Publications by authors named "Ali Reza Khalatbary"

37 Publications

Stem cell-derived exosomes as a cell free therapy against spinal cord injury.

Tissue Cell 2021 May 25;71:101559. Epub 2021 May 25.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Recent evidence suggests that stem cell therapy has beneficial effects on spinal cord injury. It was subsequently established that these beneficial effects may be mediated through release of paracrine factors, a kind of extracellular vesicle known as exosomes. Stem cell-secreted nano-sized exosomes have shown great potential to reduce apoptosis and inflammation, enhance angiogenesis, and improve functional behavioral recovery following spinal cord injury. This review summarizes current knowledge about the influence of exosomes derived from stem cells on spinal cord protection and regeneration with their molecular mechanisms after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101559DOI Listing
May 2021

Synergistic neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen and methylprednisolone following contusive spinal cord injury in rat.

J Spinal Cord Med 2021 Apr 8:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objective: Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on spinal cord injury (SCI). Meanwhile, the use of methylprednisolone (MP) is one of the current protocols with limited effects in SCI patients. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of combined HBO and MP treatment on SCI.

Design: The present study was conducted on five groups of rats each as follows: Sham group (underwent laminectomy alone at T9 level vertebra); SCI group (underwent moderate contusive SCI); MP group (underwent SCI and received MP); HBO group (underwent SCI and received HBO); HBO + MP group (underwent SCI and simultaneously received MP and HBO). Blood serum and Spinal cord tissue samples were taken 48 h after SCI for analysis of serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and tissue malodialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Neurological function was evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnehan (BBB) locomotion scores until the end of experiments. Additionally, histopathology was assessed at the end of the study.

Setting: Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Results: Combination therapy with HBO and MP in the HBO + MP group significantly decreased MDA as well as increased FRAP levels compared to other treatment groups. Meanwhile, attenuated TNF-α and Caspase-3 expression could be significantly detected in the HBO + MP group. At the end of treatment, the neurological outcome was significantly improved and the extent of injured spinal tissue was also significantly reduced in the HBO + MP compared to other treatment groups.

Conclusion: The results suggest that combined therapy with MP and HBO has synergistic effects on SCI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2021.1896275DOI Listing
April 2021

A review on the neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Med Gas Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):72-82

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, intermittent breathing of 100% oxygen at a pressure upper than sea level, has been shown to be some of the neuroprotective effects and used therapeutically in a wide range of neurological disorders. This review summarizes current knowledge about the neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with their molecular mechanisms in different models of neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2045-9912.311498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130666PMC
April 2021

Engraftment of bioengineered three-dimensional scaffold from human amniotic membrane-derived extracellular matrix accelerates ischemic diabetic wound healing.

Arch Dermatol Res 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1985717443, Tehran, Iran.

Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is traditionally used for the treatment of non-healing wounds. However, high density of HAM-matrix (HAM-M) diminishes cellular contribution for successful tissue regeneration. Herein we investigated whether a bioengineered micro-porous three-dimensional (3D) HAM-scaffold (HAM-S) could promote healing in ischemic wounds in diabetic type 1 rat. HAM-S was prepared from freshly decellularized HAM. Then, 30 days after inducing diabetes, an ischemic circular excision was generated on rats' skin. The diabetic animals were randomly divided into untreated (Diabetic group), engrafted with HAM-M (D-HAM-M group) and HAM-S (D-HAM-S group). Also, non-diabeticuntreated rats (Healthy group) were considered as control. Stereological, molecular, and tensiometrical assessments were performed on post-surgical days 7, 14, and 21. We found that the volumes of new epidermis and dermis, the numerical density of epidermal basal cells and fibroblasts, the length density of blood vessels, the numbers of proliferating cells and collagen deposition as well as biomechanical properties of healed wound were significantly higher in D-HAM-S group in most cases compared those of the diabetic group, or even in some cases compared to D-HAM-M group. Furthermore, in D-HAM-S group, the transcripts for genes contributing to regeneration (Tgf-β, bFgf and Vegf) upregulated more than those of D-HAM-M group, when compared to diabetic ones. Overall, the HAM-S had more impact on delayed wound healing process compared to traditional use of intact HAM. It is therefore suggested that the bioengineered three dimensional micro-porous HAM-S is more suitable for cells adhesion, penetration, and migration for contributing to wounded tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00403-020-02137-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of L. leaf extract supplementation on testicular functions in diabetic rats.

Biotech Histochem 2021 Jan 1;96(1):41-47. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari, Iran.

Testicular dysfunction is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). L. (JRL) leaf extract is a source of phenolic compounds that exhibits hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. We investigated whether JRL leaf extract could inhibit the adverse effects of DM on oxidative stress, testis histology and testosterone hormone production. We used four groups of male rats: control group (non-diabetic) given saline, diabetic group, diabetic + JRL group that received JRL leaf extract, and JRL group (nondiabetic) that received JRL leaf extract only. To evaluate the effects of JRL leaf extract on testicular functions in diabetic animals, we evaluated histopathological and histomorphometric changes; serum testosterone; and malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. Decreased of MDA along with improved antioxidant status in the testis of diabetic rats; these abnormalities were attenuated by JRL leaf extract. We detected significantly decreased antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, SOD, CAT) and testosterone levels in the diabetic rats; these levels were normalized after JRL leaf extract administration. The MDA level and improved antioxidant status in the testis of diabetic rats was detected after JRL leaf extract administration. Our findings suggest that JRL leaf extract exerts preventive effects against diabetic dysfunction in the testis, which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2020.1755893DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning in a rat model of cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Mar;23(3):321-328

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect in patients receiving this drug. Recent studies suggest hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy as a new treatment approach for models of neural injury. The aim of the current study was to determine the protective effects of HBO preconditioning against peripheral neuropathy induced by Cisplatin (CDDP).

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted on 4 groups of rats: Sham group; HBO group (60 min/d); Control group (CDDP 2 mg/kg/d); Precondition group (HBO+CDDP). Mechanical threshold testing was weekly carried out using von Frey filament. Sciatic nerve and associated ganglia were removed five weeks after the first CDDP injection for biochemical evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, immunohistochemistry of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), TNF-α, caspase-3 and iNOS, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) assessments.

Results: MDA levels and MPO activities were significantly decreased in preconditioned rats. Attenuated TUNEL reaction along with attenuated caspase-3, TNF-α, and iNOS expression could be significantly detected in preconditioned rats. Also, HBO preconditioning improved the nociceptive threshold.

Conclusion: The results suggest that HBO preconditioning can attenuate peripheral neuropathy caused by cisplatin in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2019.40095.9504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229505PMC
March 2020

Homing of adipose stem cells on the human amniotic membrane as a scaffold: A histological study.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2019 Apr 27;18(1):21-32. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The human amniotic membrane (HAM) is a suitable and effective scaffold for cell culture and delivery, and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an important source of stem cells for transplantation and chondrogenic differentiation.

Objective: To assess the practicability of a cryopreserved HAM as a scaffold in cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, adipose tissue samples were harvested from the inguinal region of male patients aged 15-30 years. Flow cytometry was used to identify CD31, CD45, CD90, and CD105 markers in adipose stem cells. HAM was harvested from donor placenta after cesarean section, washed, trypsin-based decellularized trypsinized decellularized, and used as a scaffold via three methods: 1) ADSCs were differentiated into chondrocytes on cell culture flasks (monolayer method), and after 14 days of culture, the cells were transferred and cultured on both sides of the HAM; 2) ADSCs were cultured and differentiated directly on both sides of the HAM for 14 days (scaffold-mediated differentiation); and 3) chondrocytes were differentiated with micromass culture for 14 days, transferred on HAM, and tissue slides were histologically analyzed qualitatively.

Results: Flow cytometry confirmed the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. Histological findings revealed that the cells adhered and grew well on the stromal layer of HAM. Among the three methods, scaffold-mediated differentiation of ADSCs showed the best results.

Conclusion: ADSCs have excellent attachment, viability, and differentiation capacity in the stromal side of HAM. Additionally, the direct culture and differentiation of ADSCs on HAM is more suitable than the culture of differentiated cells on HAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijrm.v18i1.6193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996125PMC
April 2019

Assessment of the neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

J Spinal Cord Med 2019 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Paraplegia or paraparesis due to spinal cord ischemia is one of the complications following thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a variety of neurological disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of EGCG following spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The present study was conducted on four groups of rats each as follows: Sham-operated group (laparotomy alone); Control group (with IRI); EGCGI group (50-mg/kg, i.p., before IRI), and EGCGII group (50-mg/kg, i.p., after IRI). Neurological function evaluated with motor deficit index (MDI) test. Spinal cord samples were taken 48 h after IRI and studied for determination of malodialdehyde (MDA) level, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, TNF-α, and iNOS. Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. The level of MDA was significantly decreased in EGCG-treated rats. Attenuated caspase-3, TNF-α, and iNOS expression could be significantly detected in the EGCG-treated rats. Also, EGCG reduced the extent of degeneration of the spinal cord neurons, in addition to a significant reduction of MDI. The results suggest that pre- and post-treatment with EGCG may be effective in protecting spinal cord from IRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10790268.2019.1691862DOI Listing
December 2019

Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Protect Cyclophosphamide-induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

Int J Prev Med 2019 15;10. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP), as a chemotherapy drug, causes severe damage in testicular tissue through producing free radicals. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (NC) exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of NC on CP-induced testicular damage in mice.

Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two male mice were divided into four groups (eight mice in each group). The control group was received intraperitoneally (IP) normal saline, NC group was received NC for three consecutive days (100 μg/kg, IP), CP group was received CP (200 mg/kg, IP), and the CP + NC group received NC, three consecutive days before receiving CP. After 2 days, testicles were assessed for biochemical, histomorphometrical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses.

Results: CP administration caused statistically significant increases in sperm abnormality, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl levels, reactive oxygen species, level and apoptosis, and decreases in sperm count, sperm viability, testosterone, glutathione activity, the mean thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules in mice. Degeneration, necrosis, arrest of spermatogenesis, congestion, and atrophy in testicular tissue confirmed the low Johnsen's Testicular score in CP group. Administration of NC significantly ameliorated the CP-induced adverse effects on testis compared with the CP group. In addition, pretreatment mice with NC significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity induced by CP in testis.

Conclusions: This study showed that NC with scavenging free radicals and antiapoptotic properties enable to reduce the side effects of CP in the testicular tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_184_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360849PMC
January 2019

Juglans Regia L. Leaf Extract Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Experimental Diabetes: An Immunohistochemical Study.

Iran J Med Sci 2019 Jan;44(1):44-52

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GRL leaf extract against diabetic nephropathy (DN).

Methods: In total, 28 male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The DN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats received intragastric administration of GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) starting 1 week (preventive group) and 4 weeks (curative group) after the onset of hyperglycemia up to the end of the 8th week, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline (diabetic group) as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic nephropathy, various parameters of apoptosis and inflammation were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 15.0. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey's multiple comparison test and the analysis of the variance. P values ˂0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels (P=0.001) and histopathological changes in the kidney of diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract consumption. Greater caspase-3 (P=0.004), COX-2 (P=0.008), PARP (P=0.007), and iNOS (P=0.005) expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly (P=0.009) attenuated after GRL leaf extract consumption. In addition, attenuation of lipid peroxidation in the diabetic rats was detected after GRL consumption (P=0.01).

Conclusion: GRL leaf extract exerts preventive and curative effects against diabetic nephropathy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330519PMC
January 2019

Atorvastatin mitigates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat model.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Oct;13(5):440-449

Department of Anatomy and Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, I.R. Iran.

Cyclophosphamide (CP), as a chemotherapy drug, induces hepatotoxicity through causing oxidative stress. Atorvastatin (ATV) at a low dose has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of ATV against CP-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. In this experimental study, 32 rats were treated with ATV orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days, 5 days before and 5 days after the administration of a single intraperitoneal injection of CP (150 mg/kg). The hepatoprotective effect of ATV was evaluated by measuring liver function markers, oxidative markers, histological and immunohistochemical assays. The biochemical results showed that administration of CP increased hepatic biomarkers enzymes as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. CP increased malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and decreased glutathione (GSH) content in rats. Moreover, administration of CP was associated with periportal leucocyte infiltration, dilation sinusoids, hepatocyte vacuolation, congestion and hemorrhage in livers of rats. CP significantly increased immunoreactivity of caspase-3 as a marker of apoptosis in liver tissue. ATV markedly mitigated liver injury through reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers, histopathological findings and apoptosis. The antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities of ATV are main proposed mechanisms involved in its hepatoprotective effects against CP-induced hepatic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.236837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082033PMC
October 2018

The green tea polyphenolic catechin epigallocatechin gallate and neuroprotection.

Nutr Neurosci 2020 Apr 25;23(4):281-294. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Epigallocatechin gallate is the most abundant composition of the tea catechins and is thought to be responsible for the majority of biological activity of green tea extracts such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects. Meanwhile, EGCG has been shown to be some of the neuroprotective effects against neural injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This paper summarizes current knowledge on neuroprotective effects of EGCG and their molecular mechanisms responsible for the neuroprotection in various models of neurodegenerative and neural injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2018.1500124DOI Listing
April 2020

ameliorates cisplatin-induced testicular damage via suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis in a mice model.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2018 Jun;21(6):607-614

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Cisplatin (CP), as an anti-neoplastic drug, causes testicular damage. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM), a medicinal plant, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZM against CP-induced testicular toxicity.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups. The control group received normal saline with oral gavage during 7 days; ZM group received ZM (200 mg/kg) during 7 days by gavage; CP group received CP (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) in the 5 day of study; ZM + CP group received ZM during 7 days and CP was injected in 5th day. Sperm parameters, biochemical (MDA, GSH, and PC) levels, serum testosterone levels, and histopathological and immunohistochemical assays of testis were examined one day after the last drug treatment.

Results: CP treatment caused significant damage via changed sperm parameters (sperm motility, count, viability rate, and abnormalities), increased oxidative stress (increased MDA and PC levels, and decreased GSH level), histological changes (degeneration, necrosis, arrest of spermatogenesis, congestion, and decrease in thickness of the germinal epithelium, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and Johnsen's Score), decreased serum testosterone level, and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. ZM preserved spermatogenesis and mitigated the toxic effects of CP on the testis tissue. In addition, treatment with ZM significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity.

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ZM as a potential antioxidant compound and due to free radicals scavenging activities has a protective effect against CP-induced testicular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2018.26784.6558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015246PMC
June 2018

Therapeutic potential of L. leaf extract against diabetic retinopathy in rat.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2017 Nov;20(11):1275-1281

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Objectives: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR). . (JRL) leaf extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the ameliorative effects of JRL against diabetic retinopathy.

Materials And Methods: The DR rat model was generated by injection of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the diabetic rats received JRL or metformin after the onset of hyperglycemia. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with biochemical assessments of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status.

Results: Lipid peroxidation level and catalase activity significantly improved after JRL consumption (<0. 001). Degeneration of the retina attenuated after JRL consumption. Attenuation of the caspase-3, COX-2, PARP, and S100B expression could be detected significantly (<0. 001) in the JRL-treated rats. While, blood glucose level decreased after JRL consumption (<0. 001).

Conclusion: JRL leaf extract exert protective effects against diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2017.9465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749363PMC
November 2017

Neuroprotective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) against peripheral nerve transection-induced apoptosis.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 Aug 2;22(8):578-586. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

a Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine , Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , Sari , Iran.

Recent studies revealed the neuroprotective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on a variety of neural injury models. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of EGCG following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Rats were randomly divided into four groups each as follows: Sham-operated group, SNT group, and Pre-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 30 minutes before nerve transection and followed for 3 days) and Post-EGCG (50-mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour after nerve transection and followed for 3 days) groups. Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions were removed four weeks after nerve transection for the assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100B), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). MDA levels were significantly decreased, and SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the EGCG-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, EGCG significantly increased S100B expression. We propose that EGCG may be effective in the protection of neuronal cells against retrograde apoptosis and may enhance neuronal survival time following nerve transection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1419542DOI Listing
August 2019

Anti-Inflammatory and Wound-Healing Potential of Golden Chanterelle Mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius (Agaricomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2017 ;19(10):893-903

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

The golden chanterelle mushroom, Cantharellus cibarius, is an edible mushroom with medicinal value. Given that this species has good radical scavenging activity and strong antioxidant potential and bactericidal effects, this study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activity of C. cibarius extract in rats. For this experimental study, circular excision and linear incision wound models were used in 4 groups of male Wistar rats: nontreated, vehicle-treated, treated with C. cibarius extract ointment (2% w/w), and treated with the reference drug (Madecassol). All the animals were treated topically once a day. The circular and linear wounds were treated for 9 and 17 days, respectively. At the end of the study, samples from healing wounds were taken for histopathological assessment to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and investigate immunohistochemistry by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Significant wound-healing activity in each wound model was observed in the C. cibarius extract-treated and Madecassol-treated groups compared with the nontreated and vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.05). Histological assessment showed complete repair of the epidermal layer, increased collagen production, and a remarkable degree of neovascularization and epithelization in the extract group, which were significantly different from those in the other groups (P < 0.05). In addition, a significantly lower rate of COX-2 expression was detected in the extract group than in the nontreated and vehicle-treated groups (P < 0.0001). Therefore, the experimental data reveal that C. cibarius extract showed significant wound-healing and anti-inflammatory effects, which could be the scientific rationale for the medicinal use of the golden chanterelle mushroom in treating wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024674DOI Listing
July 2018

Neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on neuronal death induced by sciatic nerve transection in rat.

BMC Neurol 2017 Dec 16;17(1):220. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Recent studies shows that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy exerts some protective effects against neural injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of HBO following sciatic nerve transection (SNT).

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 14 per group): Sham-operated (SH) group, SH + HBO group, SNT group, and SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO groups (100% oxygen at 2.0 atm absolute, 60 min/day for five consecutive days beginning on 1 day before and immediately after nerve transaction, respectively). Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) were removed 4 weeks after nerve transection for biochemical assessment of malodialdehyde (MDA) levels in spinal cord, biochemical assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT) activities in spinal cord, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100ß), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in spinal cord and DRG.

Results: The results revealed that MDA levels were significantly decreased in the SNT + pre-HBO group, while SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO treated rats. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the HBO-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, HBO significantly increased S100ß expression.

Conclusions: Based on these results, we can conclude that pre- and post-HBO therapy had neuroprotective effects against sciatic nerve transection-induced degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-017-1004-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732534PMC
December 2017

Deltamethrin-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Virgin Olive Oil Consumption: An Experimental Study.

Iran J Med Sci 2017 Nov;42(6):586-592

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Deltamethrin (DM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide which can lead to pathological effects in mammals through oxidative stress. On the other hand, virgin olive oil (VOO) is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidants. The aim of the present study was to determine the protective effects of VOO against DM-induced hepatotoxicity.

Methods: Thirty-six mice were randomly separated into 4 groups: vehicle group, VOO group, DM group, and DM plus VOO group. Immunohistochemistry of PARP, COX-2, and caspase-3 with the biochemical analysis of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity levels were performed in the liver samples 5 weeks after gavaging. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 15. The data were compared between the groups using the Tukey multiple comparison tests and the analysis of the variance. A P value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results: The malondialdehyde level in the liver was increased in the DM group (71.18±0.01), whereas it was significantly (P=0.001) decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (39.59±2.43). While the total antioxidant capacity level in the liver was decreased in the DM group (3.05±0.05), it was significantly increased (P=0.03) after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group (3.95±0.04). A greater expression of caspase-3 (P=0.008), COX-2 (P =0.004), and PARP (P 0.006) could be detected in the DM group, while it was significantly (P=0.009) attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the degeneration of hepatocytes, which was detected in the DM group, was attenuated after VOO consumption.

Conclusions: VOO exerted protective effects against DM-induced hepatotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative properties.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684380PMC
November 2017

Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2017 Oct 2;17(1):476. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Immunogenetic Research Center and Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat.

Methods: The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments.

Results: Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against neuropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1983-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625610PMC
October 2017

Atorvastatin mitigates testicular injuries induced by ionizing radiation in mice.

Reprod Toxicol 2017 09 28;72:115-121. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Radiotherapy in patients with pelvis malignancy causes testes irradiation and resulted in testicular damages. Atorvastatin (ATV) in the low-dose is considered as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Objective: This experimental study was investigated protective effects of ATV on irradiation-induced testicular injury.

Material And Methods: Sixty male balb/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: 1: control, 2: irradiated (IR), 3, 4 and 5: IR plus ATV (10, 20 and 50mg/kg), 6: only ATV (50mg/kg). The ATV treated groups were received ATV for 7days via oral gavage before IR. Irradiated groups exposed to 2Gy whole body X-ray on day 8. Biochemical, histological and immunohistological parameters were evaluated for radioprotective effect of ATV.

Results: In the ATV pretreatment in irradiated mice, MDA levels were significantly decreased compared with the IR group. The effect of all three doses of ATV caused reduced MDA level, but ATV to dose of 50mg/kg had more effect than other doses of ATV. Significant decrease in the concentration of testosterone was observed in only irradiated mice compared with the ATV plus irradiated. In addition, the histological examination showed Johnsen Score in the IR group was lower compared to ATV pretreated groups. ATV significantly reduced caspase-3 immunoreactivity induced by irradiation.

Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that ATV at low dose has a protective effect against irradiation-induced testicular damage. This result provides a new indication of ATV for protection of testis during radiation therapy in treatment of cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.06.052DOI Listing
September 2017

Administration of zinc against arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity during gestation and lactation in rat model.

J Nephropathol 2017 Mar 25;6(2):74-80. Epub 2016 Dec 25.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry,​ Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Ira.

Background: Free radicals production by toxicity of arsenic (Ar) is most important in the nephrotoxicity. There is accumulating evidence that zinc (Zn), has anti-oxidant properties.

Objectives: The aim of present study was to evaluate protective and ameliorative effects of Zn against Ar-induced nephrotoxicity in rat pups during gestation and lactation.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four adult pregnant wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6). Group one was given vehicle only. Group two received Zn (ZnSO4) at 20 mg/kg/d. Group three received Ar at 5 mg/kg/d as sodium meta-arsenite. Group four received Ar + Zn at the same dose that mentioned in groups of two and three. At the end of the study, 24 hours after the last treatment, samples were killed with overdose of sodium pentobarbital and kidneys were harvested for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and histopathological assessment.

Results: The MDA level in kidney was increased in the Ar group, which was decreased after Zn administration in the Ar + Zn group. The GSH level in kidney was decreased in the Ar group, which were increased after Zn administration in the Ar + Zn group. Also, the histopathological changes which were detected in the Ar group attenuated after Zn consumption.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested that administration of Zn during gestation and lactation could have protective and prevent effect in Ar-induced oxidative stress in kidney tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jnp.2017.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5418074PMC
March 2017

Immunohistochemical and Electron Microscopic Study of the Inhibitory Effects of Olive Oil Polyphenol on Dexamethasone-Induced Apoptosis.

Iran J Pathol 2017 27;12(1):45-52. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Dept. of microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshar, Iran.

Background: There is accumulating evidence that a polyphenol present in olive oil, oleuropein, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aimed at determining the anti-apoptotic effect of Oleuropein (Ole) on dexamethasone-induced apoptosis of mouse thymocytes.

Method: Mice were randomly divided to four groups as follow: Dexamethasone (Dex)-treated group (20 mg/kg; single dose), Ole-treated group (20 mg/kg per day), Dex plus Ole-treated group, and vehicle group. Sections of thymus were taken 16 hours after dexamethasone injection and studied for histopathological and immunohistochemistry assessment.

Result: Further characteristics of degeneration in thymocytes were observed in the Dex group compared with the Dex plus Ole group. Compared with the Dex group (10.94±3.35), positive staining for Bax in thymocytes decreased in Dex plus Ole group (2.64±1.26), but remained higher than the Ole (0.65±0.30) and vehicle (0.67±0.29) groups. Compared with the Dex group (2.94±0.42), positive staining for Bcl-2 in thymocytes increased in Dex plus Ole group (12.24±1.84) yet was lower than the Ole (14.94±1.54) and vehicle (18.93±3.54) groups.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that dexamethasone-induced apoptosis is subsided by oleuropein.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938723PMC
January 2017

The effects of two-stage carotid occlusion on spatial memory and pro-inflammatory markers in the hippocampus of rats.

J Physiol Sci 2017 May 28;67(3):415-423. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

Department of Physiology, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive ability, TNFα, IL1β and PGE2 levels in both hippocampi in a modified two-vessel occlusion model. Both common carotid arteries of adult male Wistar rats were permanently occluded with an interval of 1 week between occlusions. Learning and memory were significantly decreased after 1 month. This reduction was not significant after 2 months, which may be attributed to blood flow compensation. The TNFα level was significantly increased after 3 h and 1 day. IL1β was significantly increased after 1 day. After a week there was no significant difference in pro-inflammatory levels. Furthermore, there was no difference between right and left hippocampi. It is possible that TNFα and IL1β elevation initiates pathologic processes that contribute to memory impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12576-016-0474-zDOI Listing
May 2017

Virgin olive oil ameliorates deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice: A biochemical and immunohistochemical assessment.

Toxicol Rep 2016 30;3:584-590. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objective: A major class of synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin (DM), can elicit pathophysiological effects through oxidative stress in non-targeted organisms such as mammals. There is accumulating evidence that virgin olive oil (VOO), a rich source of polyphenolic components, have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. This study aimed to determine the protective and ameliorative effects of VOO against DM-induced nephrotoxicity.

Methods & Materials: Mice were randomly divided into four equal groups: DM group, DM plus VOO group, VOO group, and vehicle group. Five weeks after gavaging, kidney samples were taken for biochemical assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), and for immunohistochemical assessment of caspase-3, cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).

Results: The MDA level in kidney was increased in the DM group, which was significantly decreased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group. The GSH level and CAT activiy in kidney were decreased in the DM group, which were significantly increased after VOO administration in the DM plus VOO group. Greater expression of caspase-3, cox-2, and PARP could be detected in the DM group, which was significantly attenuated in the DM plus VOO group. Also, the histopathological changes which were detected in the DM group attenuated after VOO consumption.

Conclusion: Virgin olive oil exerted protective effects against deltamethrin-induced nephrotoxicity, which might be associated with its anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2016.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5616020PMC
July 2016

Protective Role of Oleuropein against Acute Deltamethrin-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain.

Iran Biomed J 2015 28;19(4):247-53. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Deltamethrin (DM) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide that can elicit neurotoxicity, leading to apoptosis. There is accumulating evidence that oleuropein (OE) has anti-apoptotic effect. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-apoptotic effect of OE pretreatment in the neuronal cells of cerebral cortex.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups each containing five rats: DM-treated group (12.5 mg/kg, a single dose), OE-treated group (20 mg/kg per day), DM + OE-treated group, and vehicle group. Sections of the brain were obtained 24 hours after DM injection and studied for histopathological and immunohistochemistry assessment.

Results: The histopathological assessments showed lesser characteristics of neural degeneration in DM + OE group compared with DM group. Greater Bcl-2 and attenuated Bax expression could be detected in the DM + OE treated-mice compared with DM group.

Conclusion: The results suggested that DM-induced neurotoxicity can be subsided by OE.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4649861PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.7508/ibj.2015.04.009DOI Listing
July 2016

Natural polyphenols and spinal cord injury.

Iran Biomed J 2014 07;18(3):120-9

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 18KM Khazar Blvd, Khazar Sq. Sari, Iran. m

Polyphenols have been shown to have some of the neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases. These effects are attributed to a variety of biological activities, including free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. In this regard, many efforts have been made to study the effects of various well-known dietary polyphenols on spinal cord injury (SCI) and to explore the mechanisms behind the neuroprotective effects. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanisms of neuroprotection of natural polyphenols used in animal models of SCI.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048475PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.6091/ibj.1278.2014DOI Listing
July 2014

Neural differentiation of mouse embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells in a simple medium containing synthetic serum replacement.

J Biotechnol 2014 Feb 16;172:1-10. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorram Abad, Iran.

Neural differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells has been reported previously. Several studies have used different proportions of serum or a cocktail of growth and differentiation factors for this purpose. In the present study, we examined neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells in KoSR-containing media. We also investigated neural differentiation of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a medium containing KoSR, a synthetic serum replacement, and compared it with neural differentiation in low-serum condition. Meanwhile, effect of β-ME on neural differentiation was investigated in both conditions. As revealed by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry analyses, KoSR-containing medium induced neural differentiation of mouse ES cells. Moreover, under the culture conditions we tested, ADSCs were differentiated to neuron-like cells and expressed some neuronal markers. Low concentration of β-ME improved neuron-like differentiation of the ADSCs in the 4% FBS-supplemented medium, while addition of β-ME in KoSR condition decreased neural differentiation. KoSR-containing medium without any additional factor improved generation of neuron-like cells, upregulated the expression of mature neuronal markers and led to the formation of cytoplasmic processes. In summary, our findings are indicating that mouse embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells are capable of neural development in KoSR-containing media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2013.11.028DOI Listing
February 2014

Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Satureja Khuzestanica Essential Oil in Alloxan-induced Type 1 Diabetic Rats.

Iran J Pharm Res 2012 ;11(4):1219-26

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran. ; Razi Herbal Researches Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

In the present study, we examined the antioxidative activities of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil (SKE) and possible protective effect of SKE on lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzyme markers in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups; group one as control, group two diabetic untreatment, and group three treatments with SKE by 500 ppm in drinking water, respectively. Diabetes was induced in the second and third groups by alloxan injection subcutaneously. After 8 weeks, the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), atherogenic index and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups were analyzed. Data were analyzed through non-parametric Man Whitney test (using SPSS 13 software) and p < 0.05 was considered significant. SKE inhibited significantly the activities of ALT and ALP and decrease FBG, TG, C, LDL and VLDL. HDL level was significantly increased when treated with the extract. The activities of AST stayed unaltered. Moreover, total antioxidant capacity of SKE was 3.20 ± 0.40 nmol of ascorbic acid equivalents/g SKE. This study showed that SKE is a source of potent antioxidants. The findings of the present study also suggest that SKE exert beneficial effects on the lipid profile, atherogenic index and liver enzymes activity in Alloxan-induced Type 1 diabetic rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3813176PMC
November 2013

The effect of aqueous cinnamon extract on the apoptotic process in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.

Adv Biomed Res 2013 6;2:25. Epub 2013 Mar 6.

Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an acute leukemia diagnosed by translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [T (15,17)] and aggregation of neoplastic promyelocytes which are incapable of being converted into mature cells. Today, many tend to use medicinal herbs in studies and clinical applications for treatment of cancers. Cinnamon with scientific name "cinnamomumzelanicum" is a shrub of Laurales order, lauraceae family with cinnamomum genus. It is a medicinal shrub with anti-proliferation effect on tumor cells. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aqueous cinnamon extract on HL-60 cells as a model for APL.

Materials And Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, HL-60 cell line was cultured under the influence of cinnamon extract's concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 2 mg/ml in with intervals of 24, 48, and 72 h. Growth inhibition and toxic effects of cinnamon extract were evaluated through tetrazolium salt reduction. The effect of this herb on the cell cycle was studied by flow cytometry. The Hoechst stain was used to detect apoptotic cell nuclei.

Results: Cinnamon extract inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells as correlated with concentration and time. After 72 h of treating HL-60 cells with 0.01 mg/l cinnamon extract, the growth of cells was inhibited by 90.1%. Cinnamon extract stopped the cell cycle in G1 phase and the Hoechst staining verified the apoptotic process in those cells.

Conclusion: Considering the inhibitory property of cinnamon extract, we recommend it as a single drug or besides other medications for treating promyelocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.108001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748636PMC
August 2013

Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.

Nutr Neurosci 2013 Nov 11;16(6):243-9. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1476830513Y.0000000052DOI Listing
November 2013