Publications by authors named "Ali Fattahi"

41 Publications

Surface modification of neurotrophin-3 loaded PCL/chitosan nanofiber/net by alginate hydrogel microlayer for enhanced biocompatibility in neural tissue engineering.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

This study prepared a novel three-dimensional nanocomposite scaffold by the surface modification of PCL/chitosan nanofiber/net with alginate hydrogel microlayer, hoping to have the privilege of both nanofibers and hydrogels simultaneously. Bead free randomly oriented nanofiber/net (NFN) structure composed of chitosan and polycaprolactone (PCL) was fabricated by electrospinning method. The low surface roughness, good hydrophilicity, and high porosity were obtained from the NFN structure. Then, the PCL/chitosan nanofiber/net was coated with a microlayer of alginate containing neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells (CJMSCs) as a new stem cell source. According to the cross-sectional FESEM, the scaffold shows a two-layer structure with interconnected pores in the range of 20 μm diameter. The finding revealed that the surface modification of nanofiber/net by alginate hydrogel microlayer caused lower inflammatory response and higher proliferation of CJMSCs than the unmodified scaffold. The initial burst release of NT-3 was 69% in 3 days which followed by a sustained release up to 21 days. The RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin III genes were increased 6, 5.4, and 8.8-fold, respectively. The results revealed that the surface-modified biomimetic scaffold possesses enhanced biocompatibility and could successfully differentiate CJMSCs to the neuron-like cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37208DOI Listing
June 2021

Survival and Proliferation under Severely Hypoxic Microenvironments Using Cell-Laden Oxygenating Hydrogels.

J Funct Biomater 2021 May 2;12(2). Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Different strategies have been employed to provide adequate nutrients for engineered living tissues. These have mainly revolved around providing oxygen to alleviate the effects of chronic hypoxia or anoxia that result in necrosis or weak neovascularization, leading to failure of artificial tissue implants and hence poor clinical outcome. While different biomaterials have been used as oxygen generators for in vitro as well as in vivo applications, certain problems have hampered their wide application. Among these are the generation and the rate at which oxygen is produced together with the production of the reaction intermediates in the form of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both these factors can be detrimental for cell survival and can severely affect the outcome of such studies. Here we present calcium peroxide (CPO) encapsulated in polycaprolactone as oxygen releasing microparticles (OMPs). While CPO releases oxygen upon hydrolysis, PCL encapsulation ensures that hydrolysis takes place slowly, thereby sustaining prolonged release of oxygen without the stress the bulk release can endow on the encapsulated cells. We used gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels containing these OMPs to stimulate survival and proliferation of encapsulated skeletal myoblasts and optimized the OMP concentration for sustained oxygen delivery over more than a week. The oxygen releasing and delivery platform described in this study opens up opportunities for cell-based therapeutic approaches to treat diseases resulting from ischemic conditions and enhance survival of implants under severe hypoxic conditions for successful clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfb12020030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167601PMC
May 2021

Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization and Anti-Fungal Evaluation of Amphotericin B-Loaded PLGA-PEG-Galactosamine Nanoparticles.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 Feb 15;11(2):311-317. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The present study aimed to formulate PLGA and PLGA-PEG-galactosamine nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with amphotericin B with appropriate physicochemical properties and antifungal activity. PLGA was functionalized with GalN to increase the adhesion and antifungal activity of NPs against . The physicochemical properties of NPs were characterized by particle size determination, zeta potential, drug crystallinity, loading efficiency, dissolution studies, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Antifungal activity of the NPs at different drug/polymer ratios was examined by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). the FT-IR and HNMR analysis successfully confirmed the formation of PLGA- PEG-GalN NPs. The NPs were in the size range of 174.1 ± 3.49 to 238.2±7.59 nm while PLGA-GalN NPs were 255.6 ±4.08 nm in size , respectively. Loading efficiency was in the range of 67%±2.4 to 77%±1.6, and entrapment efficiency in the range of 68.185%±1.9 to 73.05%±0.6. Zeta potential and loading efficiency for PLGA-GalN NPs were -0.456, 71%. The NPs indicated an amorphous status according to XRPD patterns and DSC thermograms. The PLGA-PEG-GalN NPs showed higher fungistatic activity than PLGA NPs. the results demonstrated that the antifungal activity of PLGA-PEG-GalN NPs was higher than pure amphotericin B and PLGA NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2021.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046404PMC
February 2021

Antimicrobial laser-activated sealants for combating surgical site infections.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(10):3791-3803

Chemical Engineering Program, School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. and Biological Design Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Surgical-site infections (SSIs) occur in 2-5% of patients undergoing surgery in the US alone, impacting 300 000-500 000 lives each year, and presenting up to 11 times greater risk of death compared to patients without SSIs. The most common cause of SSI is Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is the most common pathogen in community hospitals. Current clinical devices used for approximating incisions and traumatic lacerations include sutures, adhesives, tapes, or staples with or without antimicrobial incorporation. However, current closure technologies may not provide adequate protection against infection, are susceptible to wound dehiscence, and can result in delayed biomechanical recoveries. Laser-activated tissue repair is a sutureless technique in which chromophore-loaded sealants convert laser light energy to heat in order to induce rapid tissue sealing. Here, we describe the generation and evaluation of laser-activated sealant (LASE) biomaterials, in which, indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved dye, was embedded in a silk fibroin matrix and cast into films as wound sealants. Silk-ICG films were subjected to different near-infrared (NIR) laser powers to identify temperatures optimal for laser sealing of soft tissues. A mathematical model was developed in order to determine the photothermal conversion efficiency of LASEs following laser irradiation. NIR laser activation of silk-ICG LASEs increased the recovery of skin biomechanical strength compared to sutured skin in full-thickness incisional wounds in immunocompetent mice, and live animal imaging indicated persistence of silk-ICG LASEs over several days. LASEs loaded with the antibiotic vancomycin demonstrated higher efficacies for combating MRSA infections in a mouse model of surgical site infection compared to antibacterial sutures. Our results demonstrate that LASEs can be loaded with antimicrobial drugs and may serve as new multifunctional biomaterials for rapid tissue sealing, repair and surgical site protection following surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01438aDOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization and optimization of de-esterified Tragacanth-chitosan nanocomposite as a potential carrier for oral delivery of insulin: In vitro and ex vivo studies.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Oral administration of insulin is one of the most challenging topics within this area, because insulin is degraded in stomach before it enters the bloodstream. In this study, for the first time, a nano-carrier for controlled and targeted oral delivery of insulin was developed using de-esterified Tragacanth and chitosan. The fabricated nanoparticles were synthesized using coacervation technique and their properties were optimized using response surface methodology. The effect of experimental variables on the particle size and loading efficiency was examined. In addition, the interactions between components were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared. The thermal stability of nanoparticles was studied by thermal gravimetric analysis. The insulin loading efficiency was measured and in vitro release profile and ex vivo insulin permeability was determined. Optimized nanoparticles showed spherical shape with a size less than 200 nm and zeta potential of +17 mV. Owing to their nanoscale dimensions and mucoadhesiveness, nanoparticles were synthesized using medium molecular weight of Chitosan. The insulin loading efficacy for the system was 6.4%, released under simulated gastrointestinal conditions in a pH-dependent manner. Based on all of the obtained results, it can be concluded that these nanoparticles can potentially be utilized as a carrier for the oral insulin delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37202DOI Listing
April 2021

A Simple Method for Developing a Hand-Drawn Paper-Based Sensor for Mercury; Using Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles and Smartphone as a Hand-Held-Device for Colorimetric Assay.

Glob Chall 2021 Apr 15;5(4):2000099. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center Health institute Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Kermanshah 6715847141 Iran.

Mercury ions are highly toxic at trace levels, and its pollution has posed a significant threat to the environment and public health, where current detection methods mainly require laborious operation and expensive instrumentation. Herein, a simple, cost-effective, instrument-free approach for selective detection of Hg based on a hand-drawn paper-based naked-eye colorimetric device is developed. To develop a hand-drawn paper-based device, a crayon is used to build hydrophobic barriers and a paper puncher is applied to obtain patterns as a sensing zone. A green method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is applied using Achillea Wilhelmsii (Aw) extract. The sensing ability of Aw-AgNPs toward Hg is investigated in both solution-phase and paper substrate loaded with Aw-AgNPs using colorimetric methods. For the paper-based sensor, the quantification of the target relies on the visual readout of a color-changed sensing zone modified with Aw-AgNPs. Under optimal conditions, the color of Aw-AgNPs in aqueous solution and on the coated paper substrate can change from brown to colorless upon addition of target, with a detection limit of 28 × 10 m and 0.30 × 10 m, respectively. In conclusion, the present study indicates the potential of this hand-drawn eco-friendly paper-based sensor for monitoring of mercury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gch2.202000099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025396PMC
April 2021

Biological and Catalytic Activities of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles from the Leaf Infusion of Boiss.

Glob Chall 2021 Feb 4;5(2):2000018. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Medical Biology Research Center Health Technology Institute Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Kermanshah 6715847141 Iran.

The discovery and development of active compounds to eliminate drug resistance and side effects is a crucial process. In this study, the leaf infusion of Boiss as a novel green alternative is used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Drac-AgNPs). Antibacterial, cytotoxicity effects, hemocompatibility, and the catalytic properties of these nanoparticles are evaluated. The synthesis of Drac-AgNPs is confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, where Drac-AgNPs are spherical, with a size range of 5-63 nm. Their IC values against H1299 and MCF-7 cell lines are above 50 and 100 μg mL, respectively. Drac-AgNPs are effective against an inclusive range of the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, that is, , , , , , and , and a low hemolytic effect makes them an exceptional AgNP with a great hemocompatibility. They show a moderate catalytic-effect in terms of removing methylene blue, with 67% degradation. Altogether, Drac-AgNP, as a multi-tasker material, shows potential for the prevention and treatment of infections and photothermal/chemotherapy of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gch2.202000018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857125PMC
February 2021

Molecular Insights into the Loading and Dynamics of Doxorubicin on PEGylated Graphene Oxide Nanocarriers.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2020 Mar 12;3(3):1354-1363. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, United States.

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate the loading and dynamics of doxorubicin (DOX) anticancer drug on graphene oxide (GO) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) decorated GO (PEGGO) nanocarriers in an aqueous environment at human body temperature (310 K) and physiological pH level of 7.4. Mechanisms of DOX adsorption on PEGGO as a function of PEG chain length were revealed. While the total DOX-nanocarrier interaction energy was the same for the DOX/GO (control), DOX/Sh-PEGGO (short PEG chains consisting of 15 repeat units), and DOX/L-PEGGO (long PEG chains consisting of 30 repeat units) within the margin of error, the PEG-DOX interactions increased with an increase in the PEG chain length. At the same time, the PEG-DOX solvent-accessible contact area almost doubled going from the short to long PEG chains. PEGylation of the GO effectively causes an increase in the average water density around the nanocarrier, which can act as a barrier, leading to the DOX migration to the solvated PEG-free part of the GO surface. This effect is more pronounced for shorter PEG chains. The DOX-DOX solvent-accessible contact area is smaller in the DOX/GO system, which means the drug molecules are less aggregated in this system. However, the level of DOX aggregation is slightly higher for the PEGGO systems. The computational results in this work shed light on the fact that increasing the PEG chain length benefits DOX loading on the nanocarrier, revealing an observation that is difficult to acertain through experiments. Moreover, a detailed picture is provided for the DOX adsorption and retention in PEGGO drug delivery systems, which would enable the researchers to improve the drug's circulation time, as well as its delivery and targeting efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.9b00956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731932PMC
March 2020

A new strategy for the green synthesis of chondroitin sulfate-reduced gold nanoparticles; evaluation of synthesized nanoparticles.

Bioimpacts 2020 24;10(4):217-226. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technologies Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The application of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in medicine is expanding as an effective therapeutic and diagnostic compound. Different polysaccharides with high biocompatibility and hydrophilic properties have been used for synthesis and capping of GNPs. Chondroitin sulfate (CHS) as a polysaccharide possesses a wide range of biological functions e.g. anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-coagulation, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-thrombosis with insignificant immunogenicity and has not been used for the green synthesis of GNPs. GNPs were synthesized using CHS, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. The antibacterial activity of CHS-GNPs was estimated against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity of CHS and CHS-GNPs was obtained by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the electrocatalytic activity of CHS-GNPs was investigated. The blood compatibility was evaluated by the hemolysis assay. The absorption band at 527 nm reveals the reduction of Au into GNPs. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image displays the spherical shape of GNPs in the range of 5.8-31.4 nm. The CHS and CHS-GNPs at 300 µg/mL revealed a maximum DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity of 73% and 65%, respectively. CHS-GNPs showed antibacterial activity against , while CHS has no antibacterial activity. CHS-GNPs exhibited a cytotoxicity effect against MDA-MB-468 and βTC3 cancer cell lines, and the electrochemical study indicated a significant increase in electrocatalytic properties of CHS-GNPs coated electrode compared by the bare electrode. The hemolysis test proved the blood compatibility of CHS-GNPs. The results indicate the advantages of using CHS to produce blood-compatible GNPs with antioxidant, cytotoxic, and electrochemical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/bi.2020.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502908PMC
March 2020

Electrochemical analysis of anionic analytes in weakly supported media using electron transfer promotion effect: a case study on nitrite.

Sci Rep 2020 09 3;10(1):14511. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Bākhtarān, Iran.

In this study, a simple technique was developed for the electrochemical detection of anionic analytes in weakly supported media. This was conducted by the use of electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (ePADs). A sensing platform was modified with nereistoxin and used to determine nitrite as a case study. The electrochemical response was improved due to the accelerated electron transfer between the sensing platform and the nitrite through the electrostatic interaction of the amino group of nereistoxin and the nitrite. The electrocatalytic current of the nitrite in the presence of nereistoxin was enhanced in the weakly supported media. By using nereistoxin as a signal enhancer, 97% of the electrochemical signal was obtained at the low ionic strength of the electrolyte, while less than 35% of this signal was obtained in the absence of nereistoxin. The limit of detection was as low as 20 nM using an ePAD. Generally, the proposed ePAD serves as a promising, efficient and low-cost device for sensing applications in weakly supported media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71365-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471947PMC
September 2020

Interactions of insulin with tragacanthic acid biopolymer: Experimental and computational study.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 16;164:321-330. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415153, Iran; Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technologies Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6714415185, Iran. Electronic address:

Alternative methods for insulin delivery instead of subcutaneous injection in diabetic patients is of great essential, and biocompatible polymers are one of the most efficient vehicles for this purpose. This research aims to investigate the capability of tragacanthic acid (TA) to bind insulin and release it under physiological conditions without alteration in the structure and conformation of insulin. Interactions between TA and insulin were studied using spectroscopic techniques and computational modeling by docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate an entropy-driven spontaneous interaction between insulin and TA, where hydrogen bonds act as the main enthalpic contribution. According to our findings, the weak interaction between insulin and TA provides the basis for efficient capture and appropriate release of insulin by TA as a potential part of the insulin delivery system. In conclusion, tragacanth acid can be a proper candidate for insulin delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.122DOI Listing
December 2020

Antidiabetic Potential of Roots: In Vitro Pancreatic Beta Cell Protection, Enhancement of Glucose Consumption, and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 20;2020:8048273. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

By using the streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced cytotoxicity in -TC3 cells as an assay model, a bioassay-guided fractionation study was employed to isolate and characterize the potential antidiabetic principles of roots of A combination of open column chromatography on reverse-phase silica gel using a water-ethanol gradient (10 : 90 to 100 : 0) followed by HPLC-based fractionation led to an active compound that appears to be composed of carbohydrate/sugar. When cell viability under STZ was reduced to 49.8 ± 4% (mean ± SD), treatment with the active compound at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL either as a coadministration or a pretreatment improved the viability to 93 ± 1.9% and 91.5 ± 7%, respectively. The reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential by STZ (47.34 ± 8.9% of control) was similarly recovered to 84.5 ± 4.3 (coadministration) and 88 ± 5.5% (pretreatment) by the active fraction. The bioassay-guided fractionation, -cell protective effect, and increased glucose consumption (up to 1.49-fold increase) in hepatocytes by the extracts and active fraction are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8048273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201843PMC
January 2020

All-Trans Retinoic Acid Grafted Poly Beta-Amino Ester Nanoparticles: A Novel Anti-angiogenic Drug Delivery System.

Adv Pharm Bull 2020 Jun 18;10(2):221-232. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 6734667149, Iran.

Developing chemotherapy with nanoplatforms offers a promising strategy for effective cancer treatment. In the present study, we propose a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) grafted poly beta-amino ester (PBAE) copolymer for preparing nanoparticles (NPs). ATRA grafted PBAE (ATRA-g-PBAE) copolymer was synthesized by grafting ATRA to PBAE; it was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and thermogravimetric analysis. ATRA-g-PBAE NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Design-Expert software was employed to optimize size of NPs. The morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscope, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was applied for drug release. Cytotoxicity was evaluated toward HUVEC cell line, and the 3D collagencytodex model was used to evaluate anti-angiogenic property of PBAE, ATRA, and NPs. The optimum size of the NPs was 139.4 ± 1.41 nm. After 21 days, 66.09% ± 1.39 and 42.14% ± 1.07 of ATRA were released from NPs at pH 5.8 and 7.4, respectively. Cell culture studies demonstrated antiangiogenic effects of ATRA-g-PBAE NPs. Anti-angiogenesis IC was 0.007 mg/mL for NPs (equal to 0.002 mg/mL of ATRA) and 0.005 mg/mL for free ATRA. This study proposes the ATRA-g-PBAE NPs with inherent anti-angiogenic effects as promising carrier for anticancer drugs with purpose of dual drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/apb.2020.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191239PMC
June 2020

One-step Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Isoimperatorin: Evaluation of Photocatalytic, and Electrochemical Activities.

Sci Rep 2020 02 4;10(1):1762. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Medical Biology Research Center, Health Technology Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

In the current study, isoimperatorin, a natural furanocoumarin, is used as a reducing reagent to synthesize isoimperatorin mediated silver nanoparticles (Iso-AgNPs), and photocatalytic and electrocatalytic activities of Iso-AgNPs are evaluated. Iso-AgNPs consisted of spherically shaped particles with a size range of 79-200 nm and showed catalytic activity for the degradation (in high yields) of New Fuchsine (NF), Methylene Blue (MB), Erythrosine B (ER) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under sunlight irradiation. Based on obtained results, Iso-AgNPs exhibited 96.5%, 96.0%, 92%, and 95% degradation rates for MB, NF, ER, and 4-CP, respectively. The electrochemical performance showed that the as-prepared Iso-AgNPs exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide (HO) reduction. It is worth noticing that the Iso-AgNPs were used as electrode materials without any binder. The sensor-based on binder-free Iso-AgNPs showed linearity from 0.1 µM to 4 mM with a detection limit of 0.036 μM for HO. This binder-free and straightforward strategy for electrode preparation by silver nanoparticles may provide an alternative technique for the development of other nanomaterials based on isoimperatorin under green conditions. Altogether, the application of isoimpratorin in the synthesis of nano-metallic electro and photocatalysts, especially silver nanoparticles, is a simple, cost-effective and efficient approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58697-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000682PMC
February 2020

Preparation and Characterization of Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles as a Potential Drug Delivery System for 5-Fluorouracil.

Adv Pharm Bull 2019 Oct 24;9(4):601-608. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 6734667149, Iran.

The aim of this study is to prepare 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNPs) and to achieve a controlled release delivery system with the high loading capacity. SFNPs with 1:1, 1:3, and 1:10 ratios of 5-FU to silk fibroin were prepared. SFNPs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Loading efficiency, in vitro release, and cell viability were studied for optimal SFNPs. The ratio of 1:1 was optimal formulation with the size and polydispersity index (PDI) of 221.03 nm and 0.093 before freeze drying, and 286.7 nm and 0.154 after freeze drying by lactose, respectively. The loading efficiency and loading content of this ratio were 52.32% and 34.35%, respectively. FT-IR and XRD analysis indicated the conformational change (from random coil to β-sheet) in the structure of nanoparticles by increasing amount of the drug, which caused the smaller size, the higher loading efficiency, and the slower release pattern. The drugloaded nanoparticles reached to the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) that were comparable with free drug on MCF7 (human breast cancer) cell line. This study was planned to achieve a promising controlled release drug delivery system for carrying 5-FU, as a potent anticancer drug. SFNPs were found proper candidates for delivery of a hydrophilic drug such as 5-FU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2019.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912188PMC
October 2019

Microfluidic-assisted preparation of PLGA nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes: experimental study and computational fluid dynamic simulation.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Oct 4;14(5):459-470. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

This study, for the first time, tries to provide a simultaneous experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation investigation for production of uniform, reproducible, and stable polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. CFD simulation was carried out to observe fluid flow behavior and micromixing in microfluidic system and improve our understanding about the governing fluid profile. The major objective of such effort was to provide a carrier for controlled and sustained release profile of different drugs. Different experimental parameters were optimized to obtain PLGA nanoparticles with proper size and minimized polydispersity index. The particle size, polydispersity, morphology, and stability of nanoparticles were compared. Microfluidic system provided a platform to control over the characteristics of nanoparticles. Using microfluidic system, the obtained particles were more uniform and harmonious in size, more stable, monodisperse and spherical, while particles produced by batch method were non-spherical and polydisperse. The best size and polydispersity index in the microfluidic method was obtained using 2% PLGA and 0.0625% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions, and the flow rate ratio of 10:0.6 for PVA and PLGA solutions. CFD simulation demonstrated the high mixing intensity of about 0.99 at optimum condition in the microfluidic system, which is the possible reason for advantageous performance of this system. Altogether, the results of microfluidic-assisted method were found to be more reproducible, predictable, and controllable than batch method for producing a nanoformulation for delivery of drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.268207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827194PMC
October 2019

Formulation and Physicochemical Characterization of Cyclosporine Microfiber by Electrospinning.

Adv Pharm Bull 2019 Jun 1;9(2):249-254. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The objective of this study was to improve the permeability and water solubility rate of a poor water soluble drug, cyclosporine A (CsA). In order to improve the drug dissolution rate and oral bioavailability, electrospinning method was used as an approach to prepare. The fibers were evaluated for surface morphology, thermal characterizations, drug crystallinity, drug release and bioavailability studies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results confirmed that the fibers were in microsize range and the size of the fibers was in the rang of 0.2 to 2 micron. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRPD) analysis ensured that the crystalline lattice of drug were weakened or destroyed in the fibers. The drug release was 15.28%, 20.67%, and 32.84% from pure drug, fibers of formulation B, and formulation A, respectively. study results indicated that the bioavailability parameters of the optimized fiber formulation were improved and the maximum concentration (C) were significantly higher for fibers (3001 ng/mL) than for pure drug (2550 ng/mL). The dissolution rate of the formulations was dependent on the nature and ratio of drug to carriers. The physicochemical properties showed that the optimized mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and povidone (PVP) fibers could be an effective carrier for CsA delivery. PEG and PVP fibers improved the absolute bioavailability and drug dissolution rate with appropriate physicochemical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2019.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664123PMC
June 2019

Molecular interaction of fibrinogen with zeolite nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2019 02 7;9(1):1558. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, United States.

Fibrinogen is one of the key proteins that participate in the protein corona composition of many types of nanoparticles (NPs), and its conformational changes are crucial for activation of immune systems. Recently, we demonstrated that the fibrinogen highly contributed in the protein corona composition at the surface of zeolite nanoparticles. Therefore, understanding the interaction of fibrinogen with zeolite nanoparticles in more details could shed light of their safe applications in medicine. Thus, we probed the molecular interactions between fibrinogen and zeolite nanoparticles using both experimental and simulation approaches. The results indicated that fibrinogen has a strong and thermodynamically favorable interaction with zeolite nanoparticles in a non-cooperative manner. Additionally, fibrinogen experienced a substantial conformational change in the presence of zeolite nanoparticles through a concentration-dependent manner. Simulation results showed that both E- and D-domain of fibrinogen are bound to the EMT zeolite NPs via strong electrostatic interactions, and undergo structural changes leading to exposing normally buried sequences. D-domain has more contribution in this interaction and the C-terminus of γ chain (γ), located in D-domain, showed the highest level of exposure compared to other sequences/residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37621-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367512PMC
February 2019

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for therapeutic/diagnostic applications.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 6;109:1100-1111. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Based on unique intrinsic properties of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) such as high surface area, large pore size, good biocompatibility and biodegradability, stable aqueous dispersion, they have received much attention in the recent decades for their applications as a promising platform in the biomedicine field. These porous structures possess a pore size ranging from 2 to 50 nm which make them excellent candidates for various biomedical applications. Herein, at first we described the common approaches of cargo loading and release processes from MSNs. Then, the intracellular uptake, safety and cytotoxicity aspects of MSNs are discussed as well. This review also highlights the most recent advances in the biomedical applications of MSNs, including 1) MSNs-based carriers, 2) MSNs as bioimaging agents, 3) MSNs-based biosensors, 4) MSNs as therapeutic agents (photodynamic therapy), 5) MSN based quantum dots, 6) MSNs as platforms for upconverting nanoparticles, and 6) MSNs in tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.167DOI Listing
January 2019

Biological applications of phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles using leaf extract of Dracocephalum kotschyi.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2019 03 6;107(3):621-630. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

In this work, biosynthesis potentials of Dracocephalum kotschyi leaf extract for the production of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) were studied, and the biological (catalytic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer) activities of studied AuNPs were evaluated. Different analytical techniques including UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for the characterization of AuNPs. Moreover, Different testing methods were used for evaluating biological activities of biosynthesized AuNPs. The formation of AuNPs was confirmed by color change and UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. Field emission (FE)-SEM and TEM images were used to characterize phytosynthesized AuNPs which were predominantly spherical in shape with size in the range of 5-21 nm. These spherical NPs were found to be 39.79 ± 5 nm in size as determined by dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer. XRD pattern confirms the crystalline nature of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. The phytoconstituents involved in the reduction and stabilization of nanoparticles have been identified using FTIR spectra. The phytosynthesized AuNPs showed effective antioxidant, antibacterial and catalytic reduction activities. Furthermore, they have inhibited H1229 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These results have supported that D. kotschyi leaf extract was very efficient for the synthesis of AuNPs, and synthesized NPs showed enhanced biological activities which make them suitable for biomedical applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 107A: 621-630, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36578DOI Listing
March 2019

The effect of , , and polymorphism in patients under warfarin therapy in city of Kermanshah.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Aug;13(4):377-384

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

Polymorphism in the genes encoding enzyme and reductase significantly influence warfarin dose requirement since patients with , and mutant alleles require lower warfarin maintenance doses. Studies have reported the ethnic variations in the frequency of these genes within the various populations in Iran and other parts of the world. However, no such study has been done yet on Kurdish population in Kermanshah. From Kurdish population of Kermanshah province in Iran, a total of 110 patients who had heart surgery and taking warfarin, were genotyped for polymorphisms of , , and . Polymorphism genotyping was performed by sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using restriction enzymes of and , respectively. The frequencies of -1639 GG, GA, and AA genotypes were 42%, 36%, and 22%, respectively and for 1*/1*, 1*/2*, 2*/2*, 1*/3*, 3*/3*, 2*/3* were 71%, 17%, 5.4%, 1.8%, 4.5%, and 0%, respectively. The frequency of -1639A allele was 42.3% and the frequencies of and *3 alleles were 14% and 5.4%, respectively. It was indicated that low warfarin dose requirements are strongly associated with the presence of and variant alleles. Our results confirmed the supply to understand the distribution of genomic biomarkers related to the drugs metabolism for future planning health programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.235165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040167PMC
August 2018

De-Esterified Tragacanth Microspheres Loaded into Eudragit S-100 Coated Capsules for Colon-Targeted Delivery.

Iran J Pharm Res 2018 ;17(2):470-479

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The objective of this study was to develop a novel bacterially-triggered micro-particular system of de-esterified tragacanth (DET) in combination with Eudragit S-100 coated capsules for colon drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using microemulsion method. The loading study was conducted at different drug-to-polymer ratios and cross-linker concentrations. The maximum loading efficiency was achieved, 44.1% at 1:5 drug-to-polymer ratio and 0.7% cross-linker concentration. The FTIR results also confirmed the encapsulation of 5-FU in microspheres. The release profile was dependent on the cross-linker concentration, environmental pH, and presence of pectinase enzyme. Microspheres inserted into Eudragit S-100 coated capsules released less than 5% of the drug at stomach and small intestine pH levels, whereas 70% of the drug was released at colon pH levels, and about 25% of the drug did not release unless in the presence of pectinase enzyme. To omit burst release, microspheres were washed with water, and the release became pH independent, and was just achieved in the presence of pectinase enzyme. 5-FU loaded microspheres with an IC value of 80 µg/mL were as effective as the free drug on HT-29. Generally, the results demonstrated that drug-loaded microspheres inserted into Eudragit S-100 coated capsules can be effective for colon-targeted delivery.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5985165PMC
January 2018

De-esterified tragacanth-chitosan nano-hydrogel for methotrexate delivery; optimization of the formulation by Taguchi design.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 15;46(sup2):883-893. Epub 2018 May 15.

a Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

The objective of the present study was to prepare and characterized de-esterified tragacanth-chitosan nanoparticles (DET-CS NPs) as a novel carrier for methotrexate, with a view to improve drug efficacy and target ability. The preparation process was optimized using Taguchi design. NPs were characterized for size, zeta potential, morphology, thermal stability, loading efficiency, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. Taguchi design indicated that the molecular weight of chitosan possessed the most effect on the zeta potential, PDI, and zeta deviation, and the size of nanoparticles was significantly affected by the DET concentration. The size and zeta potential of drug loaded nanoparticles at optimum condition were 322.9 ± 26 nm and 17.3 ± 5.73 mV, and thermal analysis indicated ionic bond between DET and CS in NPs. The loading efficiency was 20.32% ± 2.01, and the sustained release was observed within nine days. The IC was 280 µg/mL in HT-29, and the mitochondrial membrane potential in HT-29 was reduced more than that in MCF-7. The uptake of NPs in HT-29 was higher than that in MCF-7, and active endocytosis was the key mechanism of uptake. These phenomena altogether make DET-CS NPs a proper choice for targeted drug delivery to cells containing asialoglycoprotein receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1471482DOI Listing
June 2019

Mechanistic Evaluation of Roots Potential as an Antidiabetic Folk Medicinal Plant.

Pharmacogn Mag 2018 Jan 31;13(Suppl 4):S852-S859. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objective: has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for treating . The aim of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic mechanisms of infusion (INF) extract of and discovering the active extract for the first time.

Materials And Methods: Six different extracts of were prepared using five different solvents (ethanol, -hexane, acetone, ethanol:water (1:1 v/v), and water). Cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays were performed on mouse pancreatic β-cells (β-TC) using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium method. The effects of on glucose metabolism (in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line [HepG2]) and glucose diffusion across a dialysis membrane (as a model of cellular glucose absorption) were evaluated. The protective effect of various extracts on cytotoxicity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in β-TC cells was investigated.

Results: Cytotoxicity study indicated that extracts were safe on β-TC and HepG2 (≤0.5 mg/ml). INF protected β-TC cells from apoptosis induced by STZ and improved cell viability for 20% and significantly decrease depolarization of MMP ( < 0.005). The results showed that INF inhabited breaking/streaking the DNA. Proliferation study showed no significant increase in the number of cells either at single or multiple doses. In moderate hyperglycemia (11.1 mmol/l), a significant glucose-lowering effect was observed but glucose diffusion was not the probable mechanism of extracts antidiabetic effect. In conclusion, only INF, the traditionally used extract, has an antidiabetic potential by attenuating the death and apoptosis induced by STZ in β-TC cells and increase glucose consumption.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that only INF extract have an antidiabetic potential by attenuating the death and apoptosis induced by STZ in β-TC cells and increase glucose consumption.

Summary: Six different extracts from were prepared using five different solvents [ethanol, n-hexane, acetone, ethanol: water (1:1 v/v), and water]The protective effect of various extracts on cytotoxicity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and Streptozotocin-induced apoptosis in β-TC cells were investigated.Infusion has an antidiabetic potential by attenuating the death and apoptosis induced by STZ in β-TC cells and increase glucose consumptionThe effect of infusion extract on glucose consumption in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line cells (a) and effect of infusion extract on glucose consumption in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line cells adjusted by optical density MTT (b). Significance was calculated by analysis of variance (* ≤ 0.05). MTT: 3 (4,5 dimethylthiazol 2 yl) 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium. AC: Acetone extract; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; BSA: Bovine serum albumin; β-TC: Mouse pancreatic β-cells; DMEM: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; ETH: Ethyl acetate extract; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; HDETH: Hydroethanolic extract; HepG2: Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line; HEX: Hexane extract; INF: Infusion; KUMS: Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium; NaCl: Natrium chloride; OD: Optical density; spp: Species; STZ: Streptozotocin; Tag: T-antigen; USA: United States of America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/pm.pm_162_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822511PMC
January 2018

Preparation and characterization of retinoic acid-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) micelles.

Res Pharm Sci 2017 Dec;12(6):465-478

Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

In order to achieve the controlled release of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer with average molecular weight of 5.34 kDa was synthesized. The nanosized micelles were prepared from copolymer by nano-precipitation method. Critical association concentration (CAC) of micelles was measured by fluorimetry and results indicated low CAC value of micelles (1.9 × 10 g/L). ATRA was encapsulated in the core of micelles using different ratios of drug to copolymer. In the case of 10% drug to polymer ratio, more than 80% of the drug was released within 3 days, whereas for ratio of 2% more than 90% of the drug was released within 3 h. The cytotoxic study performed by MTT assay showed that H1299 survival percent decreased significantly ( ≤ 0.05) after exposure to drug-loaded micelles, while no proliferation inhibition effect was observed by either free ATRA or blank PCL-PEG-PCL micelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.217427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691573PMC
December 2017

Biosynthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Using Seed Extract.

Iran J Pharm Res 2017 ;16(3):1167-1175

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The biogenic synthesis of metal nanomaterial offers an environmentally benign alternative to the traditional chemical synthesis routes. In the present study, the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO) by using L. seed powder extract (NSPE) has been reported. AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 435 nm which reveals the formation of nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed silver nanoparticles, with a size of 2-15 nm, were spherical. The X-ray diffraction spectrum (XRD) pattern clearly indicates that AgNPs formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. Stabilized films of exudate synthesized AgNPs were effective anti-bacterial agents. In addition, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29). The results confirmed that the NSPE is a very good ecofriendly and nontoxic source for the synthesis of AgNPs as compared to the conventional chemical/physical methods. Therefore, seed provides future opportunities in nanomedicine by tagging nanoparticles with secondary metabolites.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610771PMC
January 2017

Preparation and characterization of silk fibroin hydrogel as injectable implants for sustained release of Risperidone.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2018 Feb 23;44(2):199-205. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

a Student Research Committee , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

The principal objective of the present study is to achieve a depot formulation of Risperidone by gelation of silk fibroin (SF). For this purpose, hydrochloric acid (HCl)/acetone-based and methanol-based hydrogels were prepared with different drug/polymer ratios (1:3, 1:6, and 1:15). For all the drug-loaded methanol-based hydrogels, gel transition of SF solutions occurred immediately and the gelation time was 1 min, while the gelation time of HCL/acetone-based hydrogels was around 360 min. According to the results obtined from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra, solvent systems and Risperidone could induce β-sheet structure, but HCL/acetone system had the lowest effect on induction of β-sheets. The crystallinity was increased by increasing the amount of Risperidone, and drug to polymer ratio of 1:3 possessed the highest crystallinity. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that increasing the amount of drug in formulation increased the stability of hydrogels, and methanol-based hydrogel with a ratio of 1:3 had the most stable structure. The release rate of Risperidone from methanol-based hydrogel at ratio of 1:3 was lower than that for HCl/acetone-based one, and it decreased by increasing the amount of Risperidone. The release of Risperidone from methanol hydrogel at ratios 1:3 and 1:6 continued up to 25 d which is acceptable for depot form of Risperidone and shows that the extended release of Risperidone was achieved successfully. In conclusion, SF hydrogel with the ability to respond to the environmental stimuli is an excellent candidate for injectable implants for extended release of Risperidone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2017.1386195DOI Listing
February 2018

Optimization of de-esterified tragacanth microcapsules by computational fluid dynamic and the Taguchi design with purpose of the cell encapsulation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Dec 14;105(Pt 1):17-26. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

This work presents the development of the new De-Esterified Tragacanth (DET) microcapsules (MCs). Co-flow extrusion method was applied for producing the MCs; the processing parameters were optimized by the Taguchi design to obtain the smallest and the most spherical MCs. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling was accomplished to show the formation of droplets at different airflows, and finally, βTC3 pancreatic cells were encapsulated in the MCs. The optimum MCs had 214.58μm size and 60.75% sphericality. The air pressure and the cross-linking reaction of DET were the most influential parameter in size and the sphericality of MCs, respectively. CFD showed two velocity vortices with rotational flow formed in the chamber, which caused changing the droplet moving direction. The encapsulated cells were proliferated, and cell viability was not reduced during six days. These phenomena make DET MCs a potential candidate for the cell encapsulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.06.059DOI Listing
December 2017

Green approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles from Nigella arvensis leaf extract and evaluation of their antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity and catalytic activities.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 May 25;46(3):579-588. Epub 2017 May 25.

b Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

In the present work, we studied the reduction of gold ions into gold nanoparticles using Nigella arvensis leaf extract in the one-step green synthesis method. The formation of N. arvensis gold nanoparticles (NA-GNPs) was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, XRD, FT-IR and TEM analyses. The XRD pattern confirmed the crystal structure of NA-GNPs, and TEM image showed the small size (3-37 nm) and almost spherical shape of NA-GNPs. NA-GNPs have not shown enhanced antioxidant properties compared to the plant extract while they were active against the clinical isolated bacterial strains. These nanoparticles showed the cytotoxicity effects against H1299 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines with an IC value of 10 and 25 μg/ml, respectively. The extract of N. arvensis contained 212 μg/ml flavonoids and 145 μg/ml phenolic compounds. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids of biosynthesized NA-GNPs were 68 and 189 μg/ml, respectively. Plant extract and NA-GNPs exhibited a maximum DPPH scavenging activity of 32% and 12%, respectively. The catalytic activity of NA-GNPs against methylene blue was 44%. In conclusion, these results suggest that NA-GNPs can act as a promising candidate for different medical applications produced by cost-effective, eco-friendly and straightforward green method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1332634DOI Listing
May 2018

Preparation and Characterization of Gum Nanoparticles Using Response Surface Method: Evaluation of Its Anti-Bacterial Performance and Cytotoxicity.

Adv Pharm Bull 2017 Apr 13;7(1):159-164. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

This study aims to prepare a novel, natural nanoparticle (NP) as a drug carrier, which also has inherent therapeutic effects. Pistacia khinjuk gum NPs were prepared and Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for statistical analysis of data and optimizing the size of NPs. NPs were in the range of 75.85-241.3 nm. The optimization study was carried out, and an optimized size (70.86nm) was obtained using DMSO as a solvent. The volume of the organic phase was 111.25µl, and the concentration of gum was 1% w/v. The cell viability assay was performed on the pure gum and NPs toward β-TC, MCF7, and HT29 cell lines. It was observed that NPs have higher cytotoxic activity in comparison with pure gum, and that the ICvalue was achieved at 1% of NPs in β-TC3 cells. The obtained NPs demonstrated antibacterial activity against two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). Altogether, according to the obtained results, these NPs with inherent cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity are an attractive carrier for drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2017.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426729PMC
April 2017