Publications by authors named "Ali Mohammad Mohseni Majd"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interpretation of Hematological, Biochemical, and Immunological Findings of COVID-19 Disease: Biomarkers Associated with Severity and Mortality.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Feb 11;20(1):46-66. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly all over the world in late 2019 and caused critical illness and death in some infected patients. This study aimed at examining several laboratory factors, especially inflammatory and immunological mediators, to identify severity and mortality associated biomarkers. Ninety-three hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were classified based on disease severity. The levels of biochemical, hematological, immunological, and inflammatory mediators were assessed, and their association with severity and mortality were evaluated. Hospitalized patients were mostly men (77.4%) with an average (standard deviation) age of 59.14 (14.81) years. The mortality rate was significantly higher in critical patients (85.7%). Increased serum levels of blood sugar, urea, creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, total bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin were significantly prevalent (p=0.002, p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.014, p=0.047, p=0.003, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, P<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) in COVID-19 patients. Decreased red blood cell, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly prevalent among COVID-19 patients than healthy control subjects (p<0.001 for all). Troponin-I, interleukin-6, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), procalcitonin, and D-dimer showed a significant association with the mortality of patients with specificity and sensitivity more than 60%. Age, sex, underlying diseases, blood oxygen pressure, complete blood count along with C-reactive protein, lactic dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and interleukin-6 evaluation help to predict the severity and required management for COVID-19 patients. Further investigations are highly recommended in a larger cohort study for validation of the present findings.
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February 2021

Two dimensional proteomic analysis of serum shows immunological proteins exclusively expressed in sulfur mustard exposed patients with long term pulmonary complications.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Nov 24;88:106857. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran, Department of Immunology, Shahed University, Tehran 3319118651, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Despite more than 30 years after utilization of sulfur mustard or bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide (SM) by Iraqi troops against Iranian military members and civilians, there are a lot of reported delayed complications for the exposed people. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanism of action from this chemical warfare agent is not recognized yet.

Material And Method: In this study, we employed two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) technique to investigate the serum proteins from chemical exposed people compared to non-exposed individuals to provide an inside into molecular mechanism of this chemical agent. Each group was divided into two subgroups including individuals with, and without respiratory complications. For each group, 10 individuals were included after informed consent.

Result: The results showed protein spots, which were exclusively/mainly expressed in chemical exposed patients with complications, including T cell receptor alpha, and hematopoietic cell signal transducer. Also there were protein spots that were expressed only in all exposed groups (with and without complications). On the other hand, we could identify protein spots that were exclusively expressed/altered only in non-exposed group with complications including Pre T-cell antigen receptor, CD40 ligand, and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins.

Conclusion: Our investigation could result in identification of proteins that are associated to chemical exposure, as well as those specific for respiratory complications irrespective of chemical exposure. These candidate proteins can be used as biomarker, as well as a base for understanding the molecular mechanism of this chemical agent.
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November 2020

Alteration in serum levels of immunoglobulins in seriously eye-injured long-term following sulfur-mustard exposure.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Mar 29;80:105895. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Biostatistics and Social Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan 4515613191, Iran.

Introduction: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent toxic agent that cause local and systemic changes in the human body such as dysregulation of the immunological system. This gas affects different organs such as lungs, skin, eyes and the gastrointestinal tract.

Methods: 128 veterans with SM-induced eye injuries were examined and compared to 31 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of IgM, IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG subclasses were measured using ELISA method.

Results: There was no significant difference in IgM level between two groups with abnormal and normal ocular conditions except for those having bulbar conjunctiva-limbal ischemia and bulbar conjunctiva-hyperemia abnormalities. There were not significant difference in IgA, IgE, and IgG levels between two groups with and without ocular problem also between study groups. IgG1 level in some ocular abnormalities were significantly lower than the healthy control groups. IgG2 level in SM-exposed participants with stromal abnormality was higher in the SM-exposed groups without this problem. IgG2 levels in the exposed group with some ocular problems were significantly increased compared with control. IgG3 level in all patients did not reveal any significant changes compared with the controls except the fundus abnormality. IgG4 level was not significantly different between two groups with normal and abnormal ocular conditions. Nonetheless, IgG4 level in the exposed participants with some ocular abnormalities significantly increased compared with the controls.

Conclusion: The results showed SM exposure could alter immunoglobulins level compared with healthy controls and the changes of IgG2 and IgG1 levels were associated with some ocular problems.
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March 2020

Tear and serum interleukin-8 and serum CX3CL1, CCL2 and CCL5 in sulfur mustard eye-exposed patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Dec 24;77:105844. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 14115111 Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The serum and tear levels of four inflammatory chemokines were evaluated in sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed with serious ocular problems.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 128 SM-exposed patients and 31 healthy control participants participated. Tear and serum levels of chemokines were assessed by ELISA method.

Results: There was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-8/CXCL8, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5/RANTES between all SM-exposed subjects and control groups. The tear level of IL-8 in the SM-exposed group was lower than the control group, but the difference was not significant. In the SM-exposed group with the abnormalities in tear breakup time (TBUT) test, fundus and pannus formation were significantly higher than SM-exposed patients without these problems. CX3CL1 levels have significantly increased in SM-exposed group with blepharitis, pterygium, and conjunctival pigmentation as compared with the control group. Besides, significantly higher levels of CX3CL1 were observed in SM-exposed group with or without bulbar conjunctival hyperemia and abnormal vessels a well as with fundus abnormality compared to the control group. Only, SM-exposed group with subconjunctival fibrosis had significantly lower levels of CCL5 than SM-exposed group without this problem.

Conclusion: The higher level of CX3CL1 and consistent levels of IL-8/CXCL8, MCP-1/CCL2, and RANTES/CCL5 in SM-exposed individuals may indicate an anti-inflammatory response against the destructive effects of SM gas. High tear level of IL-8/CXCL8 reflects the severity of ocular surface abnormalities, yet significantly low tear level found in mild SM-exposed subgroup compared with the control group. The lower levels of CX3CL1 and RANTES/CCL5 may represent the different pathophysiology which requires further studies.
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December 2019

Serum and sputum levels of IL-17, IL-21, TNFα and mRNA expression of IL-17 in sulfur mustard lung tissue with long term pulmonary complications (28 years after sulfur mustard exposure).

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Nov 17;76:105828. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Iranian veterans who had exposed to Sulfur Mustard (SM) suffer from long term complications such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and bronchiolitis obliterate (BO). Th17 cells product IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22. They have important roles in chronic inflammatory diseases. Also, TNFα has a major part in pathobiological processes of COPD. In this study, we evaluate the serum and sputum levels of IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, and mRNA expression of IL-17 in the lung tissue of the patients 28 years after SM exposure.

Material And Method: The cytokine levels of IL-17, IL-21 and TNFα were measured by ELISA method in serum and sputum of 455 SM-exposed and 123 unexposed people participated in Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS) of chemical victims. The mRNA expression of IL-17 was evaluated with qRT-PCR in lung biopsies (SM-exposed =52, control =33). Analyses of all data were accomplished with the SPSS software with P value ≤05.

Result: The results show the sputum level of IL-17 in the exposed group decreased significantly compared to control group (P = 0.007) and Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF) assessment was significantly lower in abnormal/exposed than normal/exposed group (P = 0.042). There were no significant differences between control and exposed groups in serum level of IL-17; also serum and sputum levels of IL-21, TNF-α, and IL-17 mRNA expression.

Conclusion: Conclusively, The IL-17 level decreased in the exposed group. This decline could cause by mutation on transcription factors like Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene (STAT3) or CCL20 as a chemokine.
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November 2019

Correlation between MMP-9 and MMP-9/ TIMPs Complex with Pulmonary Function in Sulfur Mustard Exposed Civilians: Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study.

Arch Iran Med 2017 Feb;20(2):74-82

Immunoregulation Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteinases and have the vigorous capacity to degrade all parts of the extracellular matrix. MMP enzymes strongly participate in physiological processes such as normal tissue remodeling and wound healing and in pathology of pulmonary diseases. They are released in response to environmental stimuli such as toxins and regulated by endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical toxic which can cause severe permanent damages to lung tissues. The aim of this study was assessing the possible role of MMP-9 and TIMPs in SM-induced lung symptoms and signs in exposed patients 20 years after exposure.

Methods: Totally, 372 male volunteers with a history of SM- exposure and 128 age- and sex-matched unexposed controls participated and were divided into three groups: normal, mild and moderate-severe. All participants underwent clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and serum concentrations of MMP-9 and its inhibitors were measured using the ELISA technique.

Results: Serum level of MMP-9 was increased in the SM exposed group who had moderate-severe pulmonary complications compared with the SM exposed with normal lung (2.321 ± 2.836 vs. 1.546 ± 2.176, P = 0.001) while only the MMP-9/TIMP-4 complex was elevated in the SM exposed with normal lung individuals compared to its corresponding control group (85 ± 265 vs. 82 ± 222, P = 0.025). Although MMP-9 and its inhibitors did not show any correlation with spirometry findings, elevated circulating MMP-9 was detected in SM exposed patients with chronic chough and hemoptysis (P = 0.013 and P = 0.013 respectively).

Conclusion: High level of tissue disruption and remodeling mediators could influence lung structure in long-term after SM-exposure. The correlation of clinical evaluation with these factors efficiently helps us to identify important effectors.
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February 2017