Publications by authors named "Ali Mirmansouri"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Breaking Bad News: A Valid Concern among Clinicians.

Iran J Psychiatry 2019 Jul;14(3):198-202

Department of Statistics, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Delivering bad news is the duty of specialist physicians. However, they find it very difficult due to insufficient experience. In this study, the way faculty and residents of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) delivered bad news to the patients was investigated. This study was conducted at hospitals affiliated to GUMS during 2017. A questionnaire containing 18 items on environmental and psychical support was filled through a face to face interview. The first 10 questions evaluated psychical support and the next eight environmental supports. The scoring of each question ranged from 10 to 50, with 10 indicating "never" and 50 "always". According to the analysis of 235 questionnaires, only 32 (13.6%) of the participants had been taught to deliver bad news and 195(83%) felt they need educational courses. Also, 40 (17%) believed that they had enough ability to deliver these massages. No significant differences were observed among physicians who had taken teaching courses in breaking bad news to patients. This study revealed that educational courses to improve physicians' communication skill to break bad news to patients are strongly warranted.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778609PMC
July 2019

Right ventricular dysfunction and associated factors in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting.

ARYA Atheroscler 2019 May;15(3):99-105

Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiac Surgery, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is widely accepted as a revascularization method for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite survival benefit and improvement in quality of life, CABG may impose major morbidities and significant complications. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is an important complication that may affect patient's longevity and functional capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between RV dysfunction and some invisible parameters like inferior vena cava (IVC) size with physical capacity.

Methods: In this prospective study, 61 eligible CABG candidates were enrolled and RV function was assessed by echocardiographic parameters before CABG and one week and six months after the procedure, using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), Tei Index (TI), peak systolic movement (Sm) (cm/s), and IVC size. Functional capacity was assessed by six-minute walk test (6-MWT) 6 months after CABG.

Results: 58 patients who did not have any perioperative RV dysfunction were remained until the end of study; mean age was 58.2 ± 7.9 years with 68.9% being men, and 3 patients died after CABG. Preoperatively, septal motion, RV indices, and IVC size were normal in all patients. The frequency of RV dysfunction according to abnormal TAPSE index, TI, and peak Sm one week after surgery was 81.0%, 79.0%, and 62.0%, respectively, and 6 months after surgery was 49.0%, 49.0%, and 37.0%, respectively. Mean walked distance in 6-MWT was significantly less in patients with RV dysfunction, older age, and higher number of involved vessels (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The significant reduction in RV function and impairment of exercise capacity after CABG in this study suggests cardiologists to pay more attention to RV assessment in follow-up visits of patients undergoing GABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i3.1765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698085PMC
May 2019

Hemodynamic parameters and reproductive outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and fresh embryo transfer in patients undergoing oocyte retrieval with general anesthesia using fentanyl, remifentanil or alfentanil - A randomized clinical trial.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jul;58(4):536-540

Mehr Fertility Research Center, Mehr Medical Institute, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Ershad St., Shahid Ansari Blvd., Rasht, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Anesthesia for assisted reproductive technology is very important to provide less stressful and painful environment for patients, with minimal side effects on oocytes. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate hemodynamic parameters, recovery time and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome among patients underwent anesthesia with fentanyl, remifentanil or alfentanil.

Material And Methods: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing anesthesia for transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte retrieval (TUGOR). Patients were randomly allocated to alfentanil (A; 15 μg/kg), fentanyl (F; 1.5 μg/kg) or remifentanil (R; 1.5 μg/kg) groups.

Results: Three hundred forty patients were assessed for eligibility and randomized for transvaginal oocyte retrieval following general anesthesia and 105 were lost to follow up. No statistically significant differences were noted among groups regarding basic characteristics. Although, time to respond to verbal command was significantly different among groups (A: 1.99 ± 1.64, F: 2.56 ± 1.72, R: 1.78 ± 1.34, P = 0.014). There were no significant differences among groups with respect to the first and second postoperative pain intensity, patient satisfaction, pre-induction and post-induction systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Terminal systolic (A: 101.61 ± 9.15, F: 105.29 ± 12.61, R: 102 ± 12.91, P = 0.01) and diastolic (A: 59.97 ± 9, F: 65.63 ± 9.13, R: 63.69 ± 11.01, P = 0.003) BP was significantly different among groups. The fertilization rate was significantly different among groups (A: 51.6%, F: 54.4%, R: 62.2%, P = 0.018). Implantation rate, biochemical and clinical pregnancy rate was similar among groups.

Conclusions: The results of present study demonstrated that all three opioids have the same efficiency, in regards to patient satisfaction and pregnancy outcome. However, Anesthesia with alfentanil compared with fentanyl and remifentanil, seems to be inferior for TUGOR due to higher effect on fertilization rate and less hemodynamic stability.

Registration Number: IRCT201410258677N4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2019.05.019DOI Listing
July 2019

Comparing the Effectiveness of Patient Control Analgesia Pump and Bolus Morphine in Controlling Pain After Cardiopulmonary Bypass Graft Surgery.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Oct 14;7(5):e12756. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Resident of Anesthesia, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, Iran.

Background: Postoperative pain is a complex process commonly caused by surgical trauma. It is one of the major concerns of patients undergoing heart surgery. Despite new techniques and modern analgesic treatments, postoperative pain is still one of the most important controversial issues.

Methods: 68 patients scheduled for elective CABG with CPB were included in a prospective, double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received PCA pump including morphine (group P) with underlying infusion of 0.02 mg/kg/Qh, bolus dose of 1 mg, lockout time of 15 minutes, and a maximum of 4 bolus of 0.02 mg/kg for one hour and the other group received morphine bolus (group B). Three patients were excluded from the study, and 33 and 32 patients participated in the groups P and B, respectively. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (nausea and vomiting, GI Bleeding, and hypoxia), level of pain based on VAS, opioid consumption, hemodynamic, and sedation status were measured in both groups.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complication, sedation score, and hemodynamic status in most of the assessment periods. By assessing the pain severity in the groups at different periods, results showed a significant difference between the groups except at enrollment, and a lower severity of pain was noted in the group P compared to the group B. The consumed opioid was significantly higher in the group P than in the group B. However, higher doses of diclofenac and paracetamol were administered in the group B compared to the group P.

Conclusions: Results showed that higher morphine would be used in patients with PCA pump after extubation following heart surgery, and this increased dose of opioid was associated with better pain control and lack of complication. Therefore, PCA pump with underlying infusion could be effectively used in patients undergoing CABG that are directly assessed in intensive care unite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.12756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903217PMC
October 2017

Comparing the Effect of Adding Fentanyl, Sufentanil, and Placebo with Intrathecal Bupivacaine on Duration of Analgesia and Complications of Spinal Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Cesarean Section.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Oct 27;7(5):e12738. Epub 2017 Aug 27.

Resident of Anesthesia, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, Iran.

Background: Spinal anesthesia is the method of choice for most elective and emergency Cesarean sections. To increase the duration of anesthesia and improve the quality of analgesia during and after surgery, intrathecal opioids, as adjuvant drugs, are used in combination with local anesthetics.

Methods: This was a double-blind clinical trial performed on 99 patients. Women were divided into 3 groups of fentanyl, sufentanil, and placebo. For fentanyl group, 12.5 mg of bupivacaine and 25 micrograms of fentanyl; for sufentanil group, 12.5 mg of bupivacaine and 2.5 micrograms of sufentanil; and for placebo group, 12.5 mg of bupivacaine and a half mL of normal saline were injected in subarachnoid space. The sensory and motor block, hemodynamic status (mean blood pressure and heart rate), and probable complications were assessed.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in demographic characteristics. Durations of analgesia were, respectively, 314 ± 42.95, 312.5 ± 34.44, and 116.1 ± 42.24 minutes in the fentanyl, sufentanil, and placebo groups (P = 0.0001). Duration of sensory and motor block was higher in fentanyl and sufentanil groups compared with the placebo group. The highest duration of sensory and motor block was noted in sufentanil group (P = 0.0001). No significant difference was found between the groups in the hemodynamic parameters (P > 0.05). The frequency of itching in the fentanyl group was higher than sufentanil and placebo groups (P = 0.003). Also, shivering was higher in the placebo group compared with other groups (P = 0.036).

Conclusions: According to the results, adding 25 microgram fentanyl or 2.5 microgram sufentanil to intrathecal bupivacaine increased the duration of analgesia and provided hemodynamic stability with no major complication. As administering intrathecal fentanyl had a similar duration of analgesia like sufentanil with faster return of motor block and ambulation, it seems that it is a preferred additive for Cesarean section surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.12738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903220PMC
October 2017

Evaluation of Admission Indications, Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Obstetric Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a Teaching Hospital Center: A Five-Year Retrospective Review.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Jun 30;7(3):e13636. Epub 2017 May 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Care of obstetric patients has always been a challenge for critical care physicians, because in addition to their complex pregnancy-related disease, fetal viability is considered.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the admission indications, clinical characteristics and outcomes of obstetric patients, admitted to the intensive care unit of Alzzahra teaching hospital affiliated to Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on pregnant /post-partum (up to 6 weeks) patients admitted to the ICU over a 5-year period from April 2009 to April, 2014.

Results: Data from 1019 subjects were analyzed. Overall, 90.1% of the patients were admitted in the postpartum period. The most common indications for admission were pregnancy related hypertensive disorders (27.5%) and obstetric hemorrhage (13.5%). Epilepsy (5.4%) and cardiac disease (5.2%) were the most common non-obstetric indications.

Conclusions: Pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders and obstetric hemorrhage were the main reasons for admission, and epilepsy and cardiac disease were the most common non-obstetric indications. Efforts must be concentrated on increasing antenatal care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.13636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696879PMC
June 2017

Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane-Sufentanil Anesthesia and Propofol-Sufentanil Anesthesia on Serum Cortisol Levels in Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Dec 21;6(6):e42066. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Major surgeries such as open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with a complexity of stress response leading to post-operative complications. Studies have confirmed that anesthesia can mitigate the surgically induced stress response.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol and isoflurane, both supplemented with Sufentanil, on the stress response in coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, using cortisol as a biochemical marker.

Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 72 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass meeting the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of isoflurane (n = 36) and propofol (n = 36) both supplemented with sufentanil. Serum cortisol levels were measured and compared between the groups; 30 minutes before the surgery (T0), at the end of the cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), and 24 hours after the surgery (T2).

Results: Compared to the baseline (T0), at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), both groups demonstrated a decrease in plasma cortisol levels with no statistical significant difference (P = 0.4). At T2 measuring time point, the level of plasma cortisol significantly increased in both groups (P = 0.02), however this increase was less in the Isoflurane group.

Conclusions: In CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass, using plasma cortisol level as a measure, Isoflurane-Sufentanil significantly reduces the stress response to the surgery, when compared to propofol-Sufentanil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.42066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560634PMC
December 2016

Effect of Selenium on Stress Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Feb 9;7(1):e43864. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: In spite of significant improvements in surgical and anesthetic techniques, acute stress response to surgery remains a main cause of mortality and morbidity in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. Therefore, doing research to find safe and effective modalities with more cardio protective properties seems necessary.

Objectives: In this study, we sought to determine whether intravenous injection of 600 μg Selenium (Se) prior to surgery would limit stress response measured by blood sugar.

Methods: This double blind clinical trial was conducted at a referral center of cardiac surgery affiliated to Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from June 2015 to October 2015. 73 eligible patients candidate for elective isolated CABG surgery were enrolled in the trial. They were randomly allocated to either Se group (n = 36) receiving 600 μg Se prior to surgery or control group (n = 37). Our evaluation was based on blood sugar (BS) which was measured at four point times, including before induction of anesthesia (T0), at the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours (T2) and 48 hours (T3) after surgery.

Results: The data obtained from 73 patients in group S (n = 36) and group C (n = 37) were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the baseline characteristics. In both groups, a sharp rise in BS levels was observed following CPB (P = 0.0001). Although the trend of BS changes was remarkable in both groups (P = 0.0001), there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at all point times including T0 (P = 0.45), T1 (P = 0.48), T2 (P = 0.92), and T3 (P = 0.42). Within the study time, our patients were monitored for any adverse effect but nothing was observed.

Conclusions: This investigation showed that intravenous single dose of 600 μg Se was safe in CABG patients, but had no positive effect on stress response to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.43864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554419PMC
February 2017

Effects of Low-dose Selenium on the Inflammatory Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Aug 18;18(8):e37918. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) triggers an inflammatory reaction, leading to the development of myocardial damage and dysfunction. It is suggested that selenium (Se), an essential trace element, has a protective role against oxidative stress. Decreased intraoperative Se levels might be an independent predictive factor for postoperative multiorgan failure. In spite of its proposed advantages, however, the optimal timing and dosage are not well known.

Objectives: To determine whether 600 µg of intravenous Se administration before induction of anesthesia for CABG surgery could attenuate inflammatory reactions in an Iranian population.

Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial took place in the department of cardiac surgery of an academic hospital affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from May 2015 to September 2015. Eighty-eight eligible patients scheduled for elective on-pump CABG surgery were divided into two groups using randomized fixed quadripartite blocks. They received either an intravenous bolus of 600 µg Se before induction of anesthesia, or normal saline as a placebo. We had four measurement time-points: just before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately after the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours after surgery (T2), and 48 hours after surgery (T3). Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Data from a total of 81 patients were analyzed: group S (n = 41) and group C (n = 40). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to baseline characteristics. In both groups, CPB caused markedly increased IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP plasma concentrations compared with baseline (P = 0.0001). However, the pattern of changes was not significantly different between group S (P = 0.068) and group C (P = 0.26). The IL-6 and TNF-α change trends were significant in each group (P=0.0001). However, comparing the two groups showed no significant difference. With regard to IL-6, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the time-points of T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056), and the same was found for TNF-α at T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056). With regard to CRP, the trend of the changes was significant in each group (P = 0.0001). However, comparing two groups showed a borderline significant difference between them at T1 (P = 0.039), but not at T2 (P = 0.075) or T3 (P = 0.11).

Conclusions: This study revealed that the administration of 600 μg of intravenous Se immediately before induction of anesthesia was safe, but when compared to a placebo, no predominant clinical effects or modifications in the systemic inflammatory response induced by on-pump CABG were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.37918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070486PMC
August 2016

Postoperative Pain After Abdominal Hysterectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Comparing the Effects of Tramadol and Gabapentin as Premedication.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Feb 17;6(1):e32360. Epub 2016 Jan 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Uncontrolled postoperative pain, characteristic to abdominal hysterectomy, results in multiple complications. One of the methods for controlling postoperative pain is preemptive analgesia. Gabapentin and tramadol are both used for this purpose.

Objectives: This study aims to compare the effects of tramadol and gabapentin, as premedication, in decreasing the pain after hysterectomy.

Patients And Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 120 eligible elective abdominal hysterectomy patients, divided in three groups of 40, receiving tramadol, gabapentin and placebo, respectively. Two hours before the surgery, the first group was given 300 mg gabapentin, the second one was given 100 mg tramadol, while the other group was given placebo, with 50 ml water. After the surgery, in case of visual analog pain scale (VAS) > 3, up to 3 mg of diclofenac suppository would be used. Pain score, nausea, vomiting, sedation, patient's satisfaction and the number of meperidine administered during 24 hours (1 - 4 - 8 - 12 - 16 - 20 - 24 hours) were recorded. If patients had VAS > 3, despite using diclofenac, intravenous meperidine (0.25 mg/kg) would be prescribed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 software, chi-square test, general linear model and repeated measurement.

Results: The three groups were similar regarding age and length of surgery (up to 2 hours). The average VAS, in the placebo group, was higher than in the other two groups (P = 0.0001) and the average received doses of meperidine during 24-hour time were considerably higher in placebo group, compared to the other two groups (55.62 mg in placebo, 18.75 mg in gabapentin and 17.5 mg in tramadol groups, P = 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting and sedation, in the tramadol group, were higher than in the other two groups, although they were not significant. Patients' dissatisfaction, in the placebo group, during initial hours, especially in the fourth hour, was higher (P = 0.0001). In the gabapentin and tramadol groups, the trend of changes in satisfaction score was similar. However, satisfaction in the gabapentin group, during the initial 4 hours was higher, in comparison to the tramadol group (P = 0.0001).

Conclusions: This study revealed that prescribing gabapentin or tramadol, as premedication, was effective in reducing postoperative pain, without any concerning side-effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.32360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4834422PMC
February 2016

A Survey on the Effect of Oral Gabapentin on Hemodynamic Changes During Direct Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation and Intraoperative Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Septorhinoplasty.

Anesth Pain Med 2015 Oct 24;5(5):e29705. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Anesthesia Research Center, Anesthesiology Department, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: In patients undergoing septorhinoplasty, control of bleeding and hemodynamic variables is of great importance and laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation could be followed by a specific and transient increase in systemic blood pressure and heart rate.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of oral gabapentin on hemodynamic changes, during direct laryngoscopy, and the amount of bleeding in the patients undergoing septorhinoplasty.

Patients And Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 103 patients (American society of anesthesiologists class I, II) aged 18 - 45 years old, who were septorhinoplasty candidates, were randomly assigned into two groups, a 900 mg gabapentin group and placebo, in Amir-Al-Momenin academic hospital. The drug was prescribed to the patients orally, 2 hours before the operation. Anesthetic technique was similar for all the patients. Heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), oxygen saturation percentage of arterial blood (SaO2), before induction of anesthesia, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after the intubation and tracheal extubation, and the amount of bleeding during operation were measured. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS (v. 16) software.

Results: Variations in the HR, DBP and SaO2, in the specified time intervals, did not show any statistically significant difference, although variations in SBP were statistically significant (higher in gabapentin group). Regarding the average amount of bleeding volume, although there was a lower amount of bleeding in the gabapentin group, the difference was not statistically significant. Also, regarding the pain, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of visual analog scale (VAS) average and the received analgesic.

Conclusions: The present study showed that premedication with 900 mg gabapentin did not affect the hemodynamic changes induced by laryngoscopy and the amount of bleeding. However, the decreased amount of bleeding was observed in the gabapentin group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.29705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4644309PMC
October 2015

Comparing the effects of morphine sulfate and diclofenac suppositories on postoperative pain in coronary artery bypass graft patients.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Oct 21;4(4):e19423. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Simple and efficient way of pain management after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery is an important aspect of patients' care.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of morphine and diclofenac suppositories on postoperative pain management.

Patients And Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial study, 120 patients aged 30-65 years old, undergone CABG, were equally divided into two groups of A (morphine) and B (diclofenac). All patients were anesthetized with intravenous fentanyl 10 μg/kg, etomidate 0.2 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen 50% and air 50%, propofol 50 μg/kg/min, fentanyl 1-2 μg/kg/h and atracurium 0.6 mg/kg/h. Analgesics were administered after the operation at intensive care unit (ICU) and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) was evaluated in both groups in 4-hour intervals after extubation for 24 hours. After extubation in case of VAS > 3, morphine suppository 10 mg (group A) or diclofenac suppository 50 mg (group B) was administered for patients.

Results: No significant statistical relationship was found between the two groups regarding gender, age, BMI, paracetamol consumption, length of operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPB) time, and stay time at ICU (P Value ≥ 0.05). Total dosage of used morphine was 22 ± 8.3 mg in each patient and total dosage of used diclofenac was 94 ± 32.01 mg. Average variation of VAS at measured intervals was significant (P Value ≤ 0.0001), but these variations were not significantly different when comparing the two groups (P Value = 0.023).

Conclusions: Both morphine and diclofenac suppositories reduced pain significantly and similarly after CABG surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.19423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205802PMC
October 2014

Addition of intrathecal fentanyl or meperidine to lidocaine and epinephrine for spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean delivery.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Feb 7;4(1):e14081. Epub 2014 Feb 7.

Deaprtment of Anesthesiology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: A common and useful approach to pain management is administration of neuraxial opioids.

Objectives: Whether addition of fentanyl or meperidine to lidocaine and epinephrine for spinal anesthesia in elective cesarean delivery has any effects on duration of postoperative pain.

Patients And Methods: This was a clinical trial, conducted on 195 pregnant women candidates for elective cesarean section. All patients were in ASA classes I, and II aged 17-45 years, and were randomly allocated to three groups named as meperidine (P), fentanyl (F), and placebo (S). In the three groups (P, F, and S), 25 mg meperidine, 25 µg fentanyl and 0.5 mL saline with lidocaine and epinephrine were injected into the subarachnoid space for spinal anesthesia, respectively. Perioperative complications and Apgar scores were recorded. Duration of analgesia was measured from the end of operation for 24 hours by using VAS. The first VAS≥4 was recorded as the end of the painless period. Characteristics of sensory and motor block were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software.

Results: The mean duration of analgesia with meperidine, fentanyl or placebo were 9.46 ± 0.6, 6.27 ± 0.45, 2.06 ± 0.13 hours, respectively (P < 0.0001). There was significant difference between the group P and the other groups. Patients on meperidine had faster, longer and higher sensory block (P < 0.0001) and faster and longer motor block (P < 0.0001). Frequency of sedation in the group F was more than the others (P < 0.026). There was no difference in Apgar scores between the three groups (P < 0.45).

Conclusions: Addition of meperidine or fentanyl to lidocaine and epinephrine solution increases the duration of postoperative analgesia in cesarean section. Meperidine is a recommended adjuvant according to longer duration of analgesia and lower complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.14081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3961034PMC
February 2014