Publications by authors named "Ali Gholami"

73 Publications

The effect of soy isoflavones and soy isoflavones plus soy protein on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

In this study, we summarized the effect of soy isoflavones and soy isoflavones plus soy protein on serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) among adult participants. We systematically searched Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and clinicaltrials.gov for articles published up to May 2020. Effect size was calculated by mean change from baseline of TNF-α concentrations and its standard deviation (SD) for intervention and comparison groups. If the heterogeneity test was statistically significant, DerSimonian and Laird random effects model was used to estimate the summary of the overall effects and its heterogeneity. Nineteen and fourteen randomized clinical trials were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. The result of overall effect size indicated a non-significant effect in serum concentration of TNF-α following soy isoflavones intake (WMD = 0.2 pg/ml, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.53; p = .226) and the combination of soy isoflavones and soy protein intake (WMD = 0.02 pg/ml, 95% CI: -0.02, 0.06; p = .286). Subgroup analyses revealed no significant change in circulatory levels of TNF-α following soy isoflavones plus soy protein intake. In conclusion, the present systematic review and meta-analysis found insufficient evidence that soy isoflavones or the combination of soy isoflavones and soy protein significantly reduce serum concentration of TNF-α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7047DOI Listing
February 2021

Sensitive Simultaneous Measurement of Metformin and Linagliptin in Plasma Samples by Couple of Nano Graphene Oxide-based Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction Method and Liquid Chromatography.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(2):274-282

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food Industry and Agriculture, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran.

A simple, rapid, and ultra sensitive dispersive solid phase extraction based on nano graphene oxide was developed for simultaneous measurement of trace amounts of metformin (MET) and linagliptin (LIN) in plasma samples by HPLC-UV-Vis. Affecting factors on the extraction of these drugs, including adsorbent weight, extraction time, organic solvent type, desorption situations, and composition of solvent were examined and optimized. In optimum conditions, the LOD (limit of detection) and LOQ (limit of quantification) of the suggested technique were 2.0 ngmL and 6.1 (ngmL) for LIN and 3.0 ngmL and 9.2 ngmL for MET, respectively. Suitable linear behavior in the considered ranges of concentration (10-2000 ngmL) and good correlation coefficient of 0.9901 and 0.9903 (r) for LIN and MET were obtained, respectively. The RSD (relative standard deviations) according to three replicate measurements at 2, 20, 200 ngmL levels of these drugs was less than 8.0%. In the last step, applicability of the suggested technique was examined by analyzing the drugs in plasma samples and reasonable results were achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/ijpr.2019.111659.13292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667567PMC
January 2020

Effect of resistant starch type 2 on inflammatory mediators: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Jan 24;56:102597. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran; Healthy Ageing Research Centre, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Inflammation is the main cause in the development of chronic diseases. The enhancement of pro-inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is the main risk factor in chronic diseases. Resistant starch type 2 (RS2) is non-gelatinized granules which their enzymatic hydrolysis is very low. RS2 might be able to reduce inflammatory mediators, therefore; our aim for this study was indicating RS2 effects on inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, TNF-a, and CRP among healthy and unhealthy subjects.

Methods: Articles which assessed RS2 effect on IL-6, TNF-α, and hs-CRP were found by advanced search methods. Electronic databases including Google scholar, ISI web of science, SCOPUS, and PubMed, were searched up to October 2019. Treatment effect was the mean difference between changes in serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers in each arm of the clinical trials. To pool the effect of resistant starch on inflammatory biomarkers, we used random effects model.

Results: We included eight articles in systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall effect illustrated no significant change in serum levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in intervention group compared with the control group (WMD: -7.18 pg/mL, 95% CI: -27.80, 13.45; P = 0.495, I = 100.0%, WMD: -0.003 pg/mL, 95% CI: -0.07, 0.06; P = 0.919, I = 98.1%, WMD: -0.003 pg/mL, 95% CI: -0.004, -0.001; P < 0.0001, I = 98.0% respectively).

Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that RS2 could not reduce inflammatory mediators, but we still need more RCTs with longer intervention duration, higher dose, and studies in different countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102597DOI Listing
January 2021

Subgrouping University Students Based on Substance Use Pattern: A Latent Class Analysis.

Subst Abuse Rehabil 2020 19;11:33-39. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Nursing, Hormozgan University of Medical Science, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Purpose: High-risk behaviors are the main causes of death and disability among youth and adults. Entering university might cause students to go through their first-hand experience of using substances.

Aim: This study aimed to detect the subgroups of students based on substance use and assess the effects of religiosity and parental support as well as other related factors on the membership of students in each latent class.

Methods: Using a multistage sampling method, this cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 in Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (n=524). All students completed a self-report questionnaire. This questionnaire contained questions about substance use, religious beliefs and familial support. The questions of substance use were prepared using the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (WHO ASSIST). To analyze the data, PROC LCA statistical method was run in SAS9.2.

Results: Three latent classes were identified: 1) nonuser (87.5%), 2) tobacco and illicit drug user (8.7%) and 3) polydrug user (3.8%). Having extramarital sex in the last month (OR=28.29, 95% CI; 8.45-94.76), living alone (OR=4.29, 95% CI; 1.01-18.35) and having a higher score of familial support (OR=0.94, 95% CI; 0.89-0.98) were associated with the polydrug user class. Hookah smoking had the highest (11.1%) and non-medical methylphenidate use had the lowest (2.3%) prevalence among the participants of the study.

Conclusion: This study revealed that 12.5% of the students were either tobacco and illicit drug users or polydrug users. Thus, focusing on the religiosity and familial support may help design some preventive programs for this stratum of young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/SAR.S253960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586019PMC
October 2020

Can soy isoflavones plus soy protein change serum levels of interlukin-6? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

In the present review, we aimed to summarize the effect of soy isoflavones plus soy protein on circulating interlukin-6 (IL-6) in adult participants. Databases including ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched up to 23 March 2020. The mean change from baseline of IL-6 concentrations and its SD for intervention and comparison groups were used to calculate the effect size. If the heterogeneity test was statistically significant, DerSimonian and Laird random effects model was used. Cochran's Q test and I-squared statistic were also used to compute the statistical heterogeneity of the intervention's effects. Eighteen studies were known to be eligible for systematic review and 14 studies were selected for meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results indicated a non-significant effect in serum IL-6 concentrations compared to the comparison group (WMD = 0.03 pg/ml, 95% CI: -0.06, 0.12; p = .459). In subgroup analysis, based on soy isoflavones dosage, it was observed that this combination could reduce IL-6 levels in studies that used isoflavones with dose >84 mg/day (WMD = -0.12 pg/ml 95% CI: -0.24, -0.004; p = .042, I = 82.7%) and in articles with a good quality (WMD = -0.15 pg/ml 95% CI: -0.24, -0.05; p = .003, I = 62.3%). Performing well-designed intervention studies using a high dose of soy isoflavones is recommended to confirm the beneficial effects of soy ingredients on IL-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6881DOI Listing
October 2020

Comorbidity of metabolic syndrome components in a population-based screening program: A latent class analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2020 27;34:69. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Health Promotion Research Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is rapidly increasing in the world. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the latent subgroups of Iranian male adults based on MS components and investigate the effect of abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on the odds of membership in each class. In the present study, we used the data of a population-based screening program conducted on 823 urban adult men aged 25 years and older in city of Qom in 2014. Abdominal obesity, fasting blood sugar (FBS), blood pressure, and serum lipid profile were measured in participants after for at least 8 hours. MS was defined according to the Adults Treatment Panel III criteria. Latent class analysis was used to achieve the aims of study. Analyses were conducted using PROC LCA in SAS 9.2 software. In all analysis, p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were 3 different latent classes among participants. Latent class 1, non-MS, 55.1%; latent lass 2, at risk, 21.3%; and finally latent class 3, MS, with 23.6% of the participants. Age (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99, high LDL (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.13-0.56), high TC (OR=8.12, 95% CI: 4.40-15.00), and abnormal ALT (OR=2.25, 95% CI 1.49-3.41) were associated with at risk class. Also, only age (OR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04) was associated with MS class. The most prevalent components among the participants were having low HDL (34.0%) and high WC (33.9%). Notable percent of samples fell in "at risk" and "MS" classes, which stress the necessity of designing preventive interventions for these specific stratums of population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.34.69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7500419PMC
June 2020

Comparison of SF-36 and WHOQoL-BREF in Measuring Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Int J Gen Med 2020 11;13:497-506. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) in patients with type 2 diabetes using two WHOQoL -BREF and SF-36 questionnaires in Iran.

Patients And Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1847 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from rural health-care centers affiliated to Neyshabur County (Iran) in 2012. In addition to demographic information, two questionnaires WHOQoL-BREF and SF-36 questionnaires were used for data collection. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for scale reliability. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis for the investigation of construct validity. Convergent and discriminant validity were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient. To determine the relationships between the eight domains of SF-36 and four domains of the WHOQoL-BREF, structural equation modelling was performed.

Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficients were acceptable for all domains of both WHOQoL-BREF (0.69-0.86) and SF-36 (0.63 -0.92) questionnaires. The principal component analysis showed two separate factors: one for all domains of SF-36 and another for all domains of WHOQoL-BREF. Spearman correlation coefficients of both instruments were partly to strongly correlated with most domains (r ≥0.40). Correlations for domains with similar constructs were stronger than those measuring varied constructs. Structural equation modelling recommended approximately moderate relationships among the SF-36 and WHOQoL-BREF domains.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that SF-36 and WHOQoL-BREF are reliable instruments for clinical and research uses, respectably. However, results of the goodness of fit showed that the WHOQoL-BREF was fitted well. Also, the WHOQoL-BREF can be considered more suitable for the study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S258953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434519PMC
August 2020

A pilot study of the effect of curcumin on epigenetic changes and DNA damage among patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Jun 16;51:102447. Epub 2020 May 16.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The enhancement of oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients may cause mutation in DNA by deamination of cytosine to 5-hydroxyuracil or uracil. This study aimed to discover the effects of curcumin on NAFLD progress, DNA damage caused by oxidative stress, and promoter methylation of mismatch repair enzymes.

Material And Methods: in this study, 54 NAFLD patients were randomly devided into two groups, according to a double blind parallel design either phytosomal curcumin (250 mg/day) or placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples and anthropometric measures were taken twice, once at the baseline and once at the end of the study. Promoter methylation and 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration as DNA damage mediator were measured by restriction enzymes and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.

Result: Analysis was performed on 44 patients. According to our between groups analysis, curcumin significantly reduced the methylation in MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) promoter regions. The within-group comparison revealed that anthropometric variables significantly decreased. However, the result of the between groups comparison indicated no significant changes in the anthropometric variables except for BMI. Liver enzymes and 8-OHdG did not significantly change at the end of the study, neither in curcumin group nor in placebo group.

Conclusion: Curcumin might be able to reduce the risk of mismatch base pair in DNA among the NAFLD patients. However, it did not change the DNA damage mediator and liver enzymes. For confirming these results, more studies with longer duration, more numbers of examined genes, higher dose of curcumin, and larger sample size are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102447DOI Listing
June 2020

Health related quality of life in patient with type 2 diabetes: The role of household food insecurity on latent class membership.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Jul - Aug;14(4):473-477. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important public health issue that mainly associated with a number of certain factors in medical sciences. This study, in particular, aimed to identify HRQoL latent subgroups among patients with type 2 diabetes and assess the role that household food insecurity (HFI) plays in classifying participants to each latent class.

Methods: At the present cross sectional study, all the diabetic patients of the rural regions of Neyshabur (a city in north-east of Iran) were recruited between April and July 2012 (N = 1847). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to determine the latent subgroups of HRQoL. Finally, LCA was used to determine the effect of HFI on dedicating participants to each latent class after adjusting other covariates.

Results: Based on the subscales of HRQoL, three latent classes were identified, including: 1) poor HRQoL (34.6%), 2) moderate HRQoL (39.1%) and 3) good HRQoL (26.3%). After considering the possible confounders, having HFI decrease the odds of membership in latent class 2 (moderate HRQoL) (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.29-0.60). Also having HFI show similar effect on latent class 3 (good HRQoL) and decrease the odds of membership in this class (OR = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.08-0.20) in compared to the first class (poor HRQoL).

Conclusions: Results from the present study show that HFI plays an important role in decreasing the odds of membership in moderate and good HRQoL classes compared to poor HRQoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.035DOI Listing
April 2020

HIV-1 drug resistance mutations detection and HIV-1 subtype G report by using next-generation sequencing platform.

Microb Pathog 2020 Sep 30;146:104221. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Based on world health organization (WHO) recommend, drug resistance assay should be performed in initial of treatment and after treatment for administering and monitoring of anti-retroviral regime in HIV-1 infected patients.

Material And Method: NGS analyses were performed on forty-one plasma samples from HIV-1 affected patients using the Sentosa SQ HIV genotyping assay (Vela-Diagnostics, Germany). This system comprises a semi-automated Ion torrent based platform and the sequencing results were analyzed based on ANRS, REGA and Stanford drug resistance algorithms. Phylogenetic analysis was analyzed based on https://comet.lih.lu database as well as MEGA5 Software.

Results: Drug resistances were identified in thirty-three samples (80%) out of forty-one samples. The Phylogenetic analysis results showed that CRF-35AD (94%) and subtypes B (2.4%) and G (2.4%) were dominant subtypes in this study. NRTI and NNRTI associated dominant mutations were M184I/V and K103 N.High-level resistance to lamivudine (3 TC) and Emtricitabine (FTC) were detected in 34.3% of patients while 53.1% were resistant to Efavirenz (EFV) and Nevirapine (NVP). The Protease inhibitor (PI) minor and major mutations were not reported but more than 95% of samples had polymorphisms mutation in K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M positions. These mutations are subtype dependent and completely are absent in subtype B virus. The secondary mutations were reported in positions of E157Q, S230 N, and T97A of integrase gene and four samples represent low-level resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI).

Conclusions: This is the first preliminary evaluation of HIV-1 drug resistance mutation (DRM) by using the Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay in Iran. The NGS represent a promising tool for the accurate detection of DRMs of CRF-35AD that is dominant subtype in Iranian HIV-1 infected population and for the first time revealed HIV-1 subtype G in Iranian population. In the present study polymorphic mutation in the position of K20R, M36I, H69K, L89 M were properly reported in CRF35AD that is dominant in Iranian HIV patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104221DOI Listing
September 2020

Psychological, social, and motivational factors in persons who use drugs.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 04 29;15(1):32. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department Anesthesiology, Clinical Development Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Persons who use drug need family and society's support in the process of treatment and rehabilitation. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the psychological, social, and motivational factors that can help them in the treatment process. The present study was an attempt to determine the relationship between psychological, social, and motivational factors and the demographics of persons who use drugs (PWUD).

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out. TCU psychological functioning and motivation scales for the PWUD was first translated into Farsi and validated after securing permission from the copyright holder of the tool. Participants were 250 PWUDs under methadone therapy who were selected through convenient sampling. Before analyzing the collected data, validity and reliability of the tool were confirmed using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Given the scale of demographical data, descriptive and analytic statistics were used to analyze the relationship between demographical variables and psychological, social, and motivational factors.

Results: The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that out of 83 statements in the original questionnaire, 55 statements categorized into 11 aspects were usable for Iranian population. The results showed that gender, income, and marital status affect psychological functioning of the PWUD (P < 0.05). However, education level, place of residence, and type of drug and consumption did not have a significant relationship with social functioning of the participants (p > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between age, number of children, and history of using drug and psychological functioning of the participants (P < 0.01). The results showed that the demographics did not have a notable effect on the participants' motivation for treatment; only marital status had a significant relationship with the participants' treatment readiness (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: As the results showed, the demographical variables could affect physical, psychological, and social functioning in the participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00273-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189680PMC
April 2020

Effect of grape polyphenols on selected inflammatory mediators: A systematic review and meta-analysis randomized clinical trials.

EXCLI J 2020 2;19:251-267. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Grapes contain different polyphenols and might prevent inflammation by reducing Nitric Oxide (NO) inactivation through antioxidative enzymes. The aim of this article was to demonstrate the effects of grape polyphenols on the selected inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). To find papers assessing the effects of grape polyphenols on inflammatory mediators, electronic data bases, including ISI web of science, PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and Google scholar, were searched up to March 2019. Delphi checklist was used for evaluating the qualities of the included articles. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (No. CRD42019116695). The mean changes in the intervention and control groups were calculated by subtracting the end values from the baselines. Then, the difference between the two changes was measured and utilized as the effect size in meta-analysis. 9 and 8 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. Our results indicated that grape polyphenols did not reduce hs-CRP levels, but omission of one article could lead to a significant reduction in hs-CRP (Weight Mean Difference (WMD): -0.54 mg/L, 95 % CI: -1.02, -0.06; P=0.026, I=0.0 %). Regarding IL-6 and TNF-α, no significant changes were observed in the intervention compared to the control group (WMD: 0.04 pg/mL, 95 % CI: -0.02, 0.28; P=0.744, I=0.0 %, WMD: -0.10 pg/mL, 95 % CI: -0.25, 0.05; P=0.183, I=0.0 %, respectively). We found no beneficial effects of grape polyphenols on the selected inflammatory mediators. Still, more studies with higher doses of polyphenols, longer treatment durations, different sources of grape polyphenols, and larger numbers of participants are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2020-1011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174578PMC
March 2020

Alpha-lipoic acid effect on leptin and adiponectin concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 May 10;76(5):649-657. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Background: New evidence suggests that dysregulation of adipocytokines caused by excess adiposity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various obesity comorbidities. Our aim in this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation on serum levels of leptin and adiponectin.

Methods: We searched Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Science from inception up to July 2019. Mean difference for leptin and adiponectin were calculated by subtracting the change from baseline in each study group. Summary estimates for the overall effect of ALA on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were calculated using random effects model. Results were presented as weighted mean difference (WMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the I statistics.

Result: Eight studies were included in systematic review and seven studies in meta-analysis. The overall effect suggested a significant decrement in serum leptin concentrations (WMD = - 3.63; 95% CI, - 5.63, - 1.64 μg/ml; I = 80.7%) and a significant increase in serum levels of adiponectin (WMD = 1.98 μg/ml; 95% CI, 0.92, 3.04; I = 95.7%). Subgroup analyses based on age showed a significant reduction in leptin levels only in younger adults, and subgroup analysis based on duration indicated in studies with a duration of more than 8 weeks adiponectin levels increased significantly and leptin levels decreased significantly.

Conclusion: Our results revealed ALA decreased leptin and increased adiponectin especially in studies lasted more than 8 weeks. We still need more studies with different ALA dose, intervention duration, and separately on male and female.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02844-wDOI Listing
May 2020

Socio-economic risk factors of household food insecurity and their population attributable risk: A population-based study.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 9;33:119. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Food insecurity as a major public health problem has associations with a wide range of adverse consequences on health and quality of life. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of food insecurity among Iranian households, its key socioeconomic risk factors and population attributable risk via a large-scale cross-sectional study in the capital of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed among 30,809 households with complete questionnaires of food security, during 2011. The univariate test was used to investigate the association between economic status and covariates with household food insecurity. Multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the independent effect of economic status on household food insecurity. Totally, 37.8% (95% CI: 37.25, 38.34%) of the households were food insecure. There were significant associations between economic status and household food insecurity after adjustment for other variables (p-value<0.001). The extent of household food insecurity that could be attributed to the economic status in the 1st and 2nd quintiles (poorest and poor households), compared with the 5th quintile (richest households), was estimated to be 48.43% and 60.12%, respectively. Food insecurity is relatively prevalent among households in Tehran. Economic status was identified as the most significant determinant of household food security, as 62.7% of poorest households were food insecure. Therefore, there is a crucial need to address food insecurity as a priority in food policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983490PMC
November 2019

Is salt intake reduction a universal intervention for both normotensive and hypertensive people: a case from Iran STEPS survey 2016.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Oct 4;59(7):3149-3161. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: There is a direct association between salt intake and blood pressure (BP), one of the main risk factors for CVDs. However, yet there has been a debate that how strong is this association in people with and without hypertension. This study was conducted to evaluate the magnitude of the association between salt intake and BP in hypertensive and normotensive population among a nationally representative population.

Methods: The study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 18,635 Iranian adults aged 25 years and older who participated in the STEPS survey 2016 and provided urine sample. Salt intake was estimated through spot urine sample and Tanaka equation. Multiple linear regression model in survey data analysis was used to assess the independent effect of salt intake on BP.

Results: After adjusting for covariates, there was a significant association between salt intake and SBP in hypertensive (p < 0.001) and normotensive people (p < 0.001). In hypertensive people, with 1 g of increase in salt intake, the SBP and DBP increased 0.37 mmHg and 0.07 mmHg, respectively. Whereas in normotensive people, with 1 g of increase in salt intake, the SBP and DBP increased 0.26 mmHg and 0.05 mmHg, respectively. Moreover, there was a significant trend toward an increase of SBP across salt intake quartiles in both hypertensive (p < 0.001) and normotensive people (p = 0.002), though the slope was steeper in hypertensive than in normotensive people.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that salt intake significantly increased SBP in both hypertensive and normotensive people, though the magnitude of this increase was greater in hypertensive people as compared with normotensive people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02153-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 24;33:74. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Gastric cancer is the fourth most common form of cancer and the second most common cause of death in the world. It is also one of the most common cancers leading to mortality in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and its affecting factors in the south of Iran (Hormozgan province). In this study, all patients with gastric cancer (119 patients) that were diagnosed and registered during 2008 to 2013 in Hormozgan province, were studied. All patients were followed to the end of 2015. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used to draw survival curves and to determine the effective factors on the survival rate of surveyed patients. Moreover, Log-rank test was used to evaluate whether or not survival curves for different groups are statistically equivalent (p<0.05). The mean age of the study population was 58.9±14.91, and most of them were men (72.3% (86 persons)). After diagnosis, the survival rates for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 62.2%, 49.4%, 43.7%, 39.7%, and 38% respectively. Survival in men were lower than women, but according to log-rank test this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.325). Also patients with advanced stage cancer had significantly lower survival in comparison to individuals with early stage disease (p<0.001). Based on multiple Cox proportional hazards model, job status of the patients and stage of cancer were effective factors on patients' survival. Based on the findings of the present study, the survival rate was decreased over time after diagnosis. Stage of a cancer at the time of diagnosis is the most important factor affecting the survival of surveyed patients. This shows that there is a crucial need to diagnos the gastric cancer in early stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.74DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825376PMC
July 2019

The Association of Dietary Intake of Calcium and Vitamin D to Colorectal Cancer Risk among Iranian Population.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 09 1;20(9):2825-2830. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center (GILDRC), Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Background: Vitamin D and Calcium have a possible protective impact versus rectal neoplasm. Vitamin D, an important nutrient, is vital to regulate the absorption of calcium and bone mineralization; nevertheless, in a case-control study in Iran, we investigated the relationship among the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium with the hazard of rectal neoplasm. Methods: 363 subjects (162 cases and 201 controls) participated in the case- control Study from March 2017 to November 2018. Dietary intake of Calcium and Vitamin D was calculated using a 148-items food-frequency questionnaire. Results: Since altering the strong confounding agents, the multivariate risk proportion within the dietary vitamin D intake was OR=0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5, P-value <0.001 among cases. There was no association in case of calcium and rectal cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, a possible reduction in the hazard of rectal neoplasm with dietary intake of Vitamin D within Iranian patients was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976838PMC
September 2019

The Comparison of the Plasma Levels of the Lead Element in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancers and Healthy Individuals.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 09 1;20(9):2639-2644. Epub 2019 Sep 1.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center (GILDRC), Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email:

Back ground and Aim: Heavy metals are considered as risk factors in the development of some types of cancers. In this context, the lead (Pb) along with its biological impacts on the human body has raised significant concerns in public health. The aim of this study was to compare the plasma levels of the lead element in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and healthy subjects to examine whether this element has a role in the susceptibility of cancer. Methods: In a case-control study conducted between March 2016 to February 2017, the plasma levels of the lead were assessed. One-hundred patients with upper and lower GI cancers, as well as one-hundered healthy subjects who were age- and sex-matched participated in our study. A classic flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) method was employed for the determination of the lead element in plasma levels of all subjects. Results: The mean age of patients was 53.8±10.6 years old. The patient group consisted of 51 male and 49 female patients. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were lower than the defined toxic levels. The comparison of the mean levels of Pb between the case and control groups revealed that there was no statistically significant difference even when the gender, age, and history of smoking were included in the statistical analysis. Our findings showed that the concentration of Pb is significantly associated with the type of cancer (p<0.003) and the location of the tumor (whether upper or lower tract was affected) (p<0.003). Conclusion: Lead may contributes to the pathology and progression of GI cancers but we can not conclude that it involved in the causation or susceptibility of healthy individuals to develop GI cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976846PMC
September 2019

The effect of curcumin with piperine supplementation on pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2019 05 30;34(2). Epub 2019 May 30.

Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.

Background The main causes of the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products. Therefore, the usage of antioxidant agents for the prevention and remedy of this disorder was recommended. Curcumin is proposed to treat NAFLD due to its high antioxidative activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of curcumin with piperine supplementation on oxidative stress in subjects with NAFLD. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 55 subjects were randomly divided into two groups (curcumin with piperine and placebo). The participants received administrations of curcumin (500 mg) in combination with piperine (5 mg) and placebo daily for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring serum pro-oxidant and antioxidant balance (PAB) assay before and after the intervention. Results The serum PAB values did not significantly change between the treatment group vs. age and gender-matched placebo group after 8 weeks of supplementation. Also, curcumin in combination with piperine did not show a significant decrease (p = 0.06) in PAB levels compared to baseline. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that a dose of curcumin, co-supplied with piperine might be less than a dose in which curcumin can significantly decrease PAB values in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2018-0040DOI Listing
May 2019

Reply.

J Hypertens 2019 07;37(7):1531-1532

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002121DOI Listing
July 2019

Multivariate optimization methods for in-situ growth of LDH/ZIF-8 nanocrystals on anodized aluminium substrate as a nanosorbent for stir bar sorptive extraction in biological and food samples.

Food Chem 2019 Aug 5;288:39-46. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

In-situ growth of zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) on the surface of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) for preparation of porous nanocomposites is a favorable strategy to design potential materials in separation fields. In this research, nanoporous Zn-Al LDH/ZIF-8 composite was prepared by in-situ growth of ZIF-8 on the Zn-Al LDH surface. The nanocomposite was applied for stir bar sorptive extraction and detection of benzylpenicillin (penicillin G, PEN G). Characterizations of the nanocomposite were performed by various techniques, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis. An optimized strategy based on response surface methodology was combined with high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection and quantification obtained were 0.05 and 0.15 µg l, respectively. The good validation criteria results allowed the method to be used in the quantification of PEN G in real samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.118DOI Listing
August 2019

The Effect of Life Skills Training on the Self-Management of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

J Med Life 2018 Oct-Dec;11(4):387-393

Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Training sessions are the most common framework used to provide self-management for patients with multiple sclerosis This study was conducted to determine the effect of life skills training on the self-management of patients with multiple sclerosis. Findings showed that life skills training had a significant effect on the overall self-management score; thus, self-management of patients increased after training life skills (F = 25.1821, P <0.01). This semi-experimental study was conducted on 80 subjects with MS in the MS Society in Tehran (Iran) in 2016. The experimental group received four one-hour sessions of life skills training. The control group received routine care. Patients of both groups filled MS self-management (MSSM) scales at baseline and a month after the last training session. Independent t-test was used to compare findings between the two groups; pairwise t-test was used to compare results before and after the test. Covariance test was used to present the research results and data was analyzed by using SPSS21. Mean and standard deviation of age were 32.22±8.88 and 33.02±10.34 in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Comparison of total self-management showed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups after receiving life skill training (P<0.01). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the mean of total self-management in the experimental group before and after the intervention; self-management increased after intervention (p-value<0.001). This study showed the positive effect of life skills training because its main goal is to prepare and help patients solve problems and deal with difficulties resulting from the disease. Therefore, life skill training is suggested for patients suffering from MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2018-0044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6418331PMC
May 2019

Application of the short form of quality of life instrument version 2 in a large population of Tehran.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 18;32:101. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Quality of life (QoL) is now considered as a key indicator in health studies. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate QoL in the general population of Tehran (capital of Iran) using SF-12v2 questionnaire and determine some factors associated with it. This was part of a large population-based cross sectional study conducted in Tehran, Iran, in 2011. Participants were selected from all districts of Tehran using multistage cluster random sampling method. Data were collected using the Iranian version of the SF12v2 questionnaire. Linear regression model was used to assess the independent effect of surveyed variables of the study population on their QoL. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 30 809 individuals over the age of 20 from 22 urban districts were included in this study and evaluated by SF-12v2 questionnaire. The mean age of the study population was 44.5±15.9, and most of them were female (19 967 (64.8%)). The total mean score of SF-12v2 was 60.4 and the lowest and highest mean scores were observed in GH (46.9±26.5) and MH subscales (64.1±24.7), respectively. It was also observed that District 3 of Tehran had the highest mean score (65.2±18.7) in the total QoL and District 12 had the lowest mean score (56.6±18.7), respectively. The results of multiple linear regression model showed that sex, age, education, household size, presence of chronic disease in family, having insurance, smoking, and marital status were significantly related to most subscales and two summary components of QoL. The results of this study showed that the surveyed population of Tehran had a relatively moderate QoL, but it changed from district to district. It was also observed that age and education of the study population were important variables in relation to QoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401557PMC
October 2018

Pattern of body mass index, chronic diseases, and physical component of quality of life in a population in North of Iran: A latent class analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 7;32:109. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Due to the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and lifestyle changes, this study aimed at determining the subclasses of Iranian adults based on body mass index, some NCDs, and status of physical component of quality of life. A total of 5207 participants of Amol cohort study were studied in this study. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to determine the best model with the minimum AIC or BIC. We decided that the 6 latent classes model was the best model. The first class described 35.1% of the participants and was characterized by individuals with no disease status. The sixth class described 0.7% of the individuals and was characterized by individuals exhibiting high probability of body mass index (BMI) equal or more than 25, kidney inadequacy, hypertension, and moderate physical component of quality of life status. This study showed the pattern of body mass index, chronic diseases, and physical component of quality of life. Our findings demonstrated that some risk factors and non-communicable diseases tend to accumulate in some classes, especially classes 5 and 6, and thus the risk of developing these diseases rises along with increase in their clustering abilities. These results point out the critical importance of designing specific preventive interventional programs for these stratums of individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387798PMC
November 2018

Comparing opium tincture and methadone for medication-assisted treatment of patients with opioid use disorder: Protocol for a multicenter parallel group noninferiority double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2019 03 4;28(1):e1768. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Addiction and Concurrent Disorders Group, Institute of Mental Health, Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objectives: This is the first study to compare the safety and efficacy of opium tincture (OT) with methadone for treatment of opioid use disorder.

Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority controlled trial, a stratified sample of 204 participants with opioid use disorder were recruited from community outreach, drop-in centers, and triangular clinics. Participants were excluded in case of active participation in another treatment program for opioid use disorder, hypersensitivity to trial medications, pregnancy, and certain serious medical conditions. They were randomized to receive either OT or methadone with an allocation ratio of 1:1 using a patient-centered flexible dosing strategy. Eligible participants were followed for a period of 12 weeks. Primary outcome is the difference in percentage of patients retained in the treatment. Secondary outcomes are craving, withdrawal symptoms, physical health, mental health, quality of life, and severity of substance use problems, cognitive function, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and participants' satisfaction. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be conducted. The Ethics Board of the University of British Columbia and Tehran University of Medical Sciences approved the study. (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02502175).

Results: To be reported after final analysis.

Conclusions: If shown to be effective, OT will diversify the options for medication-assisted treatment of opioid use disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877259PMC
March 2019

The quantity/intensity relation is affected by chemical and organic P fertilization in calcareous soils.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 May 29;172:144-151. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Associate Professor of Soil and Water Research Section, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, (AREEO), Qazvin, Iran.

The use of organic fertilization increases the availability of phosphorus (P) in calcareous soils by affecting the colloidal properties of soils. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that chemical and organic fertilizers affect P availability in calcareous soils by influencing P sorption and buffering capacity. The objective was to investigate the quantity/intensity (Q/I) relation in calcareous soils as affected by chemical and organic P fertilization. Three different soil types with different Olsen-P values including Qazvin1 (very low P, VLP), Qazvin2 (low P, LP) and Dizan (medium P, MP) were fertilized with 50 mg P kg soil using triple superphosphate (TSP), sheep manure (SM), and municipal solid waste compost (MSWC). The treated experimental soils were incubated for 90 days, and P sorption and buffering capacity indexes were determined using calcium chloride solutions in a range of 0-100 mg P L. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) response to the experimental treatments. Wheat P content at tillering (60 days after planting) was determined. The SM and TSP treatments were the most efficient sources of P for plant use in the greenhouse, as they resulted in the highest wheat growth and P content. The incubation data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and surface sorption isotherm models. Langmuir model, as the best fitted one, indicated the highest P sorption (A) was resulted by the SM treatment for VLP and LP soils, compared to the other treatments. According to the model, the SM and MSWC treatments resulted in the least (0.04) and the highest (1.11) sorption energy (K) by the VLP soil, respectively. In the VLP soil the SM and MSWC treatments, and in the LP soil the MSWC treatment decreased P sorption, at the final concentration of P (100 mg L), compared to the control treatment. Organic fertilizers decreased buffering index, phosphorous buffering capacity, and K1 indexes in the VLP soil, compared to the control treatment. The corresponding reductions for SM were equal to 35.99, 2.7, 1.19 mL P g and for MSWC were equal to 12.33, 36.2 and 1.19 mL P g. In the VLP and MP soils, (compared with control), the SM treatment decreased the rates of maximum buffering capacity at 0.38 and 0.52 mL P g, respectively. There were high and significant correlations among the soil P buffering indexes with soil and wheat P content. Fertilization affected soil P availability by affecting the Q/I relation and the buffering capacity indexes. It is possible to predict plant response to available P using the tested fitting models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.01.058DOI Listing
May 2019

Identifying the pattern of unhealthy dietary habits among an Iranian population: A latent class analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 10;32:69. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Gastrointestinal & Liver Disease Research Center, Firoozgar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

An unhealthy diet is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases. The goal of this study was to use the latent class analysis (LCA) modeling to define unhealthy diet habits among an Iranian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of Amol (North of Iran) cohort health study (Phase 1). The participants aged 10 to 90 years. All participants provided written informed consent. Latent class analysis was used to classify the participants of the study. All analyses were conducted by PROC LCA in SAS 9.2 software. Significance level was set at 0.05. The mean age of the participants was 42.58±17.23 years. Four classes of individuals with different diet habits were identified using LCA modeling: class 1: individuals with healthy diet patterns (92.6%); class 2: individuals with slightly unhealthy diet habits (6.3%); class 3: individuals with relatively unhealthy diet habits (0.8%); and class 4: individuals with unhealthy diet habits (0.2%). Being female and alcohol consumption increased the odds of membership in latent classes 2,3, and 4 compared to class 1. Physical activity decreased the odds of membership in classes 3 and 4 compared to class 1. Overall, almost more than 7.4% of all participants had some degree of unhealthy dietary habits, and some variables acted as risk factors for membership in risky classes. Therefore, focusing on these variables may help design and execute effective preventive interventions in groups with unhealthy dietary habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.69DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325308PMC
August 2018

Salt intake among Iranian population: the first national report on salt intake in Iran.

J Hypertens 2018 12;36(12):2380-2389

Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute.

Objective: In Iran, there has been no national report on salt intake based on laboratory measurements so far. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure salt intake among Iranian population at the national level.

Methods: In stepwise approach to conduct a surveillance survey 2016, 18 624 Iranian adults (25 years old and above), as a representative sample of Iranian adult population at national and subnational levels, underwent urine sodium measurement and were included in this study. The participants were recruited through a systematic random sampling from 30 provinces of Iran. For each individual, through a computer-assisted interview, a questionnaire on lifestyle risk factors was completed, all anthropometric indices were measured, and data on sodium of spot urine sample for all individuals and 24-h urine sample for a subsample were collected. To estimate the 24-h salt intake, common equations were used.

Results: In total, 97.66% of the population consumed at least 5 g of salt per day. In addition, in 41.20% of the population, the level of salt intake was at least two times higher than the level recommended by the WHO for adults. The mean of salt intake among Iranian population was 9.52 g/day (95% confidence interval: 9.48-9.56).

Conclusion: The study showed that the consumption of salt among the Iranian population is higher than the level recommended by WHO. To reduce salt intake, it is necessary to adopt a combination of nationwide policies such as food reformulation and food labelling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000001836DOI Listing
December 2018

Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile & serum cytokine levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Indian J Med Res 2018 04;147(4):352-360

Gastrointestinal & Liver Disease Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background & Objectives: Fatty acids may affect the expression of genes, and this process is influenced by sex hormones. Cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), so this study was aimed to assess the association of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids with three cytokines and markers of hepatic injury in NAFLD patients and to explore whether these associations were the same in both sexes.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 62 consecutive patients (32 men and 30 women) with NAFLD during the study period. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were measured in a fasting serum sample, and Fibroscan was conducted for each individual. Gas chromatography was used to measure erythrocyte membrane fatty acids. Univariate and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze data.

Results: In men, IL-6 had a significant (P <0.05) positive association with total ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In women, TNF-α had a significant positive association with total ω-3 (P <0.05) and ω-6 (P <0.01) PUFAs, IL-6 had a significant (P <0.05) positive association with total monounsaturated fatty acids and MCP-1 had a significant positive association with total trans-fatty acids (P <0.05). No significant associations were observed between erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and liver enzymes or Fibroscan report in both sexes. In this study, women were significantly older than men [51 (42.75-55) vs 35.5 (29-52), P <0.01], so the associations were adjusted for age and other confounders.

Interpretation & Conclusions: Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile was not associated with serum liver enzymes or Fibroscan reports in NAFLD patients, but it had significant associations with serum TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 and these associations were probably sex dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1065_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6057244PMC
April 2018

Cigarette smoking patterns in relation to religiosity and familial support among Iranian university students: A Latent Class Analysis.

Tob Induc Dis 2018 10;16:33. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Entering University is an important developmental milestone that might be associated with cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to identify the subgroups of university students on the basis of cigarette smoking patterns, and to assess the role of familial support and religious beliefs on membership in specific subgroups.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2016 using multistage random sampling among students of Bushehr University (n=977). Anonymous, structured questionnaires were distributed to the students in each selected class. Cigarette smoking prevalence was assessed in three time intervals: lifetime, last year, and last month. All of the analyses were performed using PROC LCA in the SAS software.

Results: The lifetime, last-year and last-month prevalence of cigarette smoking was 13.7%, 10.0% and 7.0%, respectively. In this study, the prevalence of passive smoking was relatively high (15.3%) among students. Four latent classes were identified: 1) non-smoker 58.2%, 2) passive smoker 31.3%, 3) moderate smoker 3.4%, and 4) heavy smoker 7.1%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking of close friends was: 73% among passive smokers, 81% for heavy smokers and 63% for moderate smokers. Being male (OR=4.42, 95% CI; 2.90-6.74) and a higher score of religious beliefs (OR=0.97, p<0.001 95% CI; 0.96-0.98) were associated with the heavy smoker class.

Conclusions: Among students at Bushehr University in Iran, 10.5% were either moderate or heavy smokers in 2016. These results point out the critical importance of designing specific preventive interventional programs for university students. Higher level of religiosity may serve as a preventive factor in engaging in cigarette smoking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18332/tid/92649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659471PMC
July 2018