Publications by authors named "Ali Monfared"

55 Publications

Combined effect of oral famotidine and cimetidine on the survival of lethally irradiated mice: An study.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul-Sep;17(4):865-869

Student Research Committee; Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Aims: The study aims at evaluating the effects of the combinatory famotidine/cimetidine diet on radiated mice's survival.

Materials And Methods: Two hundred and seventy male mice were categorized into 11 groups, a number of which were comprised of subgroups too. The groups under analysis were posed to varying doses of gamma-radiation, including 6, 7, 8, and 9 Gy, followed by treatments using various drug doses 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg, with survival fractions as long as a month after irradiation being measured and recorded.

Results: LD was calculated as 7.47 Gy for the group with radiation only. Following mouse treatment with a concentration of 4 and 20 mg/kg for famotidine and cimetidine, respectively, the survival fraction for the mice grew significantly compared to LD. The combinatory famotidine/cimetidine diet had a higher dose-reduction factor (DRF) than single doses of the drug in radioprotection. The DRF for combinatory famotidine/cimetidine, famotidine, and cimetidine diets was 08.09, 1.1, and 1.01, respectively.

Conclusions: Results imply that the combined regimen of famotidine + cimetidine in radioprotection had no significant higher DRF than with regimens including each of them separately. In addition, we did not find a synergic effect of combined oral famotidine and cimetidine on irradiated mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_349_19DOI Listing
September 2021

Therapeutic effect of cold atmospheric plasma and its combination with radiation as a novel approach on inhibiting cervical cancer cell growth (HeLa cells).

Bioorg Chem 2021 06 7;111:104892. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Cancer Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer is one of the important cancers in women. Research on novel treatment approach can reduce the mortality and burden. Although radiotherapy is a common treatment, its negative side effects have concerned physician. In our study, we studied impact of cold atmospheric pressure plasma on the Hela cancer cells, as an alternative treatment. The effect of three different types of such plasma; dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), plasma jet, and afterglow plasma, on the cancer cells were studied. Moreover, some effective operating parameters such as exposure time, applied voltage, composition of working gas in plasma treatment were investigated on the survival of the afterglow plasma. Finally, treatments by the afterglow plasma, gamma radiation (1 Gy), and combination of both were compared. Analysis showed that DBD and plasma jet (direct exposure) effectively killed the cancer cells, even by a minimum applied voltage. But a fraction of the cells survived after the exposure of indirect diffused afterglow plasma. In the case of this plasma, we realized that higher applied voltage and exposure time led to less cell viability. Fewer fractions of survival cells were detected in the case of argon afterglow plasma comparing to oxygen afterglow. Cold atmospheric plasma and its combination with radiation therapy showed a significant decrease in viability of the cells, comparing to the radiation alone. Our research showed that plasma and its combination with radiation therapy have superiority over radiation therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104892DOI Listing
June 2021

Incidence and Risk Factors of Post-renal Transplantation Malignancies in North of Iran, A 20-year Experience.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2020 12;14(6):439-447

Urology Research Center, School of Medicine, Razi hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Introduction: The main causes of death in kidney transplant recipients are cardiovascular diseases and malignancy. This study aimed to determine the types of post-transplant malignancy, incidence, and related factors in renal transplant recipients referred to Razi Hospital in Rasht, Iran.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 549 kidney transplant recipients between 1998 and 2018. Patient-, transplant-, and medication-related factors and pathology reports were recorded in the check list. Chi-square, T-test and Logistic Regression were used to investigate the effect of variables. Malignancy-person-year incidence rate was calculated using survival tables and Kaplan-Mayer analysis.

Results: 43 (7.8%) recipients had malignancies. The most common site of malignancy was the skin (53.5%). Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) was the most common cancer (32.6%) followed by Kaposi sarcoma (20.9%). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of post-transplant malignancies in renal transplant recipients was 26.9 times the malignancies in Guilan province and 21.7 times the malignancies in Iran. Cox proportional hazard models identified older age at the time of transplantation and history of azathioprine consumption seems to be associated with risk for post-transplant malignancy.

Conclusion: The most common malignancies in these people were non-melanoma skin cancer, Kaposi sarcoma and then GI malignancies. According to the information obtained in this study, regular periodic examinations of kidney transplant recipients for early detection of malignancy is important.
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December 2020

Investigating Risk Factors for the Development of BK Virus Infection in Kidney Transplant Recipients in Guilan Province during 2007-2015.

Urol J 2020 Oct 21;17(6):620-625. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

7- Associate Professor of Urology, Urology Research Center, Razi Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Purpose: Polyomavirus nephropathy has been recognized as an important cause of silent loss of kidney transplant function in up to 50% of kidney recipients (1). The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients.

Materials And Methods: Clinical information, urinary Decoy cells, and blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were collected for polyomavirus infection in 223 kidney transplant recipients undergoing surgery at Razi hospital at Guilan University of Medical Sciences between 2007 and 2015. Kidney biopsies were performed in patients with BKPyV- DNAemia more than 10,000 Copies/ml or increased plasma creatinine.

Results: Among 223 patients, 116 (52%) were male. The mean age of participants was 49.57±13.48 years. Out of 223 participants, 41 (18.4%) had Decoy cells in their urine, and 182 (81.6%) did not, 15 of whom (6.7%) had viral genome in their blood. Only did 3 patients out of 10 have BK Virus nephropathy in their kidney biopsy. Among risk factors, it was found that post-transplant duration (P< 0.001) and the use of anti-thymocyte globulin (P= 0.001) were the most significant risk factors for finding decoy cells in patients' urine.

Conclusions: Post-transplant time, particularly the first 6 months, was found as the most important risk factor for the reactivation of polyomavirus infection in our patients because of strong immunosuppression and use of anti-thymocyte globulin (for prophylaxis or rejection treatment). It is concluded that kidney transplant recipients should be monitored in episodically after transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v16i7.5972DOI Listing
October 2020

Analysis of risk factors influencing the BK polyomavirus replication in patients with ESRD waiting for kidney transplantation.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 10;149:104558. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Since the pre-transplant status affects the renal transplantation success and ultimately the survival rate, identifying the probable risk factors that increase the chance of BK virus replication in end-stage renal disease patients can be included in proposing proper surveillance guidelines during pre and post-transplantation.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed by collecting plasma samples from 192 ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months. Quantitative Real-time PCR assay was used to detect and measure the BK viral load. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients who had BK viremia were documented.

Results: 14 (7.3%) out of our 192 participants had BK virus viremia (95%CI 4.2%-11.6%). Demographic characteristics including etiology of ESRD and underlying diseases, mean duration and frequency of dialysis, co-infection with HBV and HCV did not affect the virus replication, since the difference between patients with BK virus viremia and BK virus negative individuals was not statistically significant. However, the statistical significance of the mean age of men with BKV and without BK virus viremia was found (OR: 3.42, P = 0.02 95%CI 0.86-13.61). Also, multiple regression analyses of some other parameters revealed that old age, high body mass index and male gender can be predictive factors of BK virus viremia in ESRD patients.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, elderly male had higher chance of being exposed to BK virus viremia. Some other demographic characteristics such as a high BMI, old age and gender (male) can increase the risk of BK viremia in patients with ESRD prior to kidney transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104558DOI Listing
December 2020

Bone Mineral Density and Related Factors in Renal Transplant Recipients, in the North of Iran.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2020 09;14(5):405-411

Division of Nephrology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Introduction: Renal transplantation can lead to or be associated with Low bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study is evaluation of BMD and related factors in our renal transplant patients.

Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional analytical study, 148 kidney transplant patients from university hospital, were enrolled. BMD of hip and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and patients were divided into 3 groups: normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis; according to T-score. Laboratory parameters and a series of variables were investigated, and the results were compared with BMD findings.

Results: In this study, 73 patients (49.3%) had osteopenia and 28 patients (18.9%) were osteoporotic. BMI was significantly lower in the osteoporosis group compared with the normal group (P < .05). Cumulative dose of prednisolone and calcium supplement were higher in osteoporotic group compared with normal group.

Conclusion: According to our results, osteoporotic and osteopenia groups have lower BMI that is associated with lower BMD. This can lead to increased risk of bone fractures in the future. Early discontinuation or reduction of prednisolone dose can improve BMD.
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September 2020

Clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in kidney transplant recipients in Razi hospital, Rasht, Iran.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Dec 2;22(6):e13420. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Inflammatory Lung Diseases Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Razi Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: In late December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 started to spread around the world in different populations. Its clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome in kidney transplant recipients are little known. Therefore, we describe 22 kidney transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia.

Methods: All kidney transplant recipients who referred to the Razi Hospital of Rasht with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection from February 20 to 19th of April 2020 have been included in this observational study.

Results: We present 22 cases of COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients (median age 52 years [interquartile range 40.75-62.75 years]) and baseline eGFR 60 (mL/min/1.73 m ) (44.75-86.75). Patients complained of cough (72.7%), dyspnea (63.6%), fever (68.2%), and chill (72.7%) with greater prevalence. We decreased the dose of immunosuppression and started stress dose of intravenous hydrocortisone or equivalent oral prednisolone. Each patient received antiviral therapy based on the latest updated version of local protocol at the time of admission. CT scan findings in 90.9% of patients showed bilateral multifocal lesions. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was observed in 12 patients during hospitalization. Six patients died after a median of 12 days from admission (IQR, 1-21).

Conclusions: In this small observational study, we observed high AKI occurrence and mortality rate in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404381PMC
December 2020

Investigating the expression level of NF-KB and HIF1A genes among the inhabitants of two different background radiation areas in Ramsar, Iran.

J Environ Radioact 2020 Sep 5;220-221:106292. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Technology of Radiology and Radiotherapy, Alliend Medical Sciences School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study investigated the fluctuation of NF-KB and HIF-1a gene expression between inhabitants of a high-level background radiation area (HBRA) and a normal-level background radiation area (NBRA) of Ramsar, Iran. Sixty participants with the mean age of 48 ± 15 years were selected and divided into two groups. The group receiving a dose of ≤1.5 mGy/year (NBRA) was considered the control group and the target group (HBRA) received a dose of >1.5 mGy/year. These two groups were from neighbor regions to minimize socioeconomic differences between the participants. Blood samples were collected from each group and NF-KB and HIF-1a expression levels were compared using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on the stem loop method. The effects of residency duration in the respective areas and gender on the expression of NF-KB and HIF-1a was also examined. The HIF-1a expression level was statistically lower in the HLBRA region (P < 0.0002), while NF-KB expression was upregulated (P < 0.0001). Although the under-expression of HIF-1a in response to dose rate was significant in females (P < 0.0004), it was not different in males (P = 0.74), indicating a significant difference between sexes (P = 0.0047). The upregulation of NF-KB expression related to dose level was also significant for the female group (P < 0.0001), whereas it was not for the male group (P = 0.72). Notably and as expected, there was a significant relation between longer residency in the HBRA and HIF-1A under-expression (P < 0.026), while there was no effect of increasing residency time for NF-KB over-expression level (P = 0.29). The dwellers of the HBRA those noted that despite receiving an elevated radiation level were seemingly good in general health, showed some alterations in their molecular mechanisms, specifically HIF-1a and NF-KB expression levels. It is not clear if this is indicative of a beneficial adaptive response and more research is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2020.106292DOI Listing
September 2020

Management of COVID-19 Crisis in Guilan Province in Northern Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2020 07 1;23(7):511-513. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Razi Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.52DOI Listing
July 2020

Investigating the Relationship Between Blood Pressure and Serum FGF23 Level in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis in Guilan Province, A Cross Sectional Study.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2019 07;13(4):262-268

Nephrology Research Center; Center of Excellence in Nephrology; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The aim of current study is investigation of theimpact of serum FGF23 levels on blood pressure of patients withend-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis.

Methods: Based on registry, 68 patients who underwent hemodialysis(HD) in the dialysis center of Shahid Beheshti hospital, Anzali,north of Iran, from April 2016 to May 2017 were enrolled. Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to determineserum FGF23 levels. 24 hours blood pressure monitoring method,AMBB, was used to monitor the mean arterial pressure of patients.Spearman related analysis method was used to statistically analyzethe correlation of serum FGF23 level with mean arterial pressure,age, HD duration, kt/v, URR weight gaining, cause of ESRD, andthe mentioned laboratory parameters.

Results: Serum FGF23 levels of ESRD patients were not significantlyrelated to age, time of HD and gaining weight. Furthermore,these parameters were not related to blood pressure. However,FGF23 expression levels in serum were positively correlated withphosphorous and calcium- phosphorous. The mentioned laboratoryparameters had no significant correlation with 24 hours bloodpressure changes. Meanwhile, the minimum diastolic pressureand intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level showed a significantdirect linear correlation.

Conclusion: We suggest that understanding relationship betweenphosphate, FGF23 and cardiovascular disease can be applied intargeted phosphate-based treatment. Kidney failure and the nondippercondition may be highly related to one another and leadto ESRD. Therefore, a special investment in controlling bloodpressure and examining it with a tool such as ABPM can greatlyhelp patients to progress effectively.
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July 2019

The expression of MLH1 and MSH2 genes among inhabitants of high background radiation area of Ramsar, Iran.

J Environ Radioact 2019 Nov 16;208-209:106012. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Medical Physics Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, I.R Iran. Electronic address:

Previous studies evidenced the critical role of the mismatch repair system in DNA damage recognition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. MLH1 and MSH2 genes belong to repairing complexes of mismatch repair system. The side effects of ionizing radiation on the human health were proved, but researches on the inhabitants of high background radiation areas, with extra-ordinary radiation exposure, showed that the prevalence of cancer or radiation-related diseases is not significantly higher than normal background areas. The city of Ramsar, in northern Iran, has the highest level of natural background radiation in the world and in this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of MLH1 and MSH2 genes among the inhabitants of high background radiation areas of Ramsar compared to normal background radiation areas. In the present study, 60 blood sample from high and normal background inhabitants were collected and we MLH1, and MSH2 genes expressions in residents of high background radiation area compared with normal background radiation area were evaluated by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. Our results showed a significant upregulation of MLH1 in residents of high background radiation area. Also, there is a significant association between MLH1 and MSH2 gene expression in both sexes. Also, the increased expression of MLH1 in HBRA is notable. There is an increased expression of MLH1 in age above 50 and a decreased expression of MSH2 in ages under 50 years (P < 0.0001). These findings are suggesting the triggering of Mismatch Repair system in response to high-level of natural background radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.106012DOI Listing
November 2019

Retraction Note: Effects of Nano-particles on Histo-pathological changes of the fish.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 06 30;17(1):505. Epub 2019 May 30.

3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1186/s40201-015-0216-9.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00375-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582103PMC
June 2019

The assessment of radio-adaptive response in graves' hyperthyroidism patients following radioactive iodine uptake.

World J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec;17(4):270-274

Department of Medical Physics Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Low doses of radiation affect the response of cells to higher doses; this phenomenon is called radio-adaptive response, which leads to increased resistance to subsequent higher doses. We have investigated the adaptive response using 0.37 MBq priming dose of I-131 followed by 296-444 MBq challenging dose in peripheral human lymphocyte cells. The study was performed on 42 patients with Graves' disease and 29 healthy adult persons as a control group. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients were referred for radioactive iodine therapy with a specific dose, and iodine was given to them on the day of referral. In the second group, patients were referred for radioactive iodine uptake and radioactive iodine therapy, and iodine uptake was initially performed, then 24 h later, iodine therapy was done. In both groups, 1 month after treatment, blood samples were taken to cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay. The number of MN in binuclear lymphocyte cells was counted as an end point test. The mean frequency of MN in first, second, and control groups was 75.86 ± 12.68, 71.45 ± 12.56, and 20.06 ± 7.30, respectively. Our results showed that the frequency of total chromosome aberration in both radiation groups was higher than controls. However, in the first group was higher than another group, but their difference was not statistically significant. According to the results, we cannot approve the hypothesis that 0.37 MBq I-131 administration before iodine therapy could induce a radio-adaptive response in lymphocytes of Graves' patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_83_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6216742PMC
December 2018

A 36-Year-Old Renal Transplant Recipient Female with Leg Ulcer: A Case Report and Brief Review.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 11;2018:5086501. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Research Center, Razi Hospital, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Opportunistic infections are common in organ transplant recipients. After 6 months of transplantation, patients have the highest risk of opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis.

Case Presentation: The report presents the case of a 36-year-old female renal transplant recipient, with complaints of few subcutaneous painful and warm nodules and large, warm, erythematous, nontender plaques on the mildly edematous right leg and ankle. Incisional biopsy of the subcutaneous nodule over the leg showed panniculitis with small- to medium-sized vasculitis associated with round yeast forms, and culture of the fragments revealed var. grubii.

Conclusions: This article also reviews in brief the treatment of this rare complication. Reviewing the literature showed that since the cryptococcal cutaneous lesions are often nonspecific, the clinical picture solely is not enough to construct a definite diagnosis and there must be a high clinical suspicion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5086501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5821986PMC
January 2018

Association Between Klotho Gene Polymorphism and Markers of Bone Metabolism in Patients Receiving Maintenance Hemodialysis in Iran.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2017 Nov;11(6):456-460

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Introduction: Some genetic variations of Klotho have been reported as a risk factor for calcification and hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease. Klotho polymorphism is also associated with outcome in patients receiving hemodialysis. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between Klotho single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and bone metabolism as an early prognostic measure for chronic kidney disease.   Materials and Methods. Sixty patients receiving hemodialysis and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled in the study of the assessment of 2 types of Klotho polymorphism (G395A and C1818T). Serum biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphate, urea, creatinine, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were measured.  Results. The frequency of being A carriers suggested marginal significances between the groups (GA and AA, 30% versus GG, 18.3%, P = .06), but such significant results were not found for the T allele carriers (CT and TT, 76.6% versus CC, 76.6%, P > .99). Homozygote and heterozygote individuals for the A allele at G395A SNP (A allele carriers) were more likely to be on hemodialysis (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 3.30), but this association was not true for T allele carriers of C1818T SNP. Parathyroid hormone and serum calcium, phosphate, creatinine, and urea showed prominently higher levels in the patients receiving hemodialysis compared with control individuals.

Conclusions: The A allele of the G395A polymorphism of Klotho, which emerges the higher levels of phosphate, may be associated with the risk of mortality in Iranian patients receiving hemodialysis.
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November 2017

Radioprotective effect of hesperidin on reducing oxidative stress in the lens tissue of rats.

Int J Pharm Investig 2017 Jul-Sep;7(3):149-154

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran.

Introduction: Oxidative stress is a common factor in cataract. Considering the antioxidant properties of hesperidin as a flavanone glycoside from the flavonoid family with radioprotective effect, this study aimed to determine the protective effect of this flavanone glycoside on reducing oxidative stress in the eye lens tissue of mature rats caused by gamma irradiation.

Materials And Methods: A total of 48 adult rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely, control, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), hesperidin, radiation, radiation + DMSO, and radiation + hesperidin. 15 Gy irradiation was carried out using Cobalt-60 teletherapy instrument with a source-to-surface distance of 80 cm at a dose rate of 98.5 cGy/min. 2 days following irradiation, we removed the rats' lenses and analyzed them to determine the effects of hesperidin.

Results: The comparison of control and intervention groups after irradiation showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the lens tissue was significantly higher in the irradiation groups than the control group. Furthermore, a significant difference between radiation and radiation + hesperidin groups were observed. The level of glutathione (GSH) in the lens tissue was significantly lower in the irradiation groups compared to the control group. Nonetheless, significant elevation of GSH in the radiation + hesperidin group compared to radiation group was seen.

Conclusions: Radiation exposure reduced GSH and enhanced MDA levels in the lens tissue. However, GSH and MDA levels were modulated after hesperidin consumption. These results show the antioxidative properties of hesperidin in the lens and demonstrated that radiation complications such as cataract can be reduced by hesperidin through reducing oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jphi.JPHI_60_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5680651PMC
November 2017

BK virus replication in renal transplant recipients: Analysis of potential risk factors may contribute in reactivation.

J Clin Virol 2017 11 8;96:7-11. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Considering the increasing problem of BK virus infection during post renal transplant surveillance, it is necessary to distinguish the main risk factors leading to reactivation of latent BK virus. Up to now, some probable risk factors have been investigated in some studies, but the results have been confusing and contradictory.

Objectives: The goal of the present study was to determine the frequency and potential risk factors that may play a role in BK polyomavirus reactivation and nephropathy.

Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, 110 patients, who underwent consecutive transplantation between 2010 and 2013, were enrolled without preliminary screening. Urine and blood samples were taken, and quantitative Real-time PCR assay was used to detect and measure the viral load. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients who had BK viremia and/or viruria were documented.

Results: Among 110 cases of renal transplant recipients, BK viruria and viremia were found in 54 (49%) and 22 people (20%) respectively. The pre-transplant durations of dialysis among patients with BK viruia were found longer in comparison to BK negative patients. Treatment with Tacrolimus (p=0.03) was found to be a risk factor for development of BK viruria. In patients with viruria and viremia the median creatinine levels were 1.45mg/dl and 1.35mg/dl respectively, which were higher than those in the patients with negative results for BK viruria (p=0.002) and viremia (p=0.02). Also, treatment with Cyclosporine could significantly increase the incidence of BK virus shedding in both urine and blood among patients who received it (p=0.01). Significant relation between reactivation of BK virus and other factors such as age, sex, acute rejection and diabetes was not found.

Conclusion: Based on our findings, the main potential risk factors for shedding of BK virus into urine in renal transplant recipients were prolonged pre-transplant dialysis and Tacrolimus regimen. Cyclosporine regimens could be considered as risk factor for both BK viruria and viremia. A significant correlation between BK virus replication and elevated creatinine level was seen among our patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2017.09.004DOI Listing
November 2017

Cytochrome P-450 1B1 Leu432Val Polymorphism Does Not Show Association With Breast Cancer in Northern Iranian Women With a History of Infertility.

Biomark Insights 2017 20;12:1177271916689058. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

The Cytochrome P-4501B1 () Leu432Val polymorphism has been previously shown to be associated with some types of cancer and affects -mediated metabolism of various infertility drugs. To establish the frequency of Leu432Val polymorphism among women with a history of infertility drug use, we studied the genotypes of 147 patients with breast cancer with a history of infertility and 150 cancer-free, infertile women (control group) in Northern Iran. A polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay was used to detect GG (Val/Val), CG (Leu/Val), and CC (Leu/Leu) genotype frequencies, which did not vary significantly between the 2 patient groups ( = .847). We established for the first time that the incidence of Leu432Val polymorphism is 46.6% among women with infertility history and breast cancer in Northern Iran. Finally, our results do not show any significant association between Leu432Val polymorphism and breast cancer in infertile women in this region, who have also received infertility treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177271916689058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391986PMC
February 2017

Effects of Fenton Reaction on Human Serum Albumin: An In Vitro Study.

Electron Physician 2016 Sep 20;8(9):2970-2976. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Ph.D. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Associate Professor, Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Introduction: Human serum albumin (HSA) is a critical protein in human blood plasma, which can be highly damaged by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to analyze modifications of this protein after oxidation using a Fenton system.

Methods: In this 2015 experiment, different ratios of Fenton reagent (Fe2+/HO) was incubated with one concentration of human serum albumin (1mg/ml). Hence, HSA was incubated 30 min with various combinations of a Fenton system and quantified oxidation products such as carbonyl groups, fragmentations, degradations, and oxidized free thiol group using reliable techniques. Image and data analysis were carried out using ImageJ software and Excel (version 2007), respectively.

Results: An SDS-PAGE profile showed no cross link and aggregation. However, protein band intensity has decreased to 50% in the highest ratio of HO/Fe. Carbonylation assay indicated carbonyl/protein (molc/molp) ratio increased linearly in lower ratios and the values plateau at higher levels of HO/Fe 2+. The only free sulfhydryl group on HSA was oxidized in all ratios of the Fenton system.

Conclusion: To sum, the structure of HSA has been changed following treatment with Hydroxyl Radical as the main product of Fenton reaction. These data confirm the antioxidant activity of HSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/2970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5074758PMC
September 2016

Rh factor is associated with individual radiosensitivity: A cytogenetic study.

Electron Physician 2016 Aug 25;8(8):2828-2832. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

M.Sc. of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Introduction: Radiosensitivity is an inherent trait, associated with a raised reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. In radiotherapy and radiation protection fields, individualization of the patient's treatment is one of the main topics. With the goal of determining biomarkers capable of anticipating normal tissue side reactions, we studied the association between the Rh factor and radiosensitivity.

Methods: This experimental study was carried out from January to June 2014 among 50 normal responders with A blood group (25Rh+ and 25Rh-) between the ages of 22 and 23 in Babol, Iran. Human peripheral blood samples were taken from subjects and, using CBMN assay, the biological effects of gamma irradiation, including the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and nuclear division index (NDI), were measured. A data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18 to determine the independent and paired samples t-tests.

Results: A significant increment occurred in the frequency of MN in group Rh+ (196 ± 18.23) compared with Rh- (169 ± 17.11) following irradiation (p<0.001).

Conclusions: The Rh factor might be a predicting marker in an individual's radiosensitivity to ionizing radiations. However, we believe that additional investigations are needed to prove this hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/2828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5053467PMC
August 2016

A Randomised Clinical Trial to Compare Coaxial and Noncoaxial Techniques in Percutaneous Core Needle Biopsy of Renal Parenchyma.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2017 Jan 30;40(1):106-111. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

Department of Radiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: To compare the coaxial and noncoaxial techniques of renal parenchymal core needle biopsy.

Materials And Methods: This is an institutional review board-approved randomised controlled trial comparing 83 patients (male, n = 49) who underwent renal parenchymal core biopsy with coaxial method and 83 patients (male, n = 40) with noncoaxial method. The rate of complications, the number of glomerular profiles, and the procedural time were evaluated in a comparison of the two methods. Correlation between the presence of renal parenchymal disease and the rate of complication was also evaluated.

Results: The procedural time was significantly shorter in the coaxial technique (coaxial group, 5 ± 1 min; noncoaxial group, 14 ± 2 min; p < 0.001). The rates of complications for the coaxial method was significantly lower than the noncoaxial method (coaxial group, 10.8 %; noncoaxial group, 24.1 %; p = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between gender and the rate of complication. The number of glomerular profiles was significantly higher in patents who underwent renal biopsy with the coaxial method (coaxial group, 18.2 ± 9.1; noncoaxial group, 8.6 ± 5.5; p < 0.001). In the whole study population, the rate of complications was significantly higher in patients with a pathologic renal parenchyma compared to those with a normal parenchyma (19/71 vs. 10/95; p = 0.006).

Conclusions: Renal parenchymal biopsy using a coaxial needle is a faster and safer method with a lower rate of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-016-1466-3DOI Listing
January 2017

Comparison of Tpe Changing on ECG, in Pre and Post Dialysis and Post Transplantation.

Nephrourol Mon 2016 May 26;8(3):e35864. Epub 2016 Mar 26.

Urology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, IR Iran.

Background: High incidence of premature ventricular contractions (PVCS) and arrhythmia during and soon after dialysis have been demonstrated by Holter monitoring.

Objectives: In this study, the effects of dialysis and renal transplantation on Tpe, Tpec (corrected Tpe), QTc (corrected QT), QTd (QT dispersion), and Tpe/QT parameters as known factors in arrhythmogenicity, and also the correlation between electrolyte and arterial blood gas changing within these parameters will be assessed.

Patients And Methods: In a retrospective study, 42 renal transplant recipients were selected. Under the supervision of an electrophysiologist, information related to Tpe, Tpec, Tpe/QT, QTd, and QTc parameters before dialysis (pre-HD), after dialysis (post-HD), and two weeks after transplantation (RTX) were analyzed. Electrolyte and arterial blood gas information were also recorded. Bonferroni adjustment, repeated measures ANOVA, generalized linear models, and generalized estimating equations were used for analysis.

Results: Two weeks after transplantation, the mean Tpe decreased to 0.052 ± 0.002, which was significant compared to pre-HD (P < 0.001) and Post-HD (P = 0.019). The mean Tpec was 0.059 ± 0.002, which, just in comparison to pre-HD, was significant (P = 0.005). In addition, the mean Tpe/QT decreased to 0.143 ± 0.005, which was significant compared to pre-HD (P = 0.018). The mean QTd was 0.066 ± 0.004, which wasn't significant compared to before or after dialysis. The mean QTc decreased to 0.386 ± 0.004, which was significant compared to post-HD (P = 0.0003).

Conclusions: Taking the role of Tpe and Tpe/QT in arrhythmia into account and amending it by a successful transplantation can be considered as a factor that decreases arrhythmia after renal transplantation compared to ESRD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.35864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983153PMC
May 2016

The association between atorvastatin administration and plasma total homocysteine levels in renal transplant recipients.

J Nephropathol 2016 Jul 7;5(3):98-104. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Urology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran.

Background: Statins improve prognosis in patients with coronary heart diseases by decreasing the incidence of vascular events. Excess prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia, an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, has been observed in stable renal transplant recipients (RTRs).

Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between atorvastatin administration and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in RTRs.

Patients And Methods: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study in 148 cyclosporine A (CsA) treated stable RTRs. We compared tHcy level and other demographic and clinical variables in RTRs with and without atorvastatin.

Results: 58.1% of the 148 RTRs were treated with atorvastatin (20-40 mg/day). Mean tHcy levels were lower in patients treated with atorvastatin compared to nonusers (14.80 ± 5.13 µmol/l versus 16.95 ± 7.87 µmol/l, P = 0.04). The comparison of 85 patients treated with atorvastatin and 61 non-users revealed that those subjects with atorvastatin were older, with higher estimated creatinine clearance and elevated body mass index (BMI). They were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure and CsA trough level (C0). The association between lower tHcy levels and atorvastatin use was confirmed in the multivariate regression model (P = 0.004). However tHcy levels were independently and negatively associated with serum folate (P = 0.0001) and vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.001) and positively with serum BUN (P = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.024) as well.

Conclusions: These data support the association between lower tHcy levels and atorvastatin administration in RTRs. Further clinical trials are recommended to clarify homocysteine lowering effect of atorvastatin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/jnp.2016.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961823PMC
July 2016

Effects of Arbutin on Radiation-Induced Micronuclei in Mice Bone Marrow Cells and Its Definite Dose Reduction Factor.

Iran J Med Sci 2016 May;41(3):180-5

Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: Interactions of free radicals from ionizing radiation with DNA can induce DNA damage and lead to mutagenesis and carsinogenesis. With respect to radiation damage to human, it is important to protect humans from side effects induced by ionizing radiation. In the present study, the effects of arbutin were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anti-clastogenic activity, to calculate the ratio of polychromatic erythrocyte to polychromatic erythrocyte plus normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/PCE+NCE) in order to show cell proliferation activity.

Methods: Arbutin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally (ip)administered to NMRI mice two hours before gamma radiation at 2 and 4 gray (Gy). The frequency of micronuclei in 1000 PCEs (MnPCEs) and the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE were calculated for each sample. Data were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, and t-test.

Results: The findings indicated that gamma radiation at 2 and 4 Gy extremely increased the frequencies of MnPCE (P<0.001) while reducing PCE/PCE+NCE (P<0.001) compared to the control group. All three doses of arbutin before irradiation significantly reduced the frequencies of MnPCEs and increased the ratio of PCE/PCE+NCE in mice bone marrow compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated control (P<0.001). All three doses of arbutin had no toxicity effect on bone marrow cells. The calculated dose reduction factor (DRF) showed DRF=1.93 for 2Gy and DRF=2.22 for 4 Gy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that arbutin gives significant protection to rat bone against the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4876295PMC
May 2016

The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

J Med Phys 2016 Jan-Mar;41(1):52-7

Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6203.177281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795418PMC
April 2016

Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels.

Indian J Nucl Med 2016 Jan-Mar;31(1):31-5

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Purpose Of The Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures.

Materials And Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75(th) percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics.

Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75(th) percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75(th) percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries.

Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-3919.172353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4746838PMC
February 2016

Effects of Nano-particles on Histo-pathological changes of the fish.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2015 29;13:62. Epub 2015 Aug 29.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Regarding fast development of the nanotechnology and the probably of it's side effects on aquatic body organs, this study investigate the effects of nanosilver administration on histology of gill, kidney and biochemical parameters in common carp. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized in a one-step reduction process in an aqueous solution. 60 O. mykiss were obtained from a local commercial hatchery. Fish were divided randomly into four groups. Control group was kept in dechlorinated tap water without any add-on material. Experimental groups were exposed to concentration of 3, 300 and 1000 mg/L of nanosilver solution for eight weeks, respectively. Biochemical analyses of sera, histological alterations of the gill and kidney tissue were done. Aneurism in the secondary lamellae and hyperplasia of epithelium in gills, adhesion of the gill lamellae, inducing hyaline cast formation, significant decreasing in the glomerular diameter and formation of intra cytoplasmic vacuoles in the various urinary tubules were seen in experimental groups. The serum levels of total protein was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) by increasing nanosilver concentration but ALP, LDH, AST and ALT increased significantly (P < 0.05). It is concluded that nanosilver induces gill and kidney damages and changes the biochemical parameters of O. mykiss juveniles in different concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-015-0216-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4552984PMC
August 2015

MLN4924 therapy as a novel approach in cancer treatment modalities.

J Chemother 2016 Apr;28(2):74-82

a Cellular & Molecular Biology Research Center, Medical Physics Department , Babol University of Medical Sciences , Iran.

MLN4924 is an investigational and a newly discovered small molecule that is a potent and selective inhibitor of the NEDD8 (Neural precursor cell-Expressed Developmentally down-regulated 8) Activating Enzyme (NAE), a pivotal regulator of the Cullin Ring Ligases E3 (CRL), which has been implicated recently in DNA damage. MLN4924 effectively inhibits tumour cell growth by inducing all three common types of death, namely apoptosis, autophagy and senescence and it was also reported that the formation of capillary vessels was significantly suppressed by MLN4924.In this review, we are going to highlight the molecular mechanism of MLN4924 in cancer therapy and its pros and cons in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/1973947815Y.0000000066DOI Listing
April 2016

High Efficiency Apoptosis Induction in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by MLN4924/2DG Co-Treatment.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(13):5471-6

Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Medical Physics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran E-mail :

2-deoxy-D-Glucose (2DG) causes cytotoxicity in cancer cells by disrupting thiol metabolism. It is an effective component in therapeutic strategies. It targets the metabolism of cancer cells with glycolysis inhibitory activity. On the other hand, MLN4924, a newly discovered investigational small molecule inhibitor of NAE (NEDD8 activating enzyme), inactivates SCF E3 ligase and causes accumulation of its substrates which triggers apoptosis. Combination of these components might provide a more efficient approach to treatment. In this research, 2DG and MLN4924 were co-applied to breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and SKBR-3) and cytotoxic and apoptotic activity were evaluated the by Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT), TUNEL and ELISA methods. Caspase3 and Bcl2 genes expression were evaluated by real time Q-PCR methods. The results showed that MLN4924 and MLN4924/2DG dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of MCF7 and SKBR-3 cells. Cell survival of breast cancer cells exposed to the combination of 2DG/MLN4924 was decreased significantly compared to controls (p<0.05), while 2DG and MLN4924 alone had less pronounced effects on the cells. The obtained results suggest that 2DG/MLN4924 is much more efficient in breast cancer cell lines with enhanced cytotoxicity via inducing a apoptosis cell signaling gene, caspase-3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.13.5471DOI Listing
May 2016

Socially accountable medical education (SAME): How is the knowledge of the educators in medical universities of Iran?: A survey inside Babol University of Medical Sciences.

J Res Med Sci 2014 Nov;19(11):1111

Faculty Member, Department of Medical Education, Education Development Center (EDC), Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4310090PMC
November 2014
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