Publications by authors named "Ali M Ali"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

MP-SeNPs; A Promising Cytokines Suppressor in Benzo[a]pyrene-Induced Mammal Tissue Injury in Rats.

Pak J Biol Sci 2021 Jan;24(8):895-904

<b>Background and Objective:</b> <i>Moringa peregrina</i> (family Moringaceae) is a common flowering plant found in the Arabian Peninsula, Horn of Africa and Southern Sinai, Egypt. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective activity of MP-SeNPs against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> MP-SeNPs were prepared and characterized in terms of particle size and zeta potential. Furthermore, the IC<sub>50</sub> of MP-SeNPs against the Mcf7 breast carcinoma cell line and LD<sub>50</sub> was evaluated. Adult albino rats weighing approximately 187±10 g was used to assess the lung protective activity of MP-SeNPs (28.7 and 71.75 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt.) against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats. <b>Results:</b> The mean particle size of MP-SeNPs was 134.69±8.24 nm with negative zeta potential of +26.04 with the observed shapes of nano particle was spherical. Also, IC<sub>50</sub> of MP-SeNPs against Mcf7 breast carcinoma cell line = 89.57 μg mL<sup>1</sup> and LD<sub>50</sub> equals and 1435 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt., respectively. The daily oral administration of MP-SeNPs at concentrations of 28.7 and 71.75 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt. for 30 days to rats treated with BaP (20 mg kg<sup>1</sup> b.wt.) resulted in a significant improvement of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10. Oral administration of MP-SeNPs, on the other hand, increased the levels of SOD, GPx, TNF-α, iNOs and GSH as well as decreased the level of MDA in mammal tissue of BaP-treated rats. Furthermore, MP-SeNPs almost normalized these effects in mammal tissue histoarchitecture and MRI examination. <b>Conclusion:</b> The biochemical, histological and MRI findings incurrent study demonstrated that MP-SeNPs have protective activity against BaP-induced mammal tissue injury in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2021.895.904DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical observations and molecular detection of Type-A influenza virus in some of the family Equidae in eastern Saudi Arabia winter-2019.

Vet Res Commun 2021 Dec 26;45(4):423-430. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Ahasa, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: In the current study, we are investigating the viral causes of some respiratory clinical signs in some animals belongs to the family Equidae in eastern Saudi Arabia (ESA) during winter- 2019. We observed the progression of severe respiratory clinical signs among some horses, donkeys, and ponies in the ESA. Animals showed rapid respiration, fever, nasal discharges (started as serous then changed into mucopurulent with the progression of the infection per some animals). We conducted a longitudinal study to monitor the progression of this outbreak. We conducted molecular surveillance for the influenza virus Type-A using real-time PCR and regular RT-PCR. We also conducted a serosurveillance of the virus in sera of the tested animals using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The molecular detection of the Influenza virus type-A virus from nasal swabs of the affected animals using the real-time PCR results clearly showing that 35.1% of the tested horses, donkeys, and ponies were positives. Further confirmation was achieved by reporting the seroconversion of some of the affected animals. Several attempts were conducted to isolate the circulating influenza strains using the embryonated chicken eggs were unsuccessful. This was based on the absence of any amplicons in the harvested embryonated egg fluids using some oligonucleotides for the common influenza virus genes (HA, NA, M, and N). Meanwhile, ELISA results revealed the detection of the antibodies in sera of horses and donkeys 72.9%. Seroconversion was reported in many animals several weeks after the onset of the outbreak. Taken together all these pieces of evidence, we confirm an influenza virus type-A outbreak among the tested animals during winter 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11259-021-09822-2DOI Listing
December 2021

Optical detection of microplastics in water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Dec 19;28(45):63860-63866. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Electrical-Electronics Engineering, Abdullah Gül University, Kocasinan, 38080, Kayseri, Turkey.

Unfortunately, the plastic pollution increases at an exponential rate and drastically endangers the marine ecosystem. According to World Health Organization (WHO), microplastics in drinking water have become a concern and may be a risk to human health. One of the major efforts to fight against this problem is developing easy-to-use, low-cost, portable microplastic detection systems. To address this issue, here, we present our prototype device based on an optical system that can help detect the microplastics in water. This system that costs less than $370 is essentially a low-cost Raman spectrometer. It includes a collimated laser (5 mW), a sample holder, a notch filter, a diffraction grating, and a CCD sensor all integrated in a 3D printed case. Our experiments show that our system is capable of detecting microplastics in water having a concentration less than 0.015% w/v. We believe that the designed portable device can find a widespread use all over the world to monitor the microplastic content in an easier and cost-effective manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12358-2DOI Listing
December 2021

Detection of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camel's seminal plasma in Saudi Arabia 2015-2017.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 22;67(6):2609-2614. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of clinical sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia.

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emergent respiratory virus. Dromedary camels are currently the only known reservoir of MERS-CoV and are capable of transmitting the virus within a herd. The role of semen in the transmission of MERS-CoV has never been investigated as yet, to the best of our knowledge. Our goal was to test semen collected from dromedary camels for MERS-CoV. A total of 67 seminal plasma samples from infertile and 13 from fertile dromedary camels were collected. The RNA was extracted from the samples and tested using commercial real-time PCR. Nine out of sixty-seven infertile animals (13.4%) were positive. The obtained PCR products were sequenced using the conserved MERS-CoV-N gene primers. MERS-CoV-RNA detected in seminal plasma was closely related to the lineage B. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the detection of MERS-CoV-RNA in camel's seminal plasma. Regular testing of semen of common male camels' used for insemination should be considered to avoid a possible spread of the virus through semen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267522PMC
November 2020

Using Hand-Held Chlorophyll Meters and Canopy Reflectance Sensors for Fertilizer Nitrogen Management in Cereals in Small Farms in Developing Countries.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Feb 19;20(4). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Soil Fertility and Microbiology, Desert Research Center, Cairo 11753, Egypt.

To produce enough food, smallholder farmers in developing countries apply fertilizer nitrogen (N) to cereals, sometimes even more than the local recommendations. During the last two decades, hand-held chlorophyll meters and canopy reflectance sensors, which can detect the N needs of the crop based on transmission and reflectance properties of leaves through proximal sensing, have been studied as tools for optimizing crop N status in cereals in developing countries. This review aims to describe the outcome of these studies. Chlorophyll meters are used to manage fertilizer N to maintain a threshold leaf chlorophyll content throughout the cropping season. Despite greater reliability of the sufficiency index approach, the fixed threshold chlorophyll content approach has been investigated more for using chlorophyll meters in rice and wheat. GreenSeeker and Crop Circle crop reflectance sensors take into account both N status and biomass of the crop to estimate additional fertilizer N requirement but only a few studies have been carried out in developing countries to develop N management strategies in rice, wheat and maize. Both chlorophyll meters and canopy reflectance sensors can increase fertilizer N use efficiency by reduction of N rates. Dedicated economic analysis of the proximal sensing strategies for managing fertilizer N in cereals in developing countries is not adequately available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20041127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070990PMC
February 2020

Endogenous Glucose Production and Hormonal Changes in Response to Canagliflozin and Liraglutide Combination Therapy.

Diabetes 2018 06 30;67(6):1182-1189. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Division of Diabetes, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center and Texas Diabetes Institute, University Health System, San Antonio, TX.

The decrement in plasma glucose concentration with SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is blunted by a rise in endogenous glucose production (EGP). We investigated the ability of incretin treatment to offset the EGP increase. Subjects with type 2 diabetes ( = 36) were randomized to ) canagliflozin (CANA), ) liraglutide (LIRA), or ) CANA plus LIRA (CANA/LIRA). EGP was measured with [3-H]glucose with or without drugs for 360 min. In the pretreatment studies, EGP was comparable and decreased (2.2 ± 0.1 to 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/kg ⋅ min) during a 300- to 360-min period ( < 0.01). The decrement in EGP was attenuated with CANA (2.1 ± 0.1 to 1.9 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min) and CANA/LIRA (2.2 ± 0.1 to 2.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg ⋅ min), whereas with LIRA it was the same (2.4 ± 0.2 to 1.8 ± 0.2 mg/kg ⋅ min) (all < 0.05 vs. baseline). After CANA, the fasting plasma insulin concentration decreased (18 ± 2 to 12 ± 2 μU/mL, < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in LIRA (18 ± 2 vs. 16 ± 2 μU/mL) and CANA/LIRA (17 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 2 μU/mL). Mean plasma glucagon did not change during the pretreatment studies from 0 to 360 min, while it increased with CANA (69 ± 3 to 78 ± 2 pg/mL, < 0.05), decreased with LIRA (93 ± 6 to 80 ± 6 pg/mL, < 0.05), and did not change in CANA/LIRA. LIRA prevented the insulin decline and blocked the glucagon rise observed with CANA but did not inhibit the increase in EGP. Factors other than insulin and glucagon contribute to the stimulation of EGP after CANA-induced glucosuria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db17-1278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301339PMC
June 2018

Toxicity and growth inhibition potential of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender essential oils and their blends against larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Apr 8;57(4):449-457. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Myiasis induced by the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata, represents a public health problem widely distributed throughout the world. L. sericata larval stages feed on both humans and animals. L. sericata adults and larvae can play a role in spreading agents of mycobacterial infections.

Objectives: It is critical to establish new and safe alternative methods of controlling L. sericata.

Methods: The insecticidal effectiveness and growth inhibition potential of three commercially available essential oils (EOs), vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), as well as their blends, were tested against the second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages of L. sericata. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil was used as a carrier and tested on L2 and L3 larvae. To the best of our knowledge, all applied essential oils, except lavender, and oil blends were tested against L. sericata for the first time.

Results: All applied oils did not repel L2 from the treated liver but adversely affected their development. Contact treatments on L. sericata L3 indicated that vetiver and cinnamon oils significantly affected treated larvae. Total mortality rates were 93.33 and 95.56%, respectively. Furthermore, oil blends tested through contact assays killed larvae when used at higher concentrations; adult emergence was eliminated post-treatment with doses >30% for oil blend 1 and >10% for oil blend 2.

Conclusion: Overall, cinnamon and vetiver oils (5%) were selected as reliable and cheap biopesticides for controlling larvae of L. sericata. The tested oils are inexpensive and represent new promising botanical insecticides in the fight against blowflies causing myiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13828DOI Listing
April 2018

Analysis of the immune infiltrate in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the extremity and trunk in response to radiotherapy: Rationale for combination neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibition and radiotherapy.

Oncoimmunology 2018;7(2):e1385689. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma of the extremity and trunk (ET-UPS) presents a unique therapeutic challenge. Although immunotherapy has recently been employed in advanced soft tissue sarcoma, there is limited data characterizing the immune infiltrate in ET-UPS. Radiotherapy (RT) has been shown in other tumor types to promote tumor antigen release and enhance tumor-specific targeting by the adaptive immune system. The aim of this study was to 1) characterize the baseline immune infiltrate and 2) evaluate the effect of preoperative RT on the histologic appearance of and the immune infiltrate in ET-UPS. : We identified 17 matched ET-UPS samples before and after RT. Immunohistochemistry was performed with CD8, CD4, PD-L1, PD1, CD3, CD163 and FoxP3 positive cells identified in all samples. Changes in the immune infiltrate following RT were examined. : There was a trend towards increased density of tumor infiltrating immune cells in ET-UPS following RT, with increases in median number of CD3 (158 vs 219 cells/mm, p = 0.06), CD4 (3 vs 13 cells/mm, p = 0.01), CD8 (55 vs 111 cells/mm, p = 0.17), and FOXP3 (14 vs 25 cells/mm, p = 0.23) positive cells. Interestingly, although PD-L1 was not expressed in any ET-UPS tumor at baseline, positive PD-L1 expression was observed in 21% (3/14) of tumors after RT (p = 0.07). : An immune infiltrate is present in ET-UPS at the time of diagnosis, with a trend towards increased density of immune infiltrate and PD-L1 expression after RT. These data support prospectively evaluating immune checkpoint inhibitors with standard of care RT in the treatment of ET-UPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2017.1385689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5749668PMC
October 2017

Primary chondro-osseous melanoma (chondrosarcomatous and osteosarcomatous melanoma).

J Cutan Pathol 2018 Feb 6;45(2):146-150. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Melanoma can rarely show malignant chondro-osseous differentiation and can cause diagnostic confusion. We report 3 cases of primary melanoma with extensive bone and cartilage matrix. The first case arose in the nasal mucosa of a 72-year-old woman, the second case in the left index finger of a 26-year-old woman and the third case in the left cheek of a 68-year-old woman. In tumors where osseous and chondroid differentiation appear in mucosa and skin, primary melanoma with chondro-osteosarcomatous differentiation should be considered in the differential. Careful histological examination together with clinical correlation and ancillary immunohistochemical studies can ensure the correct diagnosis is made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.13067DOI Listing
February 2018

Multi-Country Evaluation of Safety of Dihydroartemisinin/Piperaquine Post-Licensure in African Public Hospitals with Electrocardiograms.

PLoS One 2016 20;11(10):e0164851. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

University for Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

The antimalarial drug piperaquine is associated with delayed ventricular depolarization, causing prolonged QT interval (time taken for ventricular de-polarisation and re-polarisation). There is a lack of safety data regarding dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, which has limited its use. We created a platform where electrocardiograms (ECG) were performed in public hospitals for the safety assessment of DHA/PPQ, at baseline before the use of dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (Eurartesim®), and on day 3 (before and after administration of the final dose) and day 7 post-administration. Laboratory analyses included haematology and clinical chemistry. The main objective of the ECG assessment in this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of DHA/PPQ on QTc intervals and the association of QTc intervals with changes in blood biochemistry, full and differential blood count over time after the DHA/PPQ administration. A total of 1315 patients gave consent and were enrolled of which 1147 (87%) had complete information for analyses. Of the enrolled patients 488 (42%), 323 (28%), 213 (19%) and 123 (11%) were from Ghana, Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Mozambique, respectively. Median (lower-upper quartile) age was 8 (5-14) years and a quarter of the patients were children under five years of age (n = 287). Changes in blood biochemistry, full and differential blood count were temporal which remained within clinical thresholds and did not require any intervention. The mean QTcF values were significantly higher than on day 1 when measured on day 3 before and after administration of the treatment as well as on day 7, four days after completion of treatment (12, 22 and 4 higher, p < 0.001). In all age groups the values of QT, QTcF and QTcB were highest on day 3 after drug intake. The mean extreme QTcF prolongation from baseline was lowest on day 3 before drug intake (33 ms, SD = 19) and highest on day 3 after the last dose (60 ms, SD = 31). There were 79 (7%) events of extreme mean QTcF prolongation which were not clinically significant. Nearly a half of them (n = 37) were grade 3 and mainly among males (33/37). Patients in Burkina Faso, Mozambique and Tanzania had significantly lower mean QTcF than patients in Ghana by an average of 3, 4 and 11 ms, respectively. We found no evidence that Eurartesim® administered in therapeutic doses in patients with uncomplicated malaria and no predisposing cardiac conditions in Africa was associated with adverse clinically significant QTc prolongation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164851PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5072600PMC
June 2017

Treatment outcomes in pediatric melanoma-Are there benefits to specialized care?

J Pediatr Surg 2016 Dec 17;51(12):2063-2067. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, The McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin Street, Suite 5.258, Houston, TX 77030; Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1400 Pressler, Unit 1484, Houston, TX 77030. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of hospital specialization on survival in pediatric melanoma.

Methods: We reviewed all patients under 18years old with cutaneous melanoma evaluated at MD Anderson Cancer Center, a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated center, from 2000 to 2014. We compared overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between patients who underwent all treatments at MDACC (Group A, n=146) and those who underwent initial surgical treatment at a non-NCI center (Group B, n=58). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were compared using the log-rank test.

Results: Group A patients had significantly better OS and DFS (both p<0.001). Five-year OS was 97% (95% CI 92%-99%) in Group A versus 88% (95% CI 74%-94%) in Group B. Group survival differences were most notable in Stage 3 and 4 patients. Group A patients presenting with stage III or IV disease had a 5-year OS rate of 91.2% (95% CI 75.1%-97.1%) compared to 80.8% (95% CI 59.8%-91.5%) in Group B. The DFS rate was 94.4% (95% CI 88.5%-97.3%) in Group A versus 77.2% (95% CI 62.5%-86.7%) in Group B.

Conclusion: Surgical treatment at a comprehensive cancer center may improve outcomes for pediatric melanoma especially for patients presenting with later stage disease.

Level Of Evidence: Case-control study: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2016.09.039DOI Listing
December 2016

The status of maternal and newborn health care services in Zanzibar.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016 06 3;16(1):134. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Ifakara Health Institute, P.O. Box 78373, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: It is estimated that 287,000 women worldwide die annually from pregnancy and childbirth-related conditions, and 6.9 million under-five children die each year, of which about 3 million are newborns. Most of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. The maternal health situation in Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar is similar to other sub-Saharan countries. This study assessed the availability, accessibility and quality of emergency obstetric care services and essential resources available for maternal and child health services in Zanzibar.

Methods: From October and November 2012, a cross-sectional health facility survey was conducted in 79 health facilities in Zanzibar. The health facility tools developed by the Averting Maternal Death and Disability program were adapted for local use.

Results: Only 7.6 % of the health facilities qualified as functioning basic EmONC (Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care) facilities and 9 % were comprehensive EmONC facilities. Twenty-eight percent were partially performing basic EmONC and the remaining 55.7 % were not providing EmONC. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in 80 % of the hospitals and only 17.4 % of the other health facilities that were surveyed. Based on World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria, the study revealed a gap of 20 % for minimum provision of EmONC facilities per 500,000 population. The met need at national level (proportion of women with major direct obstetric complications treated in a health facility providing EmONC) was only 33.1 % in the 12 months preceding the survey. The study found that there was limited availability of human resources in all visited health facilities, particularly for the higher cadres, as per Zanzibar minimum staff requirements.

Conclusion: There is a need to strengthen human resource capacity at primary health facilities through training of health care providers to improve EmONC services, as well as provision of necessary equipment and supplies to reduce workload at the higher referral health facilities and increase geographic access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-016-0928-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4893222PMC
June 2016

N-(2-Hy-droxy-phen-yl)-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonamide.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2014 Jan 14;70(Pt 1):o54. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Kirkuk University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kirkuk, Iraq.

In the title compound, C13H13NO3S, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 64.15 (7)° and the C-S-N-C torsion angle is -57.18 (12)°. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond closes an S(5) ring. In the crystal, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into C(8) chains propagating in [100]. Weak C-H⋯π inter-actions are also observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536813033394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3914092PMC
January 2014

(2E)-2-(1,3-Benzo-thia-zol-2-yl)-3-(di-methyl-amino)-prop-2-ene-nitrile.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2014 Jan 14;70(Pt 1):o52-3. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Kirkuk University, College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Kirkuk, Iraq.

The mol-ecular conformation of title compound, C12H11N3S, is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.063 (2) Å]; an intra-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, mol-ecules inter-act with each other via π-π stacking inter-actions between thia-zole rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.7475 (9) Å] and methyl-H⋯π(C6) inter-actions, forming columns along the a axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536813033266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3914091PMC
January 2014

The antitrichomonal efficacy of garlic and metronidazole against Trichomonas gallinae infecting domestic pigeons.

Parasitol Res 2014 Apr 2;113(4):1319-29. Epub 2014 Feb 2.

Avian Diseases Department, Animal Health Research Institute Benha Branch, Benha, 13111, Egypt.

Trichomonas gallinae is the causative agent of canker in pigeon. This work was carried out to investigate in the vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous water extract of garlic (AGE) on the growth of T. gallinae infecting pigeons compared to those of metronidazole (MTZ). MTZ and AGE were added, at different concentrations, to glucose-serum broth medium containing 1 × 10(4) trophozoites/ml. In the in vivo experiment, 48 squabs were grouped into four groups. The first group (gr. I) was not infected and not treated. Each squab of the other group was infected with 1 × 10(4) trophozoites. The second group (gr. II) was infected and not treated. On day 0, the third group (gr. III) was treated with MTZ (50 mg/kg BW) and the fourth group (gr. IV) was treated with AGE (200 mg/kg BW) for seven successive days in drinking water. In vitro study revealed that the MLC, 24, 48, and 72 h post treatment were 50, 25, and 12.5 μg/ml, respectively, for MTZ and 75, 50, and 50 mg/ml, respectively, for AGE. Garlic (200 mg/kg BW) had the highest antitrichomonal effect and shortened course of treatment of pigeons from 7 days in gr. III to 5 days. Squabs in gr. II suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia, whereas squabs in grs. III and IV showed normal blood pictures. Serum total protein, albumin, and globulin were increased, whereas AST, ALT, and the total cholesterol were decreased in grs. III and IV when compared to those of gr. II. Pigeons protected with AGE showed increased body weight and reduced mortality percentage than the other groups. Our results indicated that garlic may be a promising phytotherapeutic agent for protection against trichomoniasis in pigeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-3771-6DOI Listing
April 2014

Amino-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)amino]-methaniminium 4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2013 18;69(Pt 10):o1543-4. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Chemistry and Environmental Division, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, England ; Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, 61519 El-Minia, Egypt.

The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C8H10N5 (+)·C7H7O3S(-), consists of two amino-[(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)amino]-meth-an-im-inium cations and two 4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate anions. The cations are each stabilized by intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between the free amino groups and the imine N atoms of the benzimidazole units, forming S(6) ring motifs. In the crystal, cations and anions are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular framework. Two strong π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distances = 3.4112 (14) and 3.4104 (14) Å] also occur between the centroids of the imidazole rings of like cations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536813024975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790410PMC
October 2013

Erratum to: the acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

Parasitol Res 2013 Oct;112(10):3669-78

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, 13736, Egypt,

The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5%) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25%). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC₅₀ and LC₉₅ values were 0.0033 and 0.0052% (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT₅₀ and LT₉₅ values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.0025% DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5%), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.005 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42% after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28%) when compared with that of DMT (52%). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3563-4DOI Listing
October 2013

The acaricidal efficacy of aqueous neem extract and ivermectin against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in experimentally infested rabbits.

Parasitol Res 2013 Jun 10;112(6):2319-30. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Avian Diseases Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Benha Laboratory, Benha, Egypt.

Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi is one of the most important veterinary ectoparasites in rabbits and results in considerable loss of weight, productivity, and wool quality. The acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of neem (CAN) and ivermectin (IVR) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Rabbits were classified into four groups (ten rabbits each). The first group (group 1) was designated as the negative control group. Each rabbit of the other groups was experimentally infested with 50 mites. One month post-infestation, the second group (group 2) was not treated and taken into account as the positive control group. The third group (group 3) was subcutaneously injected with 1 % IVR (200 μg/kg body weight, three times within a week interval). The fourth group (group 4) was treated topically with CAN (25 %) every 3 days for three consecutive weeks. Index scoring of lesions was described weekly. The number of live mites (larvae, nymphs, and adults) on each rabbit was counted on the 14th, 28th, and 42th day post-treatment (PT). Blood samples were taken 28 and 42 days PT for estimation of some chemical parameters. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain were recoded 14, 28, and 42 days PT. CAN (40 %) was highly efficacious against larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi as 100 % mortality was reached 24 h PT. On the other hand, all treated mites with CAN (20 %) and IVR died 48 h PT. The lethal values of CAN (LC50, LC90, LC95, and LC99) were 7.496, 14.67, 17.75, and 25.37 %, respectively, 48 h PT. Lesion scoring in groups 3 and 4 were significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05), reaching 0.20 and 0.40, respectively, when compared with that of group 2 (4.00), 42 days PT. Twenty-eight days PT, the reduction percentages of mites infesting rabbits were 93.38 and 93.09 % for IVR and CAN, respectively. However, complete mite reduction was reached 42 days PT. Rabbits treated with CAN did not show signs of restlessness or irritation, respiratory signs, or inflammation on the eye and/or skin at the time of application or afterwards. Regarding biochemical analysis, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, and total cholesterol in rabbits treated with CAN were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) than those of rabbits of the positive control group and those treated with IVR. On the other hand, the levels of total protein, albumin, and globulin of rabbits in group 4 were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased when compared with the corresponding values of groups 2 and 3. The body weight and cumulative body weight gain of rabbits treated with CAN were significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) when compared with such values of groups 2 and 3, 28 and 42 days PT. The present data indicated that CAN had in vitro and in vivo acaricidal efficiency similar to that of IVR and improved the performance of rabbits without inducing adverse effects on treated rabbits; consequently, CAN could be suitable as a promising alternative acaricide for veterinary use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3395-2DOI Listing
June 2013

Mycophenolate pharmacokinetics and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in liver transplant recipients with an emphasis on therapeutic drug monitoring.

Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2013 Mar 3;73(2):117-24. Epub 2013 Jan 3.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA) demonstrates high inter- and intra-patient variability. Variation in the binding of MPA to albumin has been postulated to be an important factor in this variability, and monitoring of free MPA has been suggested to improve therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is the target enzyme for MPA, therefore the IMPDH activity in lymphocytes can serve as a marker of the MPA-specific response. This study aimed to explore how the albumin concentration influences the free concentration of MPA in liver transplant recipients and to assess whether alteration in the free MPA influences IMPDH activity in CD4 + cells.

Methods: Blood samples were taken from 20 liver transplant recipients on two separate occasions (days 3-5 and 16-21). Total and free concentrations of MPA, and IMPDH activity were measured during the first 4 h of each dose interval.

Results: Albumin levels correlated with the free fraction of MPA. However, the total MPA and free MPA were equal predictors of the immunosuppressive response as defined by IMPDH activity.

Conclusion: Total and free MPA are equally good predictors of the immunosuppressive effect exerted by MPA as defined by IMPDH activity. IMPDH activity measurements represent a promising approach to TDM in patients treated with MPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365513.2012.745947DOI Listing
March 2013

The acaricidal efficacy of peracetic acid and deltamethrin against the fowl tick, Argas persicus, infesting laying hens.

Parasitol Res 2013 Jan 23;112(1):259-69. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Benha University, Moshtohor, 13736, Egypt.

The fowl tick, Argas persicus (Oken), is of veterinary importance as a parasite of poultry and wild birds. The antitick efficacy, in vitro and in vivo, of peracetic acid (PAA) and deltamethrin (DMT) was tested separately against A. persicus through the dipping technique. PAA (0.5 %) was highly efficient against soft tick larvae (A. persicus), resulting in 100 % mortality after 2 min. The lethal concentrations LC(50) and LC(95) were 0.310 and 0.503 %, respectively. The lethal time values LT(50) and LT(95) were 5.34 and 40.00 min, respectively, after treatment with PAA (0.25 %). Two minutes after exposure to DMT, LC(50) and LC(95) values were 0.033 and 0.052 % (33.204 and 51.527 mg/L), respectively. The LT(50) and LT(95) values were 27.03 and 305.46 min, respectively, after treatment with 0.025 % DMT (25 mg/L). After dipping in PAA (0.5 %), the chickens did not show respiratory signs or inflammation on the eyes and/or skin. By contrast, temporary coughing, sneezing, and ocular inflammations without dermatitis were observed in chickens dipped in DMT (0.05 % or 50 mg /L). Seven days posttreatment (PT), the reduction in the percentages of A. persicus infesting laying hens were 99.15 and 63.42 % after dipping in PAA and DMT, respectively. However, complete elimination of the number of ticks occurred after 28 days PT with DMT. PAA inhibits molting effectively (28 %) when compared with that of DMT (52 %). Results indicated that PAA is a more potent and promising acaricide against A. persicus (in vitro and in vivo) than DMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-012-3133-1DOI Listing
January 2013

Separation of copper ions from iron ions using PVA-g-(acrylic acid/N-vinyl imidazole) membranes prepared by radiation-induced grafting.

Authors:
Zaki Ajji Ali M Ali

J Hazard Mater 2010 Jan 19;173(1-3):71-4. Epub 2009 Aug 19.

Polymer Technology Division, Department of Radiation Technology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, Syria.

Acrylic acid (AAc), N-vinyl imidazole (Azol) and their binary mixtures were graft copolymerized onto poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes using gamma irradiation. The ability of the grafted membranes to separate Cu ions from Fe ions was investigated with respect to the grafting yield and the pH of the feed solution. The data showed that the diffusion of copper ions from the feed compartment to the receiver compartment depends on the grafting yield of the membranes and the pH of the feed solution. To the contrary, iron ions did not diffuse through the membranes of all grafting yields. However, a limited amount of iron ions diffused in strong acidic medium. This study shows that the prepared membranes could be considered for the separation of copper ions from iron ions. The temperature of thermal decomposition of pure PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane, PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing copper ions, and PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing iron ions were determined using TGA analyzer. It was shown that the presence of Cu and Fe ions increases the decomposition temperature, and the membranes bonded with iron ions are more stable than those containing copper ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.049DOI Listing
January 2010
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