tropical climates. From this review, it is estimated that ≥100 million dogs are infected with Toxocara around the world. This highlights the need for an increased focus on implementing affordable, appropriate control programs to reduce the public health threat of toxocariasis as a zoonosis of global importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.017DOI Listing
February 2020

Global and regional seroprevalence estimates for human toxocariasis: A call for action.

Adv Parasitol 2020 25;109:275-290. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease transmitted usually from dogs and/or cats that are infected with Toxocara species, and can be associated with a range of allergic, neurological and/or visual disorders. Recent epidemiological research has estimated that ~1.4 billion people worldwide, particularly in subtropical and tropical regions, are infected with, or exposed to Toxocara species, indicating that human toxocariasis is a neglected tropical disease. Here, we review recent research efforts, consider risk factors, discuss limitations in current seroprevalence estimates, and propose some future research directions towards improved awareness, surveillance, prevention and control of this neglected disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apar.2020.01.011DOI Listing
April 2020

Recent advances on innate immune pathways related to host-parasite cross-talk in cystic and alveolar echinococcosis.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 6;13(1):232. Epub 2020 May 6.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are life-threatening parasitic infections worldwide caused by Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) and E. multilocularis, respectively. Very little is known about the factors affecting innate susceptibility and resistance to infection with Echinococcus spp. Although benzimidazolic drugs against CE and AE have definitively improved the treatment of these cestodes; however, the lack of successful control campaigns, including the EG95 vaccine, at a continental level indicates the importance of generating novel therapies. This review represents an update on the latest developments in the regulatory functions of innate immune pathways such as apoptosis, toll-like receptors (TLRs), and inflammasomes against CE and AE. We suggest that apoptosis can reciprocally play a bi-functional role among the host-Echinococcus metabolite relationships in suppressive and survival mechanisms of CE. Based on the available information, further studies are needed to determine whether the orchestrated in silico strategy for designing inhibitors and interfering RNA against anti-apoptotic proteins and TLRs would be effective to improve new treatments as well as therapeutic vaccines against the E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04103-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204293PMC
May 2020

Comparison of experimentally measured and computational fluid dynamic predicted deposition and deposition uniformity of monodisperse solid particles in the Vitrocell® AMES 48 air-liquid-interface in-vitro exposure system.

Toxicol In Vitro 2020 Sep 21;67:104870. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Altria Client Services, Richmond, VA 23219, United States of America.

Accurately determining the delivered dose is critical to understanding biological response due to cell exposure to chemical constituents in aerosols. Deposition efficiency and uniformity of deposition was measured experimentally using monodisperse solid fluorescent particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of 0.51, 1.1, 2.2 and 3.3 μm in the Vitrocell® AMES 48 air-liquid-interface (ALI) in vitro exposure system. Experimental results were compared with computational fluid dynamic, (CFD; using both Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches) predicted deposition efficiency and uniformity for a single row (N = 6) of petri dishes in the Vitrocell® AMES 48 system. The average experimentally measured deposition efficiency ranged from 0.007% to 0.43% for 0.51-3.3 μm MMAD particles, respectively. There was good agreement between average experimentally measured and the CFD predicted particle deposition efficiency, regardless of approach. Experimentally measured and CFD predicted average uniformity of deposition was greater than 45% of the mean for all particle diameters. During this work a new design was introduced by the manufacturer and evaluated using Lagragian CFD. Lagragian CFD predictions showed better uniformity of deposition, but reduced deposition efficiency with the new design. Deposition efficiency and variability in particle deposition across petri dishes for solid particles should be considered when designing exposure regimens using the Vitrocell® AMES 48 ALI in vitro exposure system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104870DOI Listing
September 2020

Switchable Multi-Color Solution-Processed QD-laser.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 24;10(1):5273. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Photonics and Nanocrystals Research Lab (PNRL), University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614761, Iran.

In this paper, for the first time, the switchable two-color quantum dot laser has been realized considering solution process technology, which has both simultaneous and lonely lasing capability exploiting selective energy contacts. Furthermore, both channels can be modulated independently, which is a significant feature in high-speed data transmission. To this end, utilizing superimposed quantum dots with various radii in the active layer provides the different emission wavelengths. In order to achieve the different sizes of QDs, solution process technology has been used as a cost-effectiveness and fabrication ease method. Moreover, at the introduced structure to accomplish the idea, the quantum wells are used as separate selective energy contacts to control the lasing channels at the desired wavelength. It makes the prominent device have simultaneous lasing at different emission wavelengths or be able to lase just at one wavelength. The performance of the proposed device has been modeled based on developed rate equation by assuming inhomogeneous broadening of energy levels as a consequence of the size distribution of quantum dots and considering tunnel injection of carriers into the quantum dots via selective energy contacts. Based on simulation results, the simultaneous lasing in both or at one of two wavelengths 1.31  μm and 1.55  μm has been realized by the superimposition of two different sizes of InGaAs quantum dots in a single cavity and accomplishment of selective energy contacts. Besides, controlling the quantum dot coverage leads to managing the output power and modulation response at the desired wavelengths. By offering this idea, one more step is actually taken to approach the switchable QD-laser by the simple solution process method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60859-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093539PMC
March 2020

Is Ascaris lumbricoides a risk factor for development of asthma? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 23;142:104099. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

There are numerous epidemiological and experimental evidences to suggest that Ascaris lumbricoides infection is a neglected risk factor for development of asthma. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for better understanding of this relationship. Systematic searching (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar) was done, up to September 30, 2019 to identify the relevant studies. We applied random-effects meta-analysis model to generate the overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed with I and τ statistic. Finally, 19 studies (totally 25 datasets), including 14 datasets with microscopic methods (1830 asthmatic patients (APs) and 3802 healthy controls (HCs)) and 11 datasets with serological methods (1543 APs and 3507 HCs) met the eligibility criteria. Considering to the serological methods, our results demonstrated that the APs had higher seroprevalence rate of A. lumbricoides (48.3% vs. 35.1%) than HCs, showing a significant association (pooled crude OR, 1.53; 95%CI, 1.07-2.18). Moreover, microscopic methods showed a higher prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection in the APs compared to the HCs (37.2% vs. 30.2%), but no significant association was found between APs and HCs (pooled crude OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.92-1.55). After adjustment for confounders, results showed no significant association for both serological (pooled adjusted OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 0.93-2.19) and microscopic (pooled adjusted OR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.78-1.42) methods. Despite heterogeneous results, accurate and better quality studies are needed to determine the effect of A. lumbricoides infection on induction or exacerbation of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104099DOI Listing
February 2020

Global assessment of genetic paradigms of Pvmdr1 mutations in chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax isolates.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 05;114(5):339-345

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Chloroquine (CQ) is generally prescribed as the front-line antimalarial drug of choice to treat Plasmodium vivax infections; however, some clinical CQ-resistant P. vivax isolates have been indigenously reported around the world during the last decade.

Methods: In this study, P. vivax isolates (n=52) were obtained from autochthonous samples in southeast Iran during 2015-2017. The genomic DNA of samples was extracted, amplified (nested PCR) and sequenced by targeting the multidrug-resistance 1 gene. To verify the global genetic diversity of CQ-resistant P. vivax strains, the sequences of Pvmdr1 originating from Asia and the Americas were retrieved.

Results: A total of 46 haplotypes were grouped into three distinct geographical haplogroups. The haplotype diversity and occurrence rates of Pvmdr1 976F/1076L mutations indicate that the efficacy of CQ is being compromised in Mexico, China, Nicaragua, Thailand, Brazil (2016), Ethiopia, Mauritania (2012) and southwest India in the near future. The cladistic phylogenetic tree showed that Pvmdr1 sequences isolated from the southeast Asian clade has a partial sister relationship with the American clade.

Conclusions: The current findings will serve as a basis to develop appropriate malaria control strategies and public health policies in symptomatic imported malaria cases or plausible CQ-resistant P. vivax strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa002DOI Listing
May 2020

A Large Solitary Hemangioblastoma of the Lateral Ventricles: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Iran J Med Sci 2020 Jan;45(1):67-72

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hemangioblastoma (HB) in the supratentorial region of the brain is rare and only a few cases are reported on intraventricular HB. HB of the lateral ventricles is even rarer. We present a case of a 30-year-old man with generalized tonic clonic seizures. The brain computed tomography showed a 5.5 cm heterogeneous mass extending into both lateral ventricles with partial enhancement. Based on the size and imaging features, we present the fourth documented case of a large solitary intraventricular HB. Our approach to this unique case and some treatment complexities are also described. Considering the rarity of the case and the patient's imaging features, the present study provides a better understanding of HB and recommends HB to be considered in the differential diagnosis of masses in the lateral ventricles. In addition, some preventable pitfalls in the treatment of such complex cases are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/ijms.2019.81095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983274PMC
January 2020

Neonatal sepsis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis on national prevalence and causative pathogens.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(1):e0227570. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Neonatal sepsis is accounted for 30-50% of annual neonatal deaths in developing countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis study to evaluate the national prevalence and identification of the etiological pathogens of neonatal sepsis in Iran.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search was done on the national and international databases for studies published between 2000 and 2019. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions regarding the gender, type of sepsis and time during were also performed. Data were extracted, analyzed, and presented according to PRISMA guideline.

Results: Of 944 publications identified, 22 studies containing 14,683 neonates met the eligibility criteria. The pooled national prevalence of sepsis in Iran was 15.98% (95%CI, 11.96-20.46%; 1,367/14,683). Prevalence rate in boys (20.42%; 95%CI, 9.03-34.8%) was slightly higher than girls (18.5%; 95%CI, 7.4-32.8). A decreasing trend in prevalence of neonatal sepsis was found in recent years, although not statistically significant (c = -0.005; P value = 0.4). The most prevalent causative bacterial pathogens were Enterobacter spp. (23.04%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.54%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (14.06%), Escherichia coli (13.92%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.48%).

Conclusion: Our findings showed a high prevalence of neonatal sepsis in suspected neonates, suggesting the need to implement preventive measures, routine assessment, and close monitoring of neonates. Also, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified as the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for neonatal septicemia in Iran.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227570PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6980642PMC
April 2020

The First Report and Molecular Analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from Raccoon (Procyon lotor) in North of Iran.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2020 05 6;67(3):359-368. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi Street, 1985717413, Chamran Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Microsporidia are known opportunistic microorganisms and usually transmitted via the fecal-oral route. However, there is no information about human-infecting microsporidia in wildlife in Iran. This study aimed to investigate and analyze human-infecting microsporidia isolated from raccoons in north of Iran. Totally, 30 fecal samples were collected; then, DNA extraction was performed and specific fragments of the SSU rRNA gene of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species were amplified. After amplification and sequencing the ITS, the results were compared to the GenBank database. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis were employed to explore probable relationships. E. bieneusi was the only detected microsporidia among samples. Genotyping showed the genotypes D, E, and RA in 15/18 (83.33%), 1/18 (5.55%), and 2/18 (11.11%) of samples, respectively. Novel genotypes RA1 and RA2 grouped together and apart from other genotypes. E. bieneusi genotypes D and E clustered with the genotypes previously reported from animals, humans, and environmental samples. Network analysis revealed six distinct sequence types among raccoon's isolates. This study demonstrated that E. bieneusi genotype D was the most prevalent microsporidia among raccoons. It seems that wildlife may play a role in dispersion of microsporidia spores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12786DOI Listing
May 2020

Profiling of novel circulating microRNAs as a non-invasive biomarker in diagnosis and follow-up of high and low-grade gliomas.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 03 27;190:105652. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the progress in therapeutic strategies such as surgical techniques, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, prognosis and therapeutically convenient monitoring tools in patients with GBM has not improved significantly up to now.Therefore, exosomal miRNAs as novel non-invasive biomarkers having high sensitivity and specificity are required to improve diagnosis and to develop new targeted therapy strategies for GBM patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate a novel miRNA signature as a predictive biomarker for diagnosis and measurement of response to therapeutic interventions in plasma of GBM patients versus traumatic brain injury and diffuse low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) patients.

Patients And Methods: Plasma exosomal-microRNAs were isolated from GBM (n = 25), LGA (n = 25), and head trauma patients (n = 15) as non-glioma control from March 2017 to June 2018 in Department of Neurosurgery at Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital. Through a bioinformatics analysis, we used Miranda, TargetScan, mirBase, DIANA-microT-CDS, and KEGG database as well as microarray data analysis from GEO for microRNA candidates. Finally, miR-210, miR-185, miR-5194, and miR-449 were selected among those miRNAs because they were recorded to target the maximum number of genes in EGFR and c-MET signaling pathways. Then, exosomal microRNAs were extracted from plasma of patients and quantitated by locked nucleic acid real-time PCR in GBM, LGA, and trauma patients.

Results: This result is the first report on the role of circulating miR-185, miR-449, and miR-5194 in GBM compared to LGA and trauma. The plasma expression of miR-210 as an oncogenic miR was upregulated in GBM and LGA groups (P < 0.0001). Otherwise, miR-185, miR-5194, and miR-449 were significantly downregulated (P ≤ 0.05) in GBM and LGA compared to trauma patients. There was no significant downregulation in the expression of miR-185 between GBM and LGA, while the expression of miR-5194 (P ≤ 0.05) and miR-449 (P ≤ 0.05) was significantly decreased in GBM patients compared with LGA.

Conclusions: These results indicate that the levels of miR-210, miR-449, and miR-5194 are a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker positively correlated with histopathological grade and invasiveness of GBM. These findings imply that circulating microRNA can be potentially used as novel biomarkers for glioma that might be beneficial in clinical management of glioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105652DOI Listing
March 2020

Seroprevalence estimates for toxocariasis in people worldwide: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 12 19;13(12):e0007809. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: Human toxocariasis is an important neglected disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis study to estimate the global and regional prevalence of anti-Toxocara serum antibodies (referred to as 'T-seroprevalence') in human populations around the world.

Methods: We searched five international databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SciELO and Scopus) for seroprevalence studies published from 1 January 1980 to 15 March 2019. We used random effect models to calculate the overall T-seroprevalence (with 95% CIs) in all six WHO regions and worldwide. We also conducted subgroup and linear meta-regression analyses to evaluate the impact of socio-demographic, geographical and climatic parameters on seroprevalence.

Results: We identified 250 eligible studies (253 datasets) comprising 265,327 participants in 71 countries for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The estimated global T-seroprevalence rate was 19.0% (95%CI, 16.6-21.4%; 62,927/265,327); seroprevalence was highest in the African region (37.7%; 25.7-50.6%) and lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (8.2%; 5.1-12.0%). The pooled seroprevalence for other WHO regions was 34.1% (20.2-49.4%) in the South-East Asia; 24.2% (16.0-33.5%) in the Western Pacific; 22.8% (19.7-26.0%) in the American; and 10.5% (8.5-12.8%) in the European regions. A significantly higher T-seroprevalence was associated with a lower income level; lower human development index (HDI); lower latitude; higher humidity; higher temperature; and higher precipitation (P-value < 0.001). Potential risk factors associated with seropositivity to Toxocara included male gender; living in a rural area; young age; close contact with dogs, cats or soil; consumption of raw meat; and the drinking of untreated water.

Conclusions: The present findings indicate high levels of infection with, or exposure to Toxocara spp. in many countries, which calls for increased attention to human toxocariasis and improved measures to prevent adverse health risks of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922318PMC
December 2019

Intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients from developing countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hemodial Int 2020 01 5;24(1):12-21. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Intestinal parasitic infection (IPI) is the main cause of gastrointestinal complications in hemodialysis patients due to their impaired immune systems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of IPIs in this population. Relevant eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google scholar databases up to January 30, 2019. A random-effects meta-analysis model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence, OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-two studies, from Turkey, Iran, Brazil, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and Malaysia met eligibility criteria for analysis, and included 11 using a case-control design (980 patients and 893 controls) and 11 studies using a cross-sectional design (a total of 1455 participants). Cross-sectional studies suggested that the pooled prevalence of IPIs in hemodialysis patients was 24% (95% CI, 14-36%; 307/1455). In studies using a case-control design, the pooled prevalence of IPIs in hemodialysis patients (30%, 330/980) was found to be significantly higher than controls (10%, 115/893) (OR, 3.40; 95%CI, 2.37-4.87). With respect to the parasites, Cryptosporidium spp. (OR, 4.49; 95%CI, 2.64-7.64) and Blastocystis sp. (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 1.20-13.51) were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients compared to the controls. The current study revealed a high prevalence of IPIs in hemodialysis patients from countries in which the baseline prevalence of parasitic infection is high. We recommend that periodic screenings for IPIs in such countries should be incorporated into the routine clinical care of hemodialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12796DOI Listing
January 2020

Evaluation of geostatistical techniques and their hybrid in modelling of groundwater quality index in the Marand Plain in Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Dec 29;26(34):34993-35009. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Water Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.

In many parts of the world, groundwater is considered as one of the main sources of urban and rural drinking water. Over the past three decades, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of aquifers have been negatively affected by different factors such as excessive use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture, indiscreet, and over-exploitation use of groundwater. Therefore, finding the effective method for mapping the water quality index (WQI) is important for locating suitable and non-suitable areas for urban and rural drinking waters. In the present paper, the best method to estimate the spatial distribution of WQI was assessed using the inverse distance weighted, kriging, cokriging, geographically weighted regression (GWR), and hybrid models. Creating hybrid models can increase modeling capabilities. Hybrid methods make use of a combination of estimated model capabilities. In addition, to improve the results of cokriging, GWR, and hybrid methods, the auxiliary parameters of land slope, groundwater table, and groundwater transmissibility were used. In order to assess the proposed methodology, 11 qualitative parameters obtained from 63 observation wells in Marand Plain (Iran) were utilized. Four statistical measures, namely the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the Akaike coefficient (AIC), and the correlation coefficient (R) along with the Taylor diagram, have been done. Classification of the WQI index showed that the quality of a number of 1, 27, 18, and 17 wells was, respectively, in excellent, good, moderate, and poor grades. The results of modeling the WQI index based on IDW, kriging, cokriging, GWR, and hybrid methods showed that the best estimate of WQI was obtained by using hybrid GWR-kriging method with three input parameters of land slope, groundwater table, and groundwater transmissibility. Therefore, hybrid kriging and GWR methods have been fairly well able to simulate the WQI index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06591-zDOI Listing
December 2019

Diagnosis of Candida albicans: conventional diagnostic methods compared to the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Mar 22;202(2):275-282. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Science, Khorramabad, Iran.

Candida species cause a wide range of opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The detection of Candida species by conventional diagnosis methods is costly and time consuming. This study was conducted for the first time to evaluate and compare a relatively new molecular assay and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique with conventional methods for detection of Candida albicans. In this study, 70 different species of Candida identified by conventional methods were cultured on Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar medium and then the genomic DNA was extracted. The LAMP technique was performed using specific primers targeting the ITS2 gene of C. albicans. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were measured using a tenfold serial dilution prepared from extracted DNA from standard C. albicans strain from 1 ng to 1 fg and the DNA samples of other clinical Candida species and three non-Candida yeast. Out of 70 yeast samples analyzed by LAMP technique, 24 samples (34.3%) were positive for C. albicans. Comparison of the results showed that the CHROMagar Candida and germ tube production methods are quite consistent with the LAMP technique, while the agreement amount between the results of carbohydrate assimilation and chlamydoconidia generation assays and LAMP technique was 98.5% and 72.8%, respectively. The detection limits of the LAMP assay were 10 fg of the DNA from the standard C. albicans strain. No amplification was observed in the DNA samples of other yeast species and only the DNA sample of standard C. albicans strain was amplified. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the LAMP method is as specific and precise as common diagnostic methods, but is faster, easier deployable or more sensitive. Therefore, this method can be used as a suitable complementary assay for Candida diagnosis in medical diagnostic laboratories and field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-019-01736-7DOI Listing
March 2020