Publications by authors named "Ali Raza"

281 Publications

Short and long-run causal effects of agriculture, forestry, and other land use on greenhouse gas emissions: evidence from China using VECM approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

OYAGSB, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia.

Climate change caused by different anthropogenic activities is a subject of attention globally. There is a concern on how to maintain a clean environment and at the same time achieve optimal use of land. To this end, this study examines the causal effects of land use including agricultural, forestry, and other land categories on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The data for China is collected over the period 1990 to 2012 for the empirical examination. By employing vector error correction model (VECM), it is found that there is significant long-run causality among variables. However, in the short run expectedly, only land under agriculture has strong causality with the GHG emissions. The results in case of variance decomposition analysis highlight that land under agriculture and other use significantly causes the GHG emissions in the long run. Further, impulse responses of variables are also measured with the Cholesky one standard deviation. The results are robust and support the argument that different land uses cause GHG emissions in China. The study provides insights for policy makers to improve the activities occurring on agricultural and other land uses. Assessment of overall potential, including bio energy, needs to include analysis of trade-offs and feedbacks with land-use competition. Many positive linkages with sustainable development and with adaptation exist but are case and site specific as they depend on scale, scope, and pace of implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15474-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide analysis and expression patterns of lipid phospholipid phospholipase gene family in Brassica napus L.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 18;22(1):548. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Oil Crops Research Institute, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Ministry of Agriculture, 430062, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPP) are critical for regulating the production and degradation of phosphatidic acid (PA), an essential signaling molecule under stress conditions. Thus far, the LPP family genes have not been reported in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

Results: In this study, a genome-wide analysis was carried out to identify LPP family genes in rapeseed that respond to different stress conditions. Eleven BnLPPs genes were identified in the rapeseed genome. Based on phylogenetic and synteny analysis, BnLPPs were classified into four groups (Group I-Group IV). Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that similar intron/exon and motifs patterns occur in the same group. By evaluating cis-elements in the promoters, we recognized six hormone- and seven stress-responsive elements. Further, six putative miRNAs were identified targeting three BnLPP genes. Gene ontology analysis disclosed that BnLPP genes were closely associated with phosphatase/hydrolase activity, membrane parts, phosphorus metabolic process, and dephosphorylation. The qRT-PCR based expression profiles of BnLPP genes varied in different tissues/organs. Likewise, several gene expression were significantly up-regulated under NaCl, PEG, cold, ABA, GA, IAA, and KT treatments.

Conclusions: This is the first report to describe the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the rapeseed LPP gene family. We identified different phytohormones and abiotic stress-associated genes that could help in enlightening the plant tolerance against phytohormones and abiotic stresses. The findings unlocked new gaps for the functional verification of the BnLPP gene family during stresses, leading to rapeseed improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07862-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286584PMC
July 2021

Curbing Nurses' Burnout during COVID-19: the roles of Servant Leadership and Psychological Safety.

J Nurs Manag 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Knowledge unit of Business, Economics, Accountancy and Commerce, University of Management and Technology Sialkot Campus, Pakistan.

Aims: This study examines the role of servant leadership through the mechanism of psychological safety in curbing nurses' burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, studies have shown an increased level of stress and burnout among healthcare workers, especially nurses. This study responds to the call for research to explore the mechanisms of servant leadership in predicting nurses' burnout by employing the perspective of conservation of resources theory.

Methods: Through a cross-sectional quantitative research design, data were collected in three waves from 443 nurses working in Pakistan's five public sector hospitals. Data were analyzed by employing the partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) technique.

Results: Servant leadership (β = -0.318, 95% CI; 0.225, 0.416) and psychological safety (β = -0.342, CI = 0.143, 0.350) have an inverse relationship with nurses' burnout and explain 63.1% variance.

Conclusions: Servant leadership significantly reduces nurses' burnout, and psychological safety mediates this relationship.

Implications For Nursing Management: Human resource management policies in healthcare must emphasize training nursing leaders in servant leadership behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13414DOI Listing
July 2021

Numerical simulation and stability analysis of a novel reaction-diffusion COVID-19 model.

Nonlinear Dyn 2021 Jun 28:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Mathematics and Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, 35516 Egypt.

In this study, a novel reaction-diffusion model for the spread of the new coronavirus (COVID-19) is investigated. The model is a spatial extension of the recent COVID-19 SEIR model with nonlinear incidence rates by taking into account the effects of random movements of individuals from different compartments in their environments. The equilibrium points of the new system are found for both diffusive and non-diffusive models, where a detailed stability analysis is conducted for them. Moreover, the stability regions in the space of parameters are attained for each equilibrium point for both cases of the model and the effects of parameters are explored. A numerical verification for the proposed model using a finite difference-based method is illustrated along with their consistency, stability and proving the positivity of the acquired solutions. The obtained results reveal that the random motion of individuals has significant impact on the observed dynamics and steady-state stability of the spread of the virus which helps in presenting some strategies for the better control of it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11071-021-06623-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236573PMC
June 2021

Utilization of Polymer Concrete Composites for a Circular Economy: A Comparative Review for Assessment of Recycling and Waste Utilization.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and Materials Science, University of Stavanger, NO-4036 Stavanger, Norway.

Polymer composites have been identified as the most innovative and selective materials known in the 21st century. Presently, polymer concrete composites (PCC) made from industrial or agricultural waste are becoming more popular as the demand for high-strength concrete for various applications is increasing. Polymer concrete composites not only provide high strength properties but also provide specific characteristics, such as high durability, decreased drying shrinkage, reduced permeability, and chemical or heat resistance. This paper provides a detailed review of the utilization of polymer composites in the construction industry based on the circular economy model. This paper provides an updated and detailed report on the effects of polymer composites in concrete as supplementary cementitious materials and a comprehensive analysis of the existing literature on their utilization and the production of polymer composites. A detailed review of a variety of polymers, their qualities, performance, and classification, and various polymer composite production methods is given to select the best polymer composite materials for specific applications. PCCs have become a promising alternative for the reuse of waste materials due to their exceptional performance. Based on the findings of the studies evaluated, it can be concluded that more research is needed to provide a foundation for a regulatory structure for the acceptance of polymer composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13132135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271588PMC
June 2021

Synergy of production of value-added bioplastic, astaxanthin and phycobilin co-products and Direct Green 6 textile dye remediation in Spirulina platensis.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 21;280:130920. Epub 2021 May 21.

Key Lab of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Wuhan, 430062, China. Electronic address:

Phyco-remediation of dyestuffs in textile wastewaters is of economic, industrial, and environmental importance. We evaluated the remediation of the textile dye, Direct Green 6 (DG6), by Spirulina platensis, and investigated the novel possibility that DG6 treatment enhances production of the biopolymer, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). We showed that both live and dead cells of Spirulina were capable of DG6 remediation, but live cells could be re-used with no loss of remediation efficiency. Furthermore, DG6 remediation by live cells resulted in increased algal biomass and trichome lengths, and stimulated production of valuable metabolites, including PHB, antioxidants, carbohydrates and pigments (phycobilins and astaxanthin). We determined the optimal conditions for DG6 remediation and an artificial neural network (ANN) accurately modeled the experimental data and predicted the concentration of dye as the most and algal turbidity as the least important parameters for DG6 removal efficiency. A DG6 concentration of 60 mg L resulted in the highest simultaneous co-production of PHB (12.7 ± 1.7% DW) and increase of astaxanthin (194%), carotenoids (50%), phenol (51%), carbohydrates (27%) total phycobilin (43%), together with the enhancement of biomass and trichome lengths (95%). Oxidative stress indices and enzyme activities such as peroxidases and laccase (involved in dye removal/antioxidant functions) were also increased by dye dosage. On the basis of our results, we propose that S. platensis may use DG6 dye as a nitrogen/carbon source for co-accumulation of valuable bioplastic and metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130920DOI Listing
October 2021

Management Of Childhood Steroid Dependent Nephrotic Syndrome With Cyclophosphamide - An Experience At Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2021 Apr-Jun;33(2):213-216

Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, KMU Institute of Medical Sciences, Kohat, Pakistan.

Background: This study has been done in children with Steroid dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS) to check for the response to cyclophosphamide and relapse on follow up for one year after completion of treatment.

Methods: This study was conducted over two years and nine months. Patients were taken as steroid dependent when there were two consecutive relapses occur on steroids tapering or within two weeks of stopping treatment. Children of either sex between ages of 1-14 years, diagnosed case of SDNS were included in this study. Renal biopsy was not done in any patient. After achieving remission with oral steroids, cyclophosphamide was given after calculation of maximum cumulative dose 168 mg/kg for 8 - 12 weeks along with oral steroids. Follow up done every two weeks till completion of treatment for response and adverse effects and thereafter for one year.

Results: There were 31 patients, 23 (74.2%) male and 8 (25.8%) females. Age ranged from 1.5 years to 11 years with mean age 5.44±2.39 years. There was full response to cyclophosphamide as none of patient had proteinuria on cyclophosphamide therapy. After completion of cyclophosphamide course, four patients (12.9%) relapsed on follow up while 87.9% remain in complete remission. Only one female patient (3.23%) had adverse effect in form of hair fall and she recovered after completion of treatment. None of patient showed any other adverse effect including haematuria.

Conclusions: Cyclophosphamide is an effective therapy in management of childhood SDNS with minimum adverse effects in medium term.
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July 2021

On the Structural Performance of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Columns with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Bars and Hoops.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 7;13(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632014, India.

Structural members comprising geopolymer recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) reinforced with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars have not been investigated appropriately for axial compressive loading cases. The present study addresses this knowledge gap by evaluating the structural efficiency of GFRP-reinforced geopolymer recycled aggregate concrete (GGRAC)-based members subjected to axial compressive loading. A total of nine compressive members (250 mm in cross-section and 1150 mm in height) were constructed to examine the effect of the number of longitudinal GFRP bars and the vertical spacing of transverse GFRP hoops/ties. The experimental results portrayed that the ductility of GGRAC compressive members improved with the reduction in the pitch of GFRP hoops. The axial load-carrying capacity (LCC) of GGRAC compressive members increased by increasing the number of GFRP bars up to eight (corresponding to a reinforcement ratio of 2.11%) while it decreased by using ten longitudinal GFRP bars (corresponding to a reinforcement ratio of 2.65%). Additionally, an empirical model was suggested to predict the axial LCC of GGRAC compressive members based on a large amount of experimental data of similar members. The experimental results and related theoretical predictions substantially prove the applicability and accuracy of the proposed model. The proposed column represents a feasible structural member in terms of material availability and environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13091508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125636PMC
May 2021

Development of Multi-concentration Cu:Ag Bimetallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Bactericidal for Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria as Evaluated with Molecular Docking Study.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 22;16(1):91. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

The present study is concerned with evaluating the influence of various concentrations of Ag within Cu:Ag bimetallic nanoparticles developed for use as a promising anti-bacterial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, Cu:Ag bimetallic nanoparticles with various concentration ratios (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 wt%) of Ag in fixed amount of Cu labeled as 1:0.025, 1:0.050, 1:0.075, and 1:0.1 were synthesized using co-precipitation method with ammonium hydroxide and deionized water as solvent, polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a capping agent, and sodium borohydride and ascorbic acid as reducing agents. These formulated products were characterized through a variety of techniques. XRD confirmed phase purity and detected the presence of distinct fcc structures belonging to Cu and Ag phases. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of vibrational modes corresponding to various functional groups and recorded characteristic peak emanating from the bimetallic. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed reduction in band gap with increasing Ag content. SEM and HR-TEM micrographs revealed spherical morphology of Ag-doped Cu bimetallic with small and large scale agglomerations. The samples exhibited varying dimensions and interlayer spacing. Bactericidal action of synthesized Cu:Ag bimetallic NPs depicted statistically significant (P < 0.05) inhibition zones recorded for various concentrations of Ag dopant against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) ranging from (0.85-2.8 mm), (0.55-1.95 mm) and (0.65-1.85 mm), respectively. Broadly, Cu:Ag bimetallic NPs were found to be more potent against gram-positive compared with gram-negative. Molecular docking study of Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs was performed against β-lactamase which is a key enzyme of cell wall biosynthetic pathway from both S. aureus (Binding score: - 4.981 kcal/mol) and A. bauminnii (Binding score: - 4.013 kcal/mol). Similarly, binding interaction analysis against FabI belonging to fatty acid biosynthetic pathway from A. bauminnii (Binding score: - 3.385 kcal/mol) and S. aureus (Binding score: - 3.012 kcal/mol) along with FabH from E. coli (Binding score: - 4.372 kcal/mol) was undertaken. These theoretical computations indicate Cu-Ag bimetallic NPs as possible inhibitor of selected enzymes. It is suggested that exploring in vitro inhibition potential of these materials may open new avenues for antibiotic discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03547-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141091PMC
May 2021

Medical Staff Work Burnout and Willingness to Work during COVID-19 Pandemic Situation in Pakistan.

Hosp Top 2021 May 18:1-9. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Education, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Layyah, Pakistan.

Medical staff is vital for helping society through a health crisis, human-made or natural disaster, and pandemic. This study aims to investigate the medical staff's work-related burnout during Covid-19 and their willingness to work when they are most needed. The cross-sectional design was used, and an online survey was conducted through snowball sampling. Sample comprised on 250 participants (male = 89 & female= 161). The study's inclusion criteria were that only those medical staff of different hospitals was approached to collect data performed inwards isolated for Covid-19 treatment corona isolation wards. Maslach burnout inventory (MBI-HSS) and willingness to work (WTW) tools were used to collect data. Descriptive and Partial least square analysis was utilized to evaluate the relationships. The Coefficient of determination or R-Square value was 0.299, which means 29.9% or 30% of the work burnout variation was due to the impact of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. Perceived danger, Role Competence, Self-Efficacy, and Sense of duty significantly impacted the willingness to work. Despite the workload and perceived risk, 42.6% of participants agreed to work if their department had to need their services, while 55.2% of participants agreed to work whether their department asked them or not. Government and hospital management should adopt a proactive and positive response during the pandemic to eradicate the employee stress and adopt adequate steps to improve the willingness to work with medical staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2021.1927922DOI Listing
May 2021

Strength Profile Pattern of FRP-Reinforced Concrete Structures: A Performance Analysis through Finite Element Analysis and Empirical Modeling Technique.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Camperdown 2006, Australia.

Limited research work is available in the literature for the theoretical estimates of axial compressive strength of columns reinforced with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rebars. In the present work, an experimental database of 278 FRP-reinforced concrete (RC) compression members was established from the literature to recommend an empirical model that can accurately predict the axial strength (AS) of GFRP-RC specimens. An initial assessment of 13 different previously anticipated empirical models was executed to achieve a general form of the AS model. Finally, a new empirical equation for forecasting the AS of GFRP-RC short columns was proposed using the curve fitting and regression analysis technique. The performance of the proposed empirical model over the previous experimental database represented its higher accuracy as related to that of other models. For the further justification of the anticipated model, a numerical model of GFRP-RC columns was simulated using ABAQUS and a wide parametric study of 600 GFRP-RC samples was executed to generate a numerical database and investigate the influence of various parameters using numerical and empirical models. The comparison between theoretical and numerical predictions with R = 0.77 indicted that the anticipated empirical model is accurate enough to apprehend the AS of FRP-RC specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13081265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069816PMC
April 2021

Catalase (CAT) Gene Family in Rapeseed ( L.): Genome-Wide Analysis, Identification, and Expression Pattern in Response to Multiple Hormones and Abiotic Stress Conditions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 20;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Agriculture, Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland of Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China.

Catalase (CAT) is an antioxidant enzyme expressed by the gene family and exists in almost all aerobic organisms. Environmental stresses induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually hinder plant growth and development. The CAT enzyme translates the hydrogen peroxide (HO) to water (HO) and reduce the ROS levels to shelter the cells' death. So far, the gene family has not been reported in rapeseed ( L.). Therefore, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis was conducted to classify the genes in the rapeseed genome. The current study identified 14 genes in the rapeseed genome. Based on phylogenetic and synteny analysis, the belong to four groups (Groups I-IV). A gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that Group I, Group II, and Group IV possess almost the same intron/exon pattern, and an equal number of motifs, while Group III contains diverse structures and contain 15 motifs. By analyzing the -elements in the promoters, we identified five hormone-correlated responsive elements and four stress-related responsive elements. Further, six putative bna-miRNAs were also identified, targeting three genes ( and ). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis showed that the genes were largely related to cellular organelles, ROS response, stimulus response, stress response, and antioxidant enzymes. Almost 10 genes showed higher expression levels in different tissues, i.e., root, leaf, stem, and silique. The expression analysis showed that and were significantly upregulated by cold, salinity, abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellic acid (GA) treatment, but not by drought and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Notably, most of the genes were upregulated by waterlogging stress, except , and . Our results opened new windows for future investigations and provided insights into the family genes in rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074368PMC
April 2021

Liquid-phase exfoliated MoS nanosheets doped with -type transition metals: a comparative analysis of photocatalytic and antimicrobial potential combined with density functional theory.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(19):6598-6619

Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia.

MoS2 nanosheets were developed by undertaking the liquid-phase exfoliation of bulk counterparts. In order to enhance its photocatalytic properties, the host material was doped with p-type transition metals (i.e., Ag, Co, Bi, and Zr). The hydrothermal technique was used to produce samples doped with 7.5 wt% transition metals (TM). X-ray diffraction detected the existence of 2H-phase by mirroring its reflection at 2θ ∼ 14°, while the peak distribution revealed the degree of exfoliation in samples. Low PL intensities indicated a lower recombination of electron-hole pairs, as corroborated by a high degree of photocatalytic action. Raman analysis was undertaken to identify molecular vibrations. The A1g mode in Raman spectra consistently showed a blueshift in all samples and the E12g mode was only slightly affected, which is evidence of the p-type doping in the MoS2 nanosheets. In the XPS spectrum, two characteristic peaks of Mo 3d appeared at 229.87 and 233.03 eV assigned to Mo-3d5/2 and Mo-3d3/2, respectively. Furthermore, a microstructural examination with HR-TEM and FESEM divulged a thin-layered structure of MoS2 consisting of flat, gently curved or twisted nanosheets. Diverse morphologies were observed with a non-uniform distribution of the dopant. Photocatalytic action of the TM-doped products effectively degraded methylene blue (MB) concentrations of up to 94 percent (for Ag-MoS2). The synergistic effect of doped MoS2 nanosheets against S. aureus in comparison to E. coli bacteria was also evaluated. The efficacy % age improved from (0-31.7%) and (23.5-55.2%) against E. coli, and (0-34.2%) and (8.3-69.23%) against S. aureus. Moreover, results from first principles calculations indicate that substitutional doping of TM atoms is indeed advantageous. Theoretical calculations confirmed that doping with Ag, Co, Bi, and Zr leads to a decrease in the band gap to a certain degree, in which the conduction band edge shifts toward lower energy, while the valence band shifts closer to the high energy end. It can be concluded that Ag, Co, and Bi impurities can lead to beneficial p-type doping in MoS2 monolayered structures. With regards to doping with Zr, the acceptor levels are formed above the edge of the valence band, revealing an introduction of the p-type character.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00236hDOI Listing
May 2021

Serum proteomes of Santa Gertrudis cattle before and after infestation with Rhipicephalus australis ticks.

Parasite Immunol 2021 Jul 11;43(7):e12836. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Centre for Animal Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture & Food Innovation, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.

Previous studies have applied genomics and transcriptomics to identify immune and genetic markers as key indicator traits for cattle tick susceptibility/resistance; however, results differed between breeds, and there is lack of information on the use of host proteomics. Serum samples from Santa Gertrudis cattle (naïve and phenotyped over 105 days as tick-resistant [TR] or tick-susceptible [TS]) were used to conduct differential abundance analyses of protein profiles. Serum proteins were digested into peptides followed by identification and quantification using sequential window acquisition of all instances of theoretical fragment ion mass spectrometry. Before tick infestation, abundance of 28 proteins differed significantly (adjusted P < 10 ) between TR and TS. These differences were also observed following tick infestation (TR vs TS) with a further eight differentially abundant proteins in TR cattle, suggesting possible roles in adaptive responses. The intragroup comparisons (TS-0 vs TS and TR-0 vs TR) showed that tick infestation elicited quite similar responses in both groups of cattle, but with relatively stronger responses in TR cattle. Many of the significantly differentially abundant proteins in TR Santa Gertrudis cattle (before and after tick infestation) were associated with immune responses including complement factors, chemotaxis for immune cells and acute-phase responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12836DOI Listing
July 2021

Can omics deliver temperature resilient ready-to-grow crops?

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Apr 7:1-24. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center of Excellence in Genomics & Systems Biology, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India.

Plants are extensively well-thought-out as the main source for nourishing natural life on earth. In the natural environment, plants have to face several stresses, mainly heat stress (HS), chilling stress (CS) and freezing stress (FS) due to adverse climate fluctuations. These stresses are considered as a major threat for sustainable agriculture by hindering plant growth and development, causing damage, ultimately leading to yield losses worldwide and counteracting to achieve the goal of "zero hunger" proposed by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Notably, this is primarily because of the numerous inequities happening at the cellular, molecular and/or physiological levels, especially during plant developmental stages under temperature stress. Plants counter to temperature stress via a complex phenomenon including variations at different developmental stages that comprise modifications in physiological and biochemical processes, gene expression and differences in the levels of metabolites and proteins. During the last decade, omics approaches have revolutionized how plant biologists explore stress-responsive mechanisms and pathways, driven by current scientific developments. However, investigations are still required to explore numerous features of temperature stress responses in plants to create a complete idea in the arena of stress signaling. Therefore, this review highlights the recent advances in the utilization of omics approaches to understand stress adaptation and tolerance mechanisms. Additionally, how to overcome persisting knowledge gaps. Shortly, the combination of integrated omics, genome editing, and speed breeding can revolutionize modern agricultural production to feed millions worldwide in order to accomplish the goal of "zero hunger."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2021.1898332DOI Listing
April 2021

The Influence of Person-Environment Fit on the Turnover Intention of Nurses in Jordan: The Moderating Effect of Psychological Empowerment.

Nurs Res Pract 2021 16;2021:6688603. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Benazir School of Business, Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi 74660, Pakistan.

There is an acute shortage of nurses worldwide, including in Jordan. The nursing shortage is considered to be a crucial and complex challenge across healthcare systems and has stretched to a warning threshold. High turnover among nurses in Jordan is an enduring problem and is believed to be the foremost cause of the nurse shortage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multidimensional impact of the person-environment (P-E) fit on the job satisfaction (JS) and turnover intention (TI) of registered nurses. The moderating effect of psychological empowerment (PE) on the relationship between JS and TI was also investigated. Based on a quantitative research design, data were collected purposively from 383 registered nurses working at private Jordanian hospitals through self-administered structured questionnaires. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 25 and Smart Partial Least Squares (PLS) 3.2.8 were used to analyze the statistical data. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between person-job fit (P-J fit), person-supervisor fit (P-S fit), and JS. However, this study found an insignificant relationship between person-organization fit (P-O fit) and JS. Moreover, PE was also significantly moderate between JS and TI of nurses. This study offers an important policy intervention that helps healthcare organizations to understand the enduring issue of nurse turnover. Additionally, policy recommendations to mitigate nurse turnover in Jordan are outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6688603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987446PMC
March 2021

Analysis of a nonstandard computer method to simulate a nonlinear stochastic epidemiological model of coronavirus-like diseases.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jun 20;204:106054. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: We propose a nonstandard computational model to approximate the solutions of a stochastic system describing the propagation of an infectious disease. The mathematical model considers the existence of various sub-populations, including humans who are susceptible to the disease, asymptomatic humans, infected humans and recovered or quarantined individuals. Various mechanisms of propagation are considered in order to describe the propagation phenomenon accurately.

Methods: We propose a stochastic extension of the deterministic model, considering a random component which follows a Brownian motion. In view of the difficulties to solve the system exactly, we propose a computational model to approximate its solutions following a nonstandard approach.

Results: The nonstandard discretization is fully analyzed for positivity, boundedness and stability. It is worth pointing out that these properties are realized in the discrete scenario and that they are thoroughly established herein using rigorous mathematical arguments. We provide some illustrative computational simulations to exhibit the main computational features of this approach.

Conclusions: The results show that the nonstandard technique is capable of preserving the distinctive characteristics of the epidemiologically relevant solutions of the model, while other (classical) approaches are not able to do it. For the sake of convenience, a computational code of the nonstandard discrete model may be provided to the readers at their requests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106054DOI Listing
June 2021

Foliar Application of CeO Nanoparticles Alters Generative Components Fitness and Seed Productivity in Bean Crop ( L.).

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan.

In the era of technology, nanotechnology has been introduced as a new window for agriculture. However, no attention has been paid to the effect of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the reproductive stage of plant development to evaluate their toxicity and safety. To address this important topic, bean plants ( L.) treated aerially with nCeO suspension at 250-2000 mg L were cultivated until flowering and seed production in the greenhouse condition. Microscopy analysis was carried out on sectioned anthers and ovules at different developmental stages. The pollen's mother cell development in nCeO treatments was normal at early stages, the same as control plants. However, the results indicated that pollen grains underwent serious structural damages, including chromosome separation abnormality at anaphase I, pollen wall defect, and pollen grain malformations in nCeO-treated plants at the highest concentration, which resulted in pollen abortion and yield losses. On the ovule side, the progression of development only at the highest concentration was modified in the two-nucleated embryo sac stage, probably due to apoptosis in nuclei. Nevertheless, the findings confirmed the more pronounced vulnerability of male reproductive development under nCeO exposure than female development. The higher concentration decreased seed productivity, including seed set in either pods or whole plant (13% and 18% compared to control, respectively). The data suggested the potential application of nCeO at optimal dosages as a plant productivity ameliorative. However, a higher dosage is considered as an eco-environmental hazard. To our best knowledge, this is the first study analyzing reproductive plant response upon exposure to nCeO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065513PMC
March 2021

Landscapes of cellular phenotypic diversity in breast cancer xenografts and their impact on drug response.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):1998. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute and Department of Oncology, Li Ka Shing Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The heterogeneity of breast cancer plays a major role in drug response and resistance and has been extensively characterized at the genomic level. Here, a single-cell breast cancer mass cytometry (BCMC) panel is optimized to identify cell phenotypes and their oncogenic signalling states in a biobank of patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDTX) models representing the diversity of human breast cancer. The BCMC panel identifies 13 cellular phenotypes (11 human and 2 murine), associated with both breast cancer subtypes and specific genomic features. Pre-treatment cellular phenotypic composition is a determinant of response to anticancer therapies. Single-cell profiling also reveals drug-induced cellular phenotypic dynamics, unravelling previously unnoticed intra-tumour response diversity. The comprehensive view of the landscapes of cellular phenotypic heterogeneity in PDTXs uncovered by the BCMC panel, which is mirrored in primary human tumours, has profound implications for understanding and predicting therapy response and resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22303-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012607PMC
March 2021

An Outcome Of Conservative Management Of Primary Nocturnal Enuresis In Children.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2021 Jan-Mar;33(1):71-74

Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Background: Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the common problems in children. Mostly parents are concern for this condition in children and also children are depressive from this condition. The main stay of treatment is the training of child. The objective of this study was to look for the outcome of conservative management of primary nocturnal enuresis.

Methods: This study was done in OPD of paediatrics department. Patients aged five year or more were included in the study. Patient age, weight, sex, blood pressure, family history in siblings and parents, number of wet days/week, recorded on specific proforma along with renal function tests. Patients were advised fluid restriction after evening and micturition before sleep and after 2-3 hours of sleep. Follow up was done after six months to observe for the impact of habit change. Data has been analysed by SPSS 20 and results are taken significant with p-value <0.05.

Results: Out of 81 patients, 41 were male and 40 females. Age ranged from 5 to 14 years and mean age was 8.2±2.35 years. There were 11.1% parents who had primary nocturnal enuresis during childhood and in 29.6% siblings, history was positive. Follow up at 6 months, 58% patients improved while 42% showed no improvement. There was significant relationship between evening fluid restriction, micturition before and after sleep with improvement at 6 months with p-value of 0.010, <0.001 and 0.002 respectively.

Conclusions: Conservative management is the effective intervention in children as parents should be emphasized for habit change.
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June 2021

Should We Embrace the Incorporation of Genetically Guided "Dopamine Homeostasis" in the Treatment of Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RSD) as a Frontline Therapeutic Modality?

Acta Sci Neurol 2021 Feb;4(2):17-24

Department of Psychiatry, South Texas Veteran Health Care System, Audie L. Murphy Memorial VA Hospital, San Antonio, TX, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

In 2019, the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention provided vital statistics related to drug overdoses in the United State1. They concluded that in the USA the number of deaths at almost 72,000 was due to 66.6% of opioid overdoses. In fact, the rate is alarming and increasing yearly. To make 2021 even more scary is the daunting effect on increased drug usage due to COVID 19 as a pandemic, albeit the new vaccines. Specifically, in 2020, the death rate from opioid overdoses rose to 13% nationally and in some sates 30%. The common neuromodulating aspects of neurotransmission, and its disruption via chronic exposure of drugs and behavioral addictions, requires further intense research focus on developing novel strategies to combat these unwanted genetic and epigenic infractions as accomplished with heroin addiction by our group. The take home message is the plausible acceptance of the well-established evidence for hypodopaminergia, a blunted reward processing system, reduced resting state functional connectivity, genetic antecedents, anti- reward symptomatology, poor compliance with MAT, and generalized RDS. With this evidence it is conceivable that pursuit through intensive future research should involve an approach that incorporates "dopamine homeostasis". This required paradigm shift may consist of many beneficial modalities including but not limited to: exercise, pro-dopamine regulation, nutrigenomics, cognitive behavioral therapy, hedonic hot spot targets brain, rTMRS, deep brain stimulation, diet, genetic edits, genetic guided therapeutics, epigenetic repair, amongst others. It is our opinion that nutrigenomics may assist the millions of people of getting out of a" hypodopaminergic ditch" WC 250.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931265PMC
February 2021

Gold-induced photothermal background in on-chip surface enhanced stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

Opt Lett 2021 Mar;46(5):953-956

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) are well established techniques capable of boosting the strength of Raman scattering. The combination of both techniques (surface enhanced stimulated Raman spectroscopy, or SE-SRS) has been reported using plasmonic nanoparticles. In parallel, waveguide enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been developed using nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic waveguides. Here, we explore SE-SRS in nanoplasmonic waveguides. We demonstrate that a combined photothermal and thermo-optic effect in the gold material induces a strong background signal that limits the detection limit for the analyte. The experimental results are in line with theoretical estimates. We propose several methods to reduce or counteract this background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.418527DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of the micro/nanostructure of electrospun zein fibres on cells in simulated blood flow environment.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Mar 23;122:111900. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

In order to prevent thrombosis, reduce intima hyperplasia, and to maintain long-term patency after implantation of an artificial blood vessel, the formation of intact endothelial cells layer on an inner surface of graft is desirable. The present study aimed to improve endothelial cell adhesion by regulating the morphology of the inner surface of artificial blood vessels. Zein fibre membranes with three fibre diameters (small, ~100 nm; medium, ~500 nm; and large, ~1000 nm) were constructed by electrospinning. A flow chamber device was designed to simulate the blood flow environment. The morphology and adhesion of human umbilical vein fusion cells (EA.hy926) on the surface of the fibre membranes were studied under a shear stress of approximately 15 dynes/cm. The results showed that oriented electrospun zein fibre surfaces with both medium- and large-diameter fibres can regulate the morphology of endothelial cells (EA.hy926), which are aligned by the fibre direction. The three fibre membranes improved the adhesion of endothelial cells significantly compared to that on the flat membrane. When the fibre direction was fixed parallel to the fluid direction, the medium-diameter oriented-fibre membrane could significantly improve the ability endothelial cells to resist shear stress, and there was a significant difference at 1, 2 and 4 h time points compared with the shear stress resistance on the small-diameter and large-diameter oriented-fibre membranes. When the fibre direction was perpendicular to the fluid direction, again the medium-diameter oriented-fibre membrane improved the ability of endothelial cells to resist shear stress significantly at 1 and 2 h time points. It was concluded that by changing the diameter and arrangement of electrospun fibres, cell morphology control and shear stress resistance can be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111900DOI Listing
March 2021

Silver Decorated 2D Nanosheets of GO and MoS2 serve as Nanocatalyst for Water Treatment and Antimicrobial Applications as ascertained with Molecular Docking Evaluation.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Physics, Government College University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore, Punjab, 54000, PAKISTAN.

Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets doped with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have found significant antibacterial applications in industry. In this work, synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was realized through a modified Hummers route. Different concentrations (5 & 10 wt.%) of Ag were doped in MoS2 and rGO using a hydrothermal approach. Synthesized Ag-MoS2 and Ag-rGO were evaluated through XRD that confirmed the hexagonal structure of MoS2 along with the transformation of GO to Ag-rGO as indicated by a shift in XRD peaks. FTIR confirmed the presence of Mo-O bonding vibrations, and S=O functional groups present in the prepared samples. Morphological information of GO and formation of MoS2 nanopetals were verified through FESEM, while spherical morphology, interlayer spacing, and homogeneous distribution of AgNPs were scrutinized through HR-TEM. Raman analysis was employed to probe any evidence regarding defect densities of GO. Optical properties of GO, MoS2, Ag-rGO, and Ag-MoS2 were visualized through UV-Vis & PL spectroscopy. Prepared products were employed as nanocatalysts to purify industrial wastewater, while degradation of undoped and doped samples was inspected using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Experimental results revealed that the photocatalytic response of Ag-rGO and Ag-MoS2 enhanced upon doping. Besides, the nanocatalyst (Ag-MoS2 & Ag-rGO) exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity towards S. aureus gram positive (G+) and E. coli gram negative (G-). To rationalize biocidal mechanism of Ag-doped MoS2 NPs and Ag-rGO, in silico molecular docking study was employed for two enzymes (i.e. β-lactamase & ddlB) from cell wall biosynthetic pathway and FabI from fatty acid biosynthetic pathway belonging to S. aureus. The present study provides evidence for the development of cost-effective and environmental-friendly products that could receive favorable recommendation for use in industrial and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe43cDOI Listing
February 2021

A reversible and stable doping technique to invert the carrier polarity of MoTe.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 20;32(28). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials can be implemented in several functional devices for future optoelectronics and electronics applications. Remarkably, recent research on p-n diodes by stacking 2D materials in heterostructures or homostructures (out of plane) has been carried out extensively with novel designs that are impossible with conventional bulk semiconductor materials. However, the insight of a lateral p-n diode through a single nanoflake based on 2D material needs attention to facilitate the miniaturization of device architectures with efficient performance. Here, we have established a physical carrier-type inversion technique to invert the polarity of MoTe-based field-effect transistors (FETs) with deep ultraviolet (DUV) doping in (oxygen) Oand (nitrogen) Ngas environments. A p-type MoTenanoflake transformed its polarity to n-type when irradiated under DUV illumination in an Ngaseous atmosphere, and it returned to its original state once irradiated in an Ogaseous environment. Further, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements were employed to support our findings, where the value of the work function changed from ∼4.8 and ∼4.5 eV when p-type MoTeinverted to the n-type, respectively. Also, using this approach, an in-plane homogeneous p-n junction was formed and achieved a diode rectifying ratio (I/I) up to ∼3.8 × 10. This effective approach for carrier-type inversion may play an important role in the advancement of functional devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe2cbDOI Listing
April 2021

Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis thaliana rty gene in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) improves drought tolerance.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jan 21;21(1):57. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Beijing Academy of Forestry and Pomology Sciences, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100093, P. R. China.

Background: Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is an important fruit crop worldwide. It was particularly sensitive to drought stress because of their fibrous and shallow root systems. Mutant rty of Arabidopsis thaliana ROOTY (RTY) results in increased endogenous auxin levels, more roots, and shoot growth. It is still unclear whether the rty gene improves stress tolerance in strawberry.

Results: rty gene was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in the pBI121-rty binary vector carrying the selectable marker of neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II). Seven transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR and western blot analysis. Accumulations of IAA and ABA were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. The endogenous IAA contents were 46.5 ng g and 66.0 ng gin control and transgenic plants respectively. The endogenous ABA contents in the control plant were 236.3 ng g and in transgenic plants were 543.8 ng g. The production of adventitious roots and trichomes were enhanced in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transcript levels of the genes including IAA and ABA biosynthetic, and stress-responsive genes, were higher in the transgenic plants than in the control plants under drought conditions. Water use efficiency and a reduced water loss rate were enhanced in the transgenic strawberry plants. Additionally, peroxidase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the transgenic plants than in the control plants. The experiment results revealed a novel function for rty related to ABA and drought responses.

Conclusions: The rty gene improved hormone-mediated drought tolerance in transgenic strawberry. The heterologous expression of rty in strawberry improved drought tolerance by promoting auxin and ABA accumulation. These phytohormones together brought about various physiological changes that improved drought tolerance via increased root production, trichome density, and stomatal closure. Our results suggested that a transgenic approach can be used to overcome the inherent trade-off between plant growth and drought tolerance by enhancing water use efficiency and reducing water loss rate under water shortage conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02839-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818561PMC
January 2021

Frequency of Dengue Virus Serotype 1 in Lahore by In-house assay.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Dec;70(12(A)):2263-2265

Department of Virology and Molecular Biology, Chughtai Lab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Dengue is an important systemic viral infection that is caused by the dengue virus. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from dengue NS1 positive samples, collected randomly during dengue epidemic from October 2016 to October 2017 at Chugtai Lab, was extracted for nucleic acid. Both the detection and serotyping of dengue samples were performed using real-time PCR on Rotor Gene Q. From the 70 NS1 positive samples, 57 (81.4%) samples were confirmed to be positive for dengue virus RNA, while the remaining 13 (18.6%) were negative. Serotype 1 (DEN-1) was verified among all samples by in-house assay and using commercial kit FTD (Fast Track Diagnostics) dengue differentiation; it was concluded that our in-house assay is in 100% concordance with commercial kit. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) and serotype 3 (DEN-3) have been documented in Pakistan since 1994. But recent detection of serotype 1 in Pakistan is indicative of more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever in future due to reinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.1038DOI Listing
December 2020

Omics: The way forward to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in L.

GM Crops Food 2021 Jan;12(1):251-281

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University , Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Plant abiotic stresses negative affects growth and development, causing a massive reduction in global agricultural production. Rapeseed ( L.) is a major oilseed crop because of its economic value and oilseed production. However, its productivity has been reduced by many environmental adversities. Therefore, it is a prime need to grow rapeseed cultivars, which can withstand numerous abiotic stresses. To understand the various molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the abiotic stress tolerance and improvement in rapeseed, omics approaches have been extensively employed in recent years. This review summarized the recent advancement in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and their imploration in abiotic stress regulation in rapeseed. Some persisting bottlenecks have been highlighted, demanding proper attention to fully explore the omics tools. Further, the potential prospects of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing to assist molecular breeding in developing abiotic stress-tolerant rapeseed genotypes have also been explained. In short, the combination of integrated omics, genome editing, and speed breeding can alter rapeseed production worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2020.1859898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833762PMC
January 2021

A manipulative interplay between positive and negative regulators of phytohormones: A way forward for improving drought tolerance in plants.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 2;172(2):1269-1290. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Among different abiotic stresses, drought stress is the leading cause of impaired plant growth and low productivity worldwide. It is therefore essential to understand the process of drought tolerance in plants and thus to enhance drought resistance. Accumulating evidence indicates that phytohormones are essential signaling molecules that regulate diverse processes of plant growth and development under drought stress. Plants can often respond to drought stress through a cascade of phytohormones signaling as a means of plant growth regulation. Understanding biosynthesis pathways and regulatory crosstalk involved in these vital compounds could pave the way for improving plant drought tolerance while maintaining overall plant health. In recent years, the identification of phytohormones related key regulatory genes and their manipulation through state-of-the-art genome engineering tools have helped to improve drought tolerance plants. To date, several genes linked to phytohormones signaling networks, biosynthesis, and metabolism have been described as a promising contender for engineering drought tolerance. Recent advances in functional genomics have shown that enhanced expression of positive regulators involved in hormone biosynthesis could better equip plants against drought stress. Similarly, knocking down negative regulators of phytohormone biosynthesis can also be very effective to negate the negative effects of drought on plants. This review explained how manipulating positive and negative regulators of phytohormone signaling could be improvised to develop future crop varieties exhibiting higher drought tolerance. In addition, we also discuss the role of a promising genome editing tool, CRISPR/Cas9, on phytohormone mediated plant growth regulation for tackling drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13325DOI Listing
June 2021

An analysis of a nonlinear susceptible-exposed-infected-quarantine-recovered pandemic model of a novel coronavirus with delay effect.

Results Phys 2021 Feb 28;21:103771. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Law, Economics and Human Sciences& Decisions Lab, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, 89125 Reggio Calabria, Italy.

In the present study, a nonlinear delayed coronavirus pandemic model is investigated in the human population. For study, we find the equilibria of susceptible-exposed-infected-quarantine-recovered model with delay term. The stability of the model is investigated using well-posedness, Routh Hurwitz criterion, Volterra Lyapunov function, and Lasalle invariance principle. The effect of the reproduction number on dynamics of disease is analyzed. If the reproduction number is less than one then the disease has been controlled. On the other hand, if the reproduction number is greater than one then the disease has become endemic in the population. The effect of the quarantine component on the reproduction number is also investigated. In the delayed analysis of the model, we investigated that transmission dynamics of the disease is dependent on delay terms which is also reflected in basic reproduction number. At the end, to depict the strength of the theoretical analysis of the model, computer simulations are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2020.103771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768216PMC
February 2021
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