Publications by authors named "Ali Reza Golshayan"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lack of Effectiveness of Postchemotherapy Lymphadenectomy in Bladder Cancer Patients with Clinical Evidence of Metastatic Pelvic or Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes Only: A Propensity Score-based Analysis.

Eur Urol Focus 2019 03 3;5(2):242-249. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Limited data is available on the role, and extent of, postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy (PC-LND) in patients with clinical evidence of pelvic (cN1-3) or retroperitoneal (RP) lymph node spread from urothelial bladder carcinoma.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of operated versus nonoperated patients after first-line chemotherapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from 34 centers was collected, totaling 522 patients, treated between January 2000 and June 2015. Criteria for patient selection were the following: bladder primary tumor, lymph node metastases (pelvic±RP) only, first-line platinum-based chemotherapy given.

Intervention: LND (with cystectomy) versus observation after first-line chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial bladder carcinoma.

Outcome Measures And Statistical Analysis: Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Multiple propensity score techniques were adopted, including 1:1 propensity score matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting. Additionally, the inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis was performed with the inclusion of the covariates, that is, with doubly robust estimation.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 242 (46.4%) patients received PC-LND and 280 (53.6%) observation after chemotherapy. There were 177 (33.9%) and 345 (66.1%) patients with either RP or pelvic LND only, respectively. Doubly robust estimation-adjusted comparison was not significant for improved OS for PC-LND (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-1.31, p=0.479), confirmed by matched analysis (HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.60-1.36, p=0.628). This was also observed in the RP subgroup (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.68-1.84). The retrospective nature of the data and the heterogeneous patient population were the major limitations.

Conclusions: Although there were substantial differences between the two groups, after accounting for major confounders we report a nonsignificant OS difference with PC-LND compared with observation only. These findings may be hypothesis-generating for future prospective trials.

Patient Summary: We found no differences in survival by adding postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy in patients with pelvic or retroperitoneal lymph node metastatic bladder cancer. The indication to perform postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy in the most suitable patients requires additional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2017.05.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5712487PMC
March 2019

Robot-assisted Versus Open Radical Cystectomy in Patients Receiving Perioperative Chemotherapy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: The Oncologist's Perspective from a Multicentre Study.

Eur Urol Focus 2018 12 31;4(6):937-945. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Hopital Foch, Suresnes, France.

Background: Little is known about the outcomes of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) compared to open radical cystectomy (ORC) combined with perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (UBC).

Objective: To evaluate surgical and oncological outcomes for RARC and ORC in multimodal treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from 28 centres were collected for cystectomies performed between January 2000 and July 2013.

Intervention: RARC or ORC combined with perioperative chemotherapy for UBC.

Outcome Measures And Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact tests, χ tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare the RARC and ORC groups. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential prognostic factors.

Results And Limitations: A total of 688 patients (n=603 ORC and n=85 RARC) were analysed; 60.6% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 45.1% adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the groups. The median time from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy was 1.9 mo for both RARC and ORC groups. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (interquartile range [IQR] 14-35) for RARC and 13 (IQR 8-21) for ORC (p<0.001); the results were confirmed in subgroup analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed no difference in the rate of positive surgical margins (p=0.54 and p=0.78), rate of neobladder diversion (p=0.33 and p=0.51), relapse-free survival (p=0.31 and p=0.23), and overall survival (p=0.63 and p=0.69). The retrospective nature of the data is the major limitation.

Conclusions: In this study, no differences in efficacy outcomes or ability to deliver adjuvant chemotherapy were observed between RARC and ORC. The increasing use of RARC is justifiable from an oncological viewpoint.

Patient Summary: In a retrospective study of patients who received perioperative chemotherapy for urothelial bladder cancer, we found no difference in key outcomes between robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and open radical cystectomy. Performing RARC seems to be justifiable in the multidisciplinary setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2017.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5626651PMC
December 2018

Nomogram-based Prediction of Overall Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Receiving First-line Platinum-based Chemotherapy: Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium (RISC).

Eur Urol 2017 02 8;71(2):281-289. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Background: The available prognostic models for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been derived from clinical trial populations of cisplatin-treated patients.

Objective: To develop a new model based on real-world patients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011.

Intervention: First-line, platinum-based, combination chemotherapy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The population was randomly split into a development and a validation cohort. Generalized boosted regression modelling was used to screen out irrelevant variables and address multivariable analyses. Two nomograms were built to estimate OS probability, the first based on baseline factors and platinum agent, the second incorporating objective response (OR). The performance of the above nomograms and that of other available models was assessed. We plotted decision curves to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the two nomograms.

Results And Limitations: A total of 1020 patients were analyzed (development: 687, validation: 333). In a platinum-stratified Cox model, significant variables for OS were performance status (p<0.001), white blood cell count (p=0.013), body mass index (p=0.003), ethnicity (p=0.012), lung, liver, or bone metastases (p<0.001), and prior perioperative chemotherapy (p=0.012). The c-index was 0.660. The distribution of the nomogram scores was associated with OR (p<0.001), and incorporating OR into the model further improved the c-index in the validation cohort (0.670).

Conclusions: We developed and validated two nomograms for OS to be used before and after completion of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic UC.

Patient Summary: We proposed two models for estimating overall survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. These nomograms have been developed on real-world patients who were treated outside of clinical trials and may be used irrespective of the chemotherapeutic platinum agent used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2016.09.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576985PMC
February 2017

Phase I trial of weekly docetaxel, total androgen blockade, and image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2014 Apr 13;12(2):80-6. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

University of California, San Francisco, Fresno, CA.

Background: This was a phase I study to find the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of weekly docetaxel combined with high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).

Patients And Methods: Men with localized high-risk prostate cancer (HRPC) were treated with weekly docetaxel at 10 to 30 mg/m(2) concurrent with IMRT of 77.4 Gy to the prostate and 45 Gy to the seminal vesicles. ADT consisted of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and bicalutamide beginning 2 months before and during chemoradiation. GnRHa was continued for 24 months.

Results: Nineteen patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen with docetaxel doses up to 25 mg/m(2). At the 30 mg/m(2) level, 2 of 4 patients experienced DLTs of both grade 3 fatigue and dyspepsia. At 41 months' median follow-up, 2 patients had died--1 from metastatic prostate cancer and the other from heart failure. Two other patients experienced biochemical failure. One patient with bladder invasion at diagnosis experienced late grade 2 urinary hesitancy 9 months after completion of radiotherapy, requiring short-term intermittent catheterization. All patients had erectile dysfunction, but no late toxicities worse than grade 2 were identified.

Conclusion: Weekly docetaxel may be combined with high-dose IMRT and long-term ADT up to a MTD of 25 mg/m(2). Acute toxicities and long-term side effects of this regimen were acceptable. Future studies evaluating the efficacy of docetaxel, ADT, and IMRT for localized HRPC should use a weekly dose of 25 mg/m(2) when limiting the irradiated volume to the prostate and seminal vesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2013.11.019DOI Listing
April 2014

The impact of tumor burden characteristics in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

Cancer 2011 Mar 19;117(6):1183-9. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Department of Solid Tumor Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Background: An important goal of noncurative therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is tumor burden (TB) control. However, to the authors' knowledge, the impact of TB characteristics on clinical outcome has not been studied in patients with mRCC who were treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy.

Methods: Patients with clear cell mRCC who were treated with sunitinib between June 2004 and October 2007 were retrospectively identified. Computed tomography scans were re-reviewed from baseline, at the time of maximal TB shrinkage (TS) while receiving sunitinib, and at the time of progressive disease (PD). Measurements were recorded as per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST).

Results: A total of 69 patients were identified. The majority (54%) were classified as being of favorable risk using Cleveland Clinic Foundation Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (CCF TKI) risk group criteria. All patients underwent prior nephrectomy and 77% received prior systemic therapy. There were a median of 8 metastatic deposits across all organs (range, 1-27 deposits). The median TB at the initiation of therapy was 14.0 cm (range, 3.0 cm-42.2 cm). On multivariable analysis, baseline characteristics of disease confined to above the diaphragm (P = .03) and a total TB <13 cm (P = .09) were found to be independent positive predictors of progression-free survival. A+ baseline, total number of metastases <10 (P < .001) and TB above the diaphragm <6.5 cm (P = .05) were found to be independent positive predictors of overall survival (OS). Increased TS while receiving sunitinib was found to be significantly associated with OS (P < .001). At the time of PD, tumor location and pattern of disease progression were not found to be associated with survival as measured from the date of PD. However, total TB (P = .003) and total number of metastatic deposits (≤12 vs >12; P < .001) were found to be significant predictors of survival after PD.

Conclusions: The results of the current study indicate that TB characteristics are associated with clinical outcome in patients with mRCC who are treated with sunitinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25713DOI Listing
March 2011

The multi-disciplinary management of high-risk prostate cancer.

Urol Oncol 2012 Jan-Feb;30(1):3-15. Epub 2009 Nov 27.

Department of Urology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in men in the United States. Such men can experience a continuum of disease presentations from indolent to highly aggressive. For physicians who care for these men, a significant challenge has been and continues to be identifying and treating those men with localized cancer who are at a higher risk of dying from their disease. We discuss the risk stratification of patients in order to better identify those patients at higher risk of progression. A comprehensive review of the literature was then performed reviewing the roles of surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy, as well as combinations of these modalities, in treating these challenging patients. An integrated approach combining local and systemic therapies can be beneficial in the management of high-risk localized prostate cancer. The choice of therapy or combination of therapies is dependant upon many considerations, including patient preference and quality of life aspects. It is becoming clearer that the addition of hormonal therapies or chemotherapies to established therapies, such as radiotherapy or surgery, will have significant benefits. As evidence accumulates regarding the efficacy of these new regimens, our hope is that the challenge of optimizing the management of high-risk prostate cancer will be delivered. However, many important questions remain unresolved regarding the optimal type, combination, timing of therapy, and duration of therapy. Such questions will only be answered with large, well-designed prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.09.002DOI Listing
May 2012

Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: results from a large, multicenter study.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Dec 13;27(34):5794-9. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

FRCPC, Department of Medical Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Purpose: There are no robust data on prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -targeted therapy.

Methods: Baseline characteristics and outcomes on 645 patients with anti-VEGF therapy-naïve metastatic RCC were collected from three US and four Canadian cancer centers. Cox proportional hazards regression, followed by bootstrap validation, was used to identify independent prognostic factors for OS.

Results: The median OS for the whole cohort was 22 months (95% CI, 20.2 to 26.5 months), and the median follow-up was 24.5 months. Overall, 396, 200, and 49 patients were treated with sunitinib, sorafenib, and bevacizumab, respectively. Four of the five adverse prognostic factors according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) were independent predictors of short survival: hemoglobin less than the lower limit of normal (P < .0001), corrected calcium greater than the upper limit of normal (ULN; P = .0006), Karnofsky performance status less than 80% (P < .0001), and time from diagnosis to treatment of less than 1 year (P = .01). In addition, neutrophils greater than the ULN (P < .0001) and platelets greater than the ULN (P = .01) were independent adverse prognostic factors. Patients were segregated into three risk categories: the favorable-risk group (no prognostic factors; n = 133), in which median OS (mOS) was not reached and 2-year OS (2y OS) was 75%; the intermediate-risk group (one or two prognostic factors; n = 301), in which mOS was 27 months and 2y OS was 53%; and the poor-risk group (three to six prognostic factors; n = 152), in which mOS was 8.8 months and 2y OS was 7% (log-rank P < .0001). The C-index was 0.73.

Conclusion: This model validates components of the MSKCC model with the addition of platelet and neutrophil counts and can be incorporated into patient care and into clinical trials that use VEGF-targeted agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.21.4809DOI Listing
December 2009

Metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Jan 8;27(2):235-41. Epub 2008 Dec 8.

Department of Solid Tumor Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Purpose: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with sarcomatoid differentiation is an aggressive disease that is associated with poor outcomes to chemotherapy or immunotherapy. The utility of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapy in patients with this disease is unknown.

Patients And Methods: Patients who had mRCC with sarcomatoid features in the primary tumor and who were treated with VEGF-targeted therapy were retrospectively identified. Pathology slides were reviewed to determine the percentage of sarcomatoid differentiation. Objective response rate, percentage of tumor burden shrinkage, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were determined.

Results: Forty-three patients who had sarcomatoid mRCC were identified. The median percentage of sarcomatoid features was 14% (range, 3% to 90%). Patients were treated with either sunitinib (49%), sorafenib (28%), bevacizumab (19%), or sunitinib plus bevacizumab (5%). Partial responses were observed in eight patients (19%); 21 patients (49%) had stable disease; and 14 patients (33%) had progressive disease as their best response. Partial responses were limited to patients who had underlying clear-cell histology and less than 20% sarcomatoid elements. Median tumor shrinkage was -2% (range, -85% to 127%), and 53% achieved some degree of tumor shrinkage on therapy. Median PFS and OS were estimated to be 5.3 months and 11.8 months, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients who have mRCC and sarcomatoid differentiation can demonstrate objective responses and tumor shrinkage to VEGF-targeted therapy. Patients who have clear-cell histology and a lower percentage of sarcomatoid differentiation may have better outcomes with VEGF-targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.18.0000DOI Listing
January 2009

von Hippel-Lindau gene status and response to vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

J Urol 2008 Sep 17;180(3):860-5; discussion 865-6. Epub 2008 Jul 17.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Purpose: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene is often inactivated (by mutation or promoter hypermethylation) in renal cell carcinoma but the relation to therapeutic outcome is unclear.

Materials And Methods: Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma with available baseline tumor samples who received vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapy were included in analysis. Patient characteristics, VHL gene status and clinical outcome were documented. Our primary end point was to test for response rate in relation to VHL inactivation. Progression-free survival and overall survival in relation to VHL status were investigated as secondary end points.

Results: A total of 123 patients were evaluable. Response rate, median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 37% (95% CI 28-46), 10.8 (95% CI 7.7-14.8) and 29.8 (CI not estimable) months, respectively. Patients with VHL inactivation had a response rate of 41% vs 31% for those with wild-type VHL (p = 0.34). Patients with loss of function mutations (frameshift, nonsense, splice and in-frame deletions/insertions) had a 52% response rate vs 31% with wild-type VHL (p = 0.04). On multivariate analysis the presence of a loss of function mutation remained an independent prognostic factor associated with improved response. Progression-free survival and overall survival were not significantly different based on VHL status.

Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the largest analysis investigating the impact of VHL inactivation on the outcome of vascular endothelial growth factor targeted agents in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We did not find a statistically significant increase in response to vascular endothelial growth factor targeted agents in patients with VHL inactivation. Loss of function mutations identified a population of patients with a greater response. Investigation of downstream markers is under way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.05.015DOI Listing
September 2008

Predicting outcome to VEGF-targeted therapy in metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma: data from recent studies.

Future Oncol 2008 Feb;4(1):85-92

Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, 9500 Euclid Avenue, R-35, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Attempts to predict outcome in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have conventionally been based on pretherapy clinical factors such as performance status, disease-free interval, number of metastatic sites and several laboratory variables. These factors were developed before the era of VEGF-targeted therapy. Recent analysis from trials with anti-VEGF agents indicate that these factors continue to be of major importance in patient prognostication. Additionally, several serum and molecular markers, many of which relate to certain alterations of the von Hippel-Lindau pathway, are currently being investigated. Responses to VEGF-targeted agents appear to be related to a greater modulation of serum VEGF and soluble VEGF receptor levels. The impact of von Hippel-Lindau gene status on response to VEGF-targeted therapy was tested in a large study and was not found to predict a higher response rate to these agents. However, a subset of von Hippel-Lindau mutations that predict a 'loss of function' of the von Hippel-Lindau gene seem to have the best response to these agents. Future prognostic models will incorporate molecular markers with clinical variables to refine prognosis and prediction in metastatic clear-cell RCC patients treated with novel VEGF-targeted agents. These models, if externally and prospectively validated, will culminate in the rational selection of patients for specific VEGF-directed therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/14796694.4.1.85DOI Listing
February 2008

Is temsirolimus more safe and effective than interferon alpha for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma?

Nat Clin Pract Urol 2007 Nov 4;4(11):586-7. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, The Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncpuro0915DOI Listing
November 2007

Clinical factors associated with outcome in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy.

Cancer 2007 Aug;110(3):543-50

Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Background: Therapy targeted against the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is a standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The identification of patients who are more likely to benefit from these agents is warranted.

Methods: In total, 120 patients with metastatic clear-cell RCC received bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, or axitinib on 1 of 9 prospective clinical trials at the Cleveland Clinic. Clinical features associated with outcome were identified by univariate analysis; then, a stepwise modeling approach based on Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors and to form a model for progression-free survival (PFS). A bootstrap algorithm was used to provide internal validation.

Results: The overall median PFS was 13.8 months, and the objective response according to the Response Criteria in Solid Tumors was 34%. Multivariate analysis identified time from diagnosis to current treatment <2 years; baseline platelet and neutrophil counts >300 K/microL and >4.5 K/microL, respectively; baseline corrected serum calcium <8.5 mg/dL or >10 mg/dL; and initial Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >0 as independent, adverse prognostic factors (PF) for PFS. Three prognostic subgroups were formed based on the number of adverse prognostic factors present. The median PFS in patients with 0 or 1 adverse prognostic factor was 20.1 months compared with 13 months in patients with 2 adverse prognostic factors and 3.9 months in patients with >2 adverse prognostic factors.

Conclusions: Five independent prognostic factors for predicting PFS were identified and were used to categorize patients with metastatic RCC who received VEGF-targeted therapies into 3 risk groups. These prognostic factors can be incorporated into patient care and clinical trials that use such novel, VEGF-targeted agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22827DOI Listing
August 2007

Efficacy of growth factors compared to other therapies for low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

Br J Haematol 2007 Apr;137(2):125-32

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders. Low-risk MDS represent a subgroup with a relatively good prognosis, but with few trials evaluating outcomes. A pooled analysis based upon a MEDLINE search identified 162 original articles describing patient characteristics and effect of therapy on 2592 individuals with pathologically confirmed refractory anaemia or refractory anaemia with ringed sideroblasts with <5% bone marrow blasts. Treatments were categorised as growth factors (GF) or non-growth factors (NGF). International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score was documented or calculated when possible. Responses and outcomes were standardised according to the International Working Group MDS criteria. Growth factors produced higher overall response rates (39.5% vs. 31.4% for NGF, P = 0.019), while NGF yielded better CR/PR rates (25.6% vs. 9.1% for GF, P = 0.03). Over 2 years of follow-up, those receiving GF demonstrated greater overall and progression-free survival than NGF, after controlling for baseline patient characteristics. Decision tools need to be developed to determine which therapy to choose for patients with low-risk MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06546.xDOI Listing
April 2007

A Decision analysis to determine the appropriate treatment for low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

Cancer 2007 Mar;109(6):1125-32

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

Background: The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are divided into low-risk and high-risk diseases. Predictive models for response to growth factors (GF) have been developed based on red blood cell transfusion needs and erythropoietin levels. For low-risk MDS the optimal initial therapy (GF vs nongrowth factor [NGF] therapies, including differentiation and immunomodulatory agents) based on response rates to NGF and GF and survival, has not been defined.

Methods: A Markov decision analysis was performed on 799 low-risk MDS patients treated with either GF or NGF to determine the appropriate initial therapy. The treatment strategies analyzed included initial GF or NGF therapies, assuming 3 different states: Patients were either in the good GF predictive group (low transfusion needs and low erythropoietin levels), intermediate, or the poor GF predictive group (high transfusion needs and high erythropoietin levels).

Results: In the good GF predictive group, initial therapy with GF improved survival compared with NGF therapies at 3.38 years vs 2.57 years for a typical MDS patient. The advantage of GF to NGF was lost when NGF therapies produced a response in >or=46% of patients. In the intermediate or poor GF predictive groups, NGF maximized survival, provided response rates for NGF were >14% and 4%, respectively, for each predictive group. Quality of life adjustment did not alter the preferred strategy.

Conclusions: Modeling estimates suggest that patients who fall into a good GF predictive group should almost always receive GF initially, whereas those in intermediate and poor predictive groups should almost always be treated with NGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22497DOI Listing
March 2007

Impact of coronary sinus lead position on biventricular pacing: mortality and echocardiographic evaluation during long-term follow-up.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2004 Oct;15(10):1120-5

Department of Cardiology, Umberto I Hospital, Mestre-Venice, Italy.

Introduction: Biventricular pacing is an established treatment for congestive heart failure. Whether the anatomic location of the coronary sinus (CS) lead affects outcomes is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical response and mortality in patients who had transvenous CS leads placed in different anatomic branches for biventricular pacing.

Methods And Results: We evaluated 233 consecutive patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV heart failure and ejection fraction <35% who had successful placement of a transvenous left ventricular lead through a CS venous branch. Patients were divided into two groups based on anatomic lead position. Group 1 (n = 66) included leads in the anterior and anterolateral branches. Group 2 (n = 167) included leads in the lateral and posterolateral branches. Postimplant, functional capacity improved from an average 3.1 to 2.7 in group 1 (P = 0.001) and from 3.1 to 2.3 in group 2 (P = 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measured by transthoracic echocardiography did not improve significantly in group 1 (pre-LVEF 18%, post-LVEF 20%; P = NS) but increased significantly from 19% to 27% in group 2 (P = 0.008). Despite the difference in ejection fraction response, the mortality in the two groups after a mean follow-up of 546 days was similar (13.6% group 1 vs 17.9% group 2).

Conclusion: Placement of the CS lead in the lateral and posterolateral branches is associated with significant improvement in functional capacity and greater improvement in left ventricular function compared with the anterior CS location. This improvement does not appear to influence mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1540-8167.2004.04089.xDOI Listing
October 2004
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