Publications by authors named "Ali Fakhari"

88 Publications

Interferon-alpha position in combating with COVID-19: A systematic review.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The newborn coronaivus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the foremost concern of health system worldwide. Interferon typeI (IFN-I) are among the well-known antiviruses. Hence IFN-α have gained much attention as a treatment for COVID-19 recently. To sum up the efficiency of IFN-α against COVID-19, we searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE, from the date of genesis to the 1st of October 2020. Discharge from hospital and virus clearance considered as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. We compared the aforementioned outcomes of patients treated with standard care protocol and the patients treated with IFN-α in addition to standard care protocol. Out of 356 identified records, 14 studies were subjected for full-text screening. Finally, a systematic review was performed with inclusion of five studies. Majority of the participants were males (ranged from 43.50% to 90.0%). We found that time of viral clearance and polymerase chain reaction negative (days) in most studies were decreased in the INF-α + standard care group. The mean days of virus's clearance in INF-α group and standard group reported 27.3 and 32.43. Likewise, the average days of hospitalization was found also lower in INF-α group (18.55 vs. 24.36). This study provides a stand to conclude that early administration of INF-α may be accounted as a promising treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27072DOI Listing
June 2021

Interferon-beta offers promising avenues to COVID-19 treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trial studies.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 05 15;394(5):829-838. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 principally weakens the hosts' innate immune system by impairing the interferon function and production. Type I interferons (IFNs) especially IFN-β are best known for their antiviral activities. IFNs accompanied by the standard care protocols have opened up unique opportunities for treating the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched up to October 30, 2020. The primary and secondary outcomes were considered discharge and mortality, respectively. The abovementioned outcomes of standard care protocol were compared with the standard care plus IFN-β in the confirmed COVID-19 patients. Out of 356 records identified, 12 randomized clinical trial studies were selected for full-text screening. Finally, 5 papers were included in the systematic review and 3 papers in the meta-analysis. The average mortality rate was reported as 6.195% and 18.02% in intervention and control groups, respectively. Likewise, the median days of hospitalization were lower in the intervention group (9 days) than the control group (12.25 days). According to meta-analysis, IFN-β was found to increase the overall discharge rate (RR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.09-5.01). Our findings revealed that early administration of IFN-β in combination with antiviral drugs is a promising therapeutic strategy against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02061-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883756PMC
May 2021

Gelatin microsphere coated [email protected] quantum dots nanoparticles as a novel magnetic sorbent for ultrasound-assisted dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction of tricyclic antidepressants in biological samples.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Feb 6;188(3):73. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Evin, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Gelatin microsphere-coated [email protected] quantum dots ([email protected]@GM) were designed and synthesized as a novel sorbent via ultrasonic-assisted dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (UA-DMSPE) method. The synthesized sorbent was identified and confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, VSM, and SEM techniques. UA-DMSPE was combined with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for trace determination of desipramine, sertraline, and citalopram. Effective parameters were considered and optimized. The proposed method, under optimal conditions, showed excellent linearity in different concentration ranges (2-700 ng mL, R > 0.995), repeatability (RSD < 5.1%), good sensitivity (LODs in the range 0.6-1.5 ng mL), high preconcentration factor (PF = 207-218), and acceptable relative recoveries (93.5-101.8%). Eventually, this method was used to determine tricyclic antidepressants in various biological samples. Schematic presentation of the microextraction and monitoring of TCAs by ultrasonic-assisted dispersive magnetic solid phase microextraction-ion mobility spectrometry producer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-021-04727-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic medications.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 May;11(3):310-314

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in schizophrenic patients in a 6-month period of treatment with antipsychotic medications.

Methods: In this study, 60 volunteer schizophrenic patients were included. At the onset and 6 months after treatment with antipsychotic medications, fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), weight, waist circumference (WC), and blood pressure were determined. We defined Mets according to ATPIII criteria.

Results: After a 6-month treatment with antipsychotic drugs, the mean WC, serum TG, HDL, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased but the changes of WC and HDL were statistically significant (p<0.05). We found that the percentage of patients with high WC, low HDL levels, and Mets increased after treatment which was statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: It is recommended that nutritional and lifestyle changes intervention should be implanted for schizophrenic patients undergoing treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.3.310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442470PMC
May 2020

The impact of sleep deprivation on sexual behaviors and FAAH expression in the prefrontal cortex of male rats.

Neurosci Lett 2020 09 16;735:135254. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Sleep deprivation (SD) causes alterations in the function of the endocannabinoid (EC) system and also results in alteration in many behaviors such as increased anxiety, deteriorated alertness, memory deficits, as well as sexual behaviors. Controversial data about the effects of SD on sexual response are provided. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzymes involved in the degradation of the EC system play an important role in the function of the EC system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of REM SD (RSD) and total SD (TSD) on the sexual behaviors and FAAH expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of male rats. RSD was carried out through the flower pot technique for 24 h and 48 h, and TSD also was induced by keeping awake the rats by gentle handling for 6 h. Immediately after RSD and TSD, sexual behaviors were recorded for 45 min. Sexual behaviors were reduced by both types of RSD and TSD. The deleterious effects of 24 h RSD were more severe compared with 6 h of TSD. Serum testosterone concentration was significantly higher after TSD but not RSD compared to the normal sleep (NS) group. FAAH expression in the PFC was significantly reduced after both RSD and TSD compared to the NS group. Given that the function of the EC system has been previously shown to change different behaviors such as sexual activity, our results could suggest that behavioral effects of both types of SD on sexual behavior may partially result from activation of this signaling pathway by the reduction of FAAH in the PFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135254DOI Listing
September 2020

Bioassay: A novel approach in antipsychotic pharmacology.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Oct 3;509:30-35. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Aging Research Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Accurate identification and measurement of antipsychotic drugs in in-vivo and in-vitro environment has a key role in the development and design of drugs, as any slight change in their dosage can affect the treatment process. Determination of antipsychotics in physiological fluids such as blood, plasma and urine are important in drug tablets and medical approaches. Chromatography is the main method used in the determination of antipsychotic drugs but this technique, despite its relative sensitivity, is a costly and complicated method. Biosensors, as simple, low-cost and highly sensitive and specific tools, can be the best alternative to eliminate the drawbacks of routine methods. For this purpose, various biosensors have been extensively developed in the recent years. The main objective of the present study is to introduce and collect recently developed biosensors for the measurement and detection of antipsychotic drugs. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a fundamental principle in pharmaceuticals, with the primary goal being to reduce and eliminate the side effects of drugs. This study shows that biosensors can be a modern and novel approach in the field of TDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.05.025DOI Listing
October 2020

Decomposing socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adult population: results from the PERSIAN cohort study.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 05 13;20(1):229. Epub 2020 May 13.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Socioeconomic inequality in mental health in Iran is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health among Iranian adults.

Methods: The study used the baseline data of PERSIAN cohort study including 131,813 participants from 17 geographically distinct areas of Iran. The Erreygers Concentration index (E) was used to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in poor mental health. Moreover, we decomposed the E to identify factors contributing to the observed socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health in Iran.

Results: The estimated E for poor mental health was - 0.012 (95% CI: - 0.0144, - 0.0089), indicating slightly higher concentration of mental health problem among socioeconomically disadvantaged adults in Iran. Socioeconomic inequality in poor mental health was mainly explained by gender (19.93%) and age (12.70%). Region, SES itself, and physical activity were other important factors that contributed to the concentration of poor mental health among adults with low socioeconomic status.

Conclusion: There exists nearly equitable distribution in poor mental health among Iranian adults, but with important variations by gender, SES, and geography. These results suggested that interventional programs in Iran should focus on should focus more on socioeconomically disadvantaged people as a whole, with particular attention to the needs of women and those living in more socially disadvantaged regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02596-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218818PMC
May 2020

Changes in Risk-Taking Behaviors during the First Year of College in the Northwestern Iran: A Latent Transition Analysis.

J Res Health Sci 2019 Oct 21;19(4):e00460. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: First year of university is a critical life transition period with an increased probability of taking risky behaviors. We aimed to examine the transitions in risky behaviors in the first year of college in the northwestern Iran using latent transition analysis (LTA).

Study Design: A longitudinal study.

Methods: A random sample of 1406 freshmen enrolled in three universities in Tabriz City (the capital city of East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran) were evaluated twice in November 2014 and 2015. A multiple-choice self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on risky behaviors and demographic characteristics of students. LTA was performed to examine the prevalence and changes in risky behaviors (cigarette and hookah smoking, illicit drug use, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviors) among the students.

Results: The LTA model revealed four interpretable statuses. The prevalence data showed that 77.1%, 12.3%, 8.3% and 2.3% of students were "risk-free", "tobacco user", "sexual risk-taker" and "multiple risk-tacker", respectively in the first assessment. Over the period of one year, 4.2% and 6.1% of risk-free students became tobacco user and sexual risk-takers, respectively, and 22.4% of tobacco user students, transfer to the multiple risk-taker group.

Conclusion: The prevalence of risk-taking behaviors increased during the freshman year. Tobacco smoking was  predispose acquiring more risky behaviors. Probability of transition to the multiple risk-taker group was higher among tobacco users.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183566PMC
October 2019

A mesoporous nanosorbent composed of silica, graphene, and palladium (II) for ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides prior to their quantitation by ion mobility spectrometry.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 03 9;187(4):209. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Evin, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

A new ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction method using mesoporous nanosorbent composed of silica, graphene, and palladium (II) (M S/[email protected]@Pd (II)), coupled with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry, was developed for trace determination of organophosphorus pesticides. Initially, the M S/[email protected]@Pd (II) nanosorbent was synthesized and characterized. Then, the nanosorbent was used for the sorption and extraction of organophosphorus pesticides. Under the optimized conditions (pH = 7.0, 15 mg of sorbent, 3 min extraction time, ethanol as desorption agent, 3 min centrifuge time), the proposed technique provided good linearity (R > 0.994), repeatability (RSD < 4.6%), low limits of detection (0.15-0.30 ng mL), excellent preconcentration factor (PF = 472-478), and high recoveries (93-94%). The method was applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in real water samples. The sorbent was reused in 5 cycles without any considerable loss of activity. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of design and synthesis of mesoporous nanosorbent composed of silica, graphene, and palladium (II) for ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticides prior to their quantitation by ion mobility spectrometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-4174-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Reliability and validity of Azeri Turkish version of geriatric depression scale.

Health Promot Perspect 2020 28;10(1):74-79. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In older adults, depression symptoms may be masked by physical complaints and be even attributed to the natural aging process, which may be resulted in improper diagnosis. Native-language scales can be highly effective in the detection of depressive disorders. In this study we attempted to assess the reliability and validity of the Azeri Turkish version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS). In this psychometric study, the GDS and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV(SCID) questionnaires were administered to a sample of 387 older adults (60 years and older)from the member households of Tabriz health centers. The English version of GDS was translated into Azeri Turkish. Translation-back translation process was conducted. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve, as well as sensitivity and specificity, were used to determine the validity of the questionnaire, and the test-retest method was used to calculate reliability. The mean age of participants was 69.30. The area under the ROC curve for the scores higher than five was 0.832 and for the scores equal to ten and above was 0.871. The sensitivity and specificity for the scores higher than five were 90.9% and 73.4%, respectively. The reliability of this scale was confirmed based on intraclass coefficient (ICC) = 0.79. : The Azeri Turkish version of GDS was found with appropriate levels of validity and reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/hpp.2020.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036203PMC
January 2020

Early Marriage and Negative Life Events Affect on Depression in Young Adults and Adolescents.

Arch Iran Med 2020 02 1;23(2):90-98. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Negative life events (NLEs) and early marriage (EM), a worldwide social silent problem, are increasing in prevalence globally. Evidence is lacking regarding their impact on depression. We assessed the impact of EM and NLEs on depression among adolescents, young adults and adults in Iran.

Methods: A population-based descriptive study was performed among urban and rural population aged 13-40 years. Beck depression inventory scale II and life event questionnaire were used to assess the severity of depression and NLEs, respectively. EM was defined as a marriage or union between two persons in which one or both parties are younger than 18.

Results: In a total of 530 participants (300 female and 230 male) with a mean age of 26.78 ± 5.06, almost 46% had depressive symptoms. A trend was found between rising age and depression so that among the three groups of study subjects, adults had the highest prevalence rate (49.34%). After adjusting for age, residence, substance abuse, alcohol abuse, unemployment and other NLEs by multiple regression, we found statistically significant relationships between depression and EM (2.77; CI: 1.75-4.57), and NLEs (2.78; CI: 1.85-4.19). Among types of NLEs, marital conflicts (5.8; CI: 1.60-20.81), loss of loved ones (6.12; CI: 1.28-28.26) and financial problems (13.79; CI: 1.72-108.17) were associated with depression risk.

Conclusion: Life skills improving program with intersectoral collaborative care to reduce determinants of EM and NLEs in the community, as well as training and screening for depression among adolescents and adulthood are necessary.
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February 2020

Melissa officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract inhibits anxiety and depression through prevention of central oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Exp Physiol 2020 04 21;105(4):707-720. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? How does an extract of Melissa officinalis L. ameliorate anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour of mice? What is the main finding and its importance? An extract of Melissa officinalis L. possessed anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects, which could mainly be mediated through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis (HAEMO) on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in restraint stress-exposed mice. In order to induce a depression-like model, mice were subjected to restraint stress (3 h day for 14 days) and received normal saline or HAEMO (50, 75 and 150 mg kg  day ) for 14 days. The administered doses of HAEMO were designated based on the concentration of one of the main phenolic compounds present in the extract, rosmarinic acid (2.55 mg kg at lowest dose); other phytochemical analyses including assays for antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids were also carried out. The behavioural changes in an open field task, elevated plus maze, tail suspension and forced swimming tests were evaluated. Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity were assessed in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Moreover, levels of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3 in the brain as well as serum concentration of corticosterone were evaluated. HAEMO (75 and 150 mg kg ) significantly reversed anxiety- and depressive-like behaviours. Also, HAEMO reduced MDA levels, enhanced enzymatic antioxidant activities and restored serum levels of corticosterone. An immunoblotting analysis also demonstrated that HAEMO decreased levels of pro-apoptotic markers and increased anti-apoptotic protein levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of restraint stress-exposed mice. Our findings suggested that HAEMO reduced inflammation and had anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP088254DOI Listing
April 2020

Electrospun terpolymeric nanofiber membrane for micro solid-phase extraction of diazinon and chlorpyrifos from aqueous samples.

J Sep Sci 2020 Mar 1;43(5):920-928. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Evin, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

The present study deals with the synthesis and electrospining of a new terpolymer nanofiber in order to determine the amount of diazinon and chlorpyrifos in water and fruit juice samples. The synthesized terpolymer and the prepared nanofiber were characterized using H NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The performance of terpolymer nanofiber, prepared as a sorbent for micro solid phase extraction was investigated for the extraction of diazinon and chlorpyrifos from aquaeous media. Then, the target analytes were desorbed from the coating with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. Extraction efficiencies were significant (>90%) under the optimum condition. The proposed method also demonstrated good linear dynamic ranges for diazinon and chlorpyrifos (3-250 and 5-200 µg/L), and low limit of detections (0.5 and 0.7 µg/L) respectively. Moreover, under optimum condition for extraction of diazinon and chlorpyrifos, square of correlation coefficients (R ) of 0.9978 and 0.9953 and relative standard deviations of 4.6 and 5.1% were achieved, respectively. The recoveries for diazinon and chlorpyrifos were in the range of 85-97%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201900798DOI Listing
March 2020

Simultaneous enantioseparation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by a one-dimensional liquid chromatography technique using a dynamically coated chiral porous silicon pillar array column.

J Chromatogr A 2020 Mar 29;1615:460752. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

µFlow Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

The preparation of a highly efficient chiral liquid chromatography (LC) column is explored by dynamically coating a reversed-phase porous silicon pillar array column with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-β-CD) as the chiral selector. Analyte mixtures composed of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were tested to reveal the enantioseparation potential of the column. The mechanism of chiral discrimination was investigated. The adsorbed Hp-β-CDs on the column surface experience different interaction with enantiomers. The chiral stationary phase showed satisfying stability and could be easily restored by recovering the selector with sufficient flushing and repeating the loading procedure. The peak capacity of the column was evaluated, and it was found high enough to separate three enantiomer couples using a one-dimensional LC technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.460752DOI Listing
March 2020

Associations between optimism, tobacco smoking and substance abuse among Iranian high school students.

Health Promot Perspect 2019 24;9(4):279-284. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Tabriz Health Services Management Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Optimism is known to be associated with many health behaviors. However, the associations between optimism, tobacco smoking and substance abuse in adolescents are not well documented. This study aimed to address this research gap in a large school-based population. Participants (N = 1104) were selected based on multi-stage cluster sampling method. Cigarette and hookah smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, optimism, and relevant covariates were measured using a validated questionnaire. Data were analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. After adjustment, higher optimism score was a protective factor against being situated in advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.84-0.91), hookah smoking (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94), and illicit drugs usage (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.95). Moreover, the results showed that negative-stability and negative-globality domains of optimism were significantly higher among advanced-stage smokers and illicit drug users. Optimism was found to be a protective factor against tobacco smoking and substance abuse; whereas pessimism (negative-stability and negative-globality) was found to be a determinant factor. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of optimism on the transition in cigarette and hookah smoking stages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/hpp.2019.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875553PMC
October 2019

An Exploratory Study of Units of Reporting Opium Usein Iran: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies.

Arch Iran Med 2019 10 1;22(10):541-545. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Measuring the amount of opium use is a challenge in epidemiologic studies. Self-report of amount of opium use at each consumption, widely used in the literature, usually fails to provide a good estimate. The purpose of this study is to systematically study the perceived weight units of reported opium use in Iran, and compare them to the standardized units of weight measurement.

Methods: An exploratory descriptive study was conducted in six major cities of Iran. Study participants were interviewed and asked to use a Play-Doh-like material to demonstrate the amount of opium they use. To obtain an estimate of the weight of the material used, we multiplied the volume by the density of the opium product. We experimentally determined the density of the commonly used opium products. We used medians and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) to report the typical amount of each unit.

Results: A total of 108 individuals participated in this study. The most frequently reported unit was "gram"; the median perceived weight for one gram (g) of opium was 0.24 (IQR: 0.16) g. The second most commonly used unit was nokhod with a median of 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, followed by mesghaal and hab/habeh, which were 1.28 (IQR: 0.81) and 0.16 (IQR: 0.16) g, respectively. The median perceived weight of mesghaal and gram in the studied cities was less than the expected standardized values.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the reported amount of opium use is highly inaccurate and unreliable, and is mainly subject to underestimation.
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October 2019

Recent advances in microextraction procedures for determination of amphetamines in biological samples.

Bioanalysis 2019 Mar 19;11(5):437-460. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Analytical Chemistry & Pollutants, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Evin, Tehran 1983969411, Iran.

Amphetamine and its related derivatives have stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. Illegal use of these drugs is an increasing global problem resulting in significant public health and legal problems. Deaths have been reported after intake of these drugs due to overdose. It is important to determine the type and concentration of illicit drugs in biological samples. These compounds are found in complex matrices at low concentration levels. The microextraction techniques are dominant sample preparation procedure and they are widely accepted as the most labor-intensive part of the bioanalytical process. For this purpose, a survey of recent published advances in microextraction procedures for quantification of amphetamines in biological samples found in the different databases from 2008 to date will be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2018-0207DOI Listing
March 2019

Ultrasound assisted dispersive solid phase extraction of triazole fungicides by using an N-heterocyclic carbene copper complex supported on ionic liquid-modified graphene oxide as a sorbent.

Mikrochim Acta 2019 03 2;186(4):209. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., P.O. Box 1983963113, Evin, Tehran, Iran.

An ultrasound-assisted method is described for dispersive solid phase extraction of trace levels of triazole fungicides. A sorbent was prepared from an N-heterocyclic carbene copper complex that was supported on ionic liquid-modified graphene oxide. The sorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping. The capability of sorption and extraction is mainly based on complexation with Cu (I) ions. The variables affecting extraction were optimized. Following desorption with ethanol, the fungicides were quantified by corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry. Under optimized conditions (solution pH value: 7.0; amount of sorbent: 10 mg; extraction time: 3 min; desorption agent: ethanol), the technique provides good linearity (>0.994), repeatability (RSD < 4.1%), low limits of detection (0.18 ng.mL), excellent preconcentration factors (468-476) and high recoveries from spiked environmental water samples (92-94%). The sorbent can be reused over five cycles without significant loss of its activity. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of design and synthesis of the N-heterocyclic carbene copper complex supported on ionic liquid-modified graphene oxide as a sorbent for triazole fungicides and its application in ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction with ion mobility spectrometric detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-019-3276-1DOI Listing
March 2019

Development and application of SBA-15 assisted electromembrane extraction followed by corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of Thiabendazole in fruit juice samples.

J Sep Sci 2019 May 21;42(9):1786-1793. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, I. R. Iran.

A new sample preparation method based on SBA-15 assisted electromembrane extraction coupled with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometer was developed for the determination of Thiabendazole as a model basic pesticide in fruit juice samples. The addition of SBA-15 in the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction system not only can lead to enhancement of the effective surface area, but also introducing the negatively charged silanol groups into supported liquid membrane might improve migration of positively charged analytes toward the supported liquid membrane and finally into the acceptor solution. To investigate the effect of the presence of SBA-15 in the supported liquid membrane on the extraction efficiency, a comparative study was carried out between the conventional electromembrane extraction and SBA-15/electromembrane extraction methods. Under the optimized conditions, SBA-15/electromembrane extraction method showed higher extraction efficiencies in comparison with conventional electromembrane extraction method. SBA-15/electromembrane extraction method exhibited a low limit of detection (0.9 ng/mL), high preconcentration factor (167) and high recovery (83%). Finally, the applicability of SBA-15/electromembrane extraction method was studied by the extraction and determination of Thiabendazole as a model basic pesticide in fruit juice samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201800676DOI Listing
May 2019

Main Risk Factors Association with Proto-Oncogene Mutations in Colorectal Cancer

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Aug 24;19(8):2183-2190. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Hematology and Oncology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Email:

Objective: Although several factors have been shown to have etiological roles in colorectal cancer, few investigations have addressed how and to what extent these factors affect the genetics and pathology of the disease. Precise relationships with specific genetic mutations that could alter signaling pathways involved in colorectal cancer remain unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate possible links between lifestyle, dietary habits, and socioeconomic factors and specific mutations that are common in colorectal cancers. Methods: Data were retrieved from a baseline survey of lifestyle factors, dietary behavior, and SES, as well as anthropometric evaluations during a physical examination, for 100 confirmed primary sporadic colorectal cancer patients from Northwest Iran. Results: High socioeconomic status was significantly associated with higher likelihood of a KRAS gene mutation (P < 0.05) (odds ratio: 3.01; 95% CI: 0.69–13.02). Consuming carbohydrates and alcohol, working less, and having a sedentary lifestyle also increased the odds of having a KRAS mutation. Conclusion: Although research has not yet described the exact relationships among genetic mutations with different known risk factors in colorectal cancer, examples of the latter may have an impact on KRAS gene mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.8.2183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171391PMC
August 2018

Simultaneous chiral separation of tramadol and methadone in tablets, human urine, and plasma by capillary electrophoresis using maltodextrin as the chiral selector.

Chirality 2018 Oct 20;30(10):1161-1168. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, I.R. Iran.

The stereoselective analysis and separation of racemic drugs play an important role in pharmaceutical industry to eliminate the unwanted isomer and find the right therapeutic control for the patient. Present study suggests a maltodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis method for a single-run chiral separation of two closely similar opiate pain relief drugs: tramadol (TRA) and methadone (MET). The best separation method possible for the both enantiomers was achieved on an uncoated fused-silica capillary at 25°C using 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) containing 20% (w v ) maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent of 4-7 and an applied voltage of 16 kV. Under optimal conditions, the baseline resolution of TRA and MET enantiomers was obtained in less than 12 minutes. The relative standard deviations (n = 3) of 20 μg mL TRA and MET were 2.28% and 3.77%, respectively. The detection limits were found to be 2 μg mL for TRA and 1.5 μg mL for MET. This method was successfully applied to the measurement of drugs concentration in their tablets, urine, and plasma samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chir.23008DOI Listing
October 2018

Development of a modified partial filling method in capillary electrophoresis using two chiral plugs for the simultaneous enantioseparation of chiral drugs: Comparison with mixed chiral selector capillary electrophoresis.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Sep 21;1567:211-218. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113, I.R. Iran.

In this study, a chiral CE method was developed based on the partial filling technique with two chiral plugs for the simultaneous enantioseparation of some racemic drugs, including baclofen, carvedilol, cetirizine, chlorpheniramine, citalopram, fluoxetine, hydroxyzine, propranolol, tramadol, trihexyphenidyl. This method of capillary filling involves the application of two adjacent chiral plugs containing the same BGE, but with different chiral selectors in the plugs for the enantioseparation of a mixture of drugs which cannot be separated with single or mixed chiral selectors. By using this method, each plug can separate the enantiomers independently (same as a single chiral selector modified CE) and the possible interactions between the chiral selectors would be inhibited. The best results were obtained using a fused silica capillary (60cm×50μm id (50cm effective length)) with phosphate buffer (100mM, pH 3.0) containing 10mM hydroxypropyl-α/β-cyclodextrin and 10% (w/v) maltodextrin and detected by UV at 214nm. The influence of the length and order of the chiral plugs on the enantioresolution was also studied and optimized. The proposed method was compared with a mixed chiral selector-CE system with a combination of hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and maltodextrin in the BGE. According to the results, the modified partial filling method is a simple and efficient method for the simultaneous chiral separation and offers appropriate migration times and resolutions compared to the results obtained from mixed chiral selector CE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.06.052DOI Listing
September 2018

Substance abuse behaviors among university freshmen in Iran: a latent class analysis.

Epidemiol Health 2018 2;40:e2018030. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objectives: Substance abuse behaviors among university freshmen in Iran are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify, for the first time, subgroups of university freshmen in Iran on the basis of substance abuse behaviors. Moreover, it examined the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on membership in each specific subgroup.

Methods: Data for the study were collected cross-sectionally in December 2013 and January 2014 from 4 major cities in Iran: Tabriz, Qazvin, Karaj, and Khoramabad. A total of 5,252 first-semester freshmen were randomly selected using a proportional cluster sampling methodology. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify subgroups of students on the basis of substance abuse behaviors and to examine the effects of students' socio-demographic characteristics on membership in each specific subgroup.

Results: The LCA procedure identified 3 latent classes: the healthy group; the hookah experimenter group; and the unhealthy group. Approximately 82.8, 16.1, and 2.1% of students were classified into the healthy, hookah experimenter, and unhealthy groups, respectively. Older age, being male, and having a family member or a close friend who smoked increased the risk of membership in classes 2 and 3, compared to class 1.

Conclusions: Approximately 2.1% of freshmen exhibited unhealthy substance abuse behaviors. In addition, we found that older age, being male, and having a close friend or family member who smoked may serve as risk factors for substance abuse behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178368PMC
August 2018

Evaluation of the synergistic effect with amino acids for enantioseparation of basic drugs using capillary electrophoresis.

Electrophoresis 2018 09 13;39(17):2202-2209. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, I. R. Iran.

The synergistic effect of two acidic amino acids, aspartic and glutamic acid, on the electrophoretic enantioseparation of four basic drugs was evaluated in the BGE containing a CD and at different pHs. Chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, propranolol and tramadol were used as the basic model drugs. However, no enantioseparations were achieved with a BGE containing sole amino acid, but the combined use of an acidic amino acid and a CD showed improved enantioseparations (synergistic effect) compared with the single CD system. The results demonstrated that at optimized pH, the electrostatic interactions of the anionic amino acids with the positively charged basic drugs could result in a decrease of the analyte migration velocity and it consequently improved the enantioseparation. The effective parameters such as the amino acid and chiral selector type and concentration, buffer pH, applied voltage, and capillary temperature were optimized. Favorable enantiomeric resolution and migration times of the model drugs were achieved with a 100 mM phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.0) containing 5.0 mM HP-α-CD/HP-β-CD and 20 mM aspartic acid with an 18 kV applied voltage at 25°C. H NMR experiments were also carried out in a mixture of an analyte and CD in the absence and presence of aspartic acid. The NMR results were consistent with the results obtained by CE which showed the synergistic effect of amino acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201800128DOI Listing
September 2018

Modeling The Underlying Tobacco Smoking Predictors Among 1 Year University Students In Iran.

Int J Prev Med 2017 7;8:90. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: There are scant studies on the prevalence and determinants of tobacco smoking among 1 year university students in Iran. We aim to determine the prevalence of substance abuse and identify factors related with tobacco smoking in 1 year students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (QUMS).

Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic, cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, and related risk factors among 521 1 year students in QUMS between January and February 2014. We used logistic regression to determine factors associated with substance abuse among students.

Results: The descriptive statistics indicated that the prevalence of lifetime cigarette and hookah smoking was 8.6% (confidence interval [CI] 95%: 6.5-11.4) and 35.5% (CI 95%: 31.5-39.7), respectively. After adjustment for other factors, being male, the presence of any smoker in the family and having smoker friends were factors associated with cigarette and hookah smoking among students. Our findings also revealed the co-occurrence of risk-taking behaviors among students.

Conclusions: Our study showed considerably low prevalence of tobacco smoking among 1 year students. Longitudinal studies are necessary to approve the observed results of this study and thus allow for a certain generalization of the observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_311_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686920PMC
November 2017

Surfactant-assisted electromembrane extraction combined with cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis for the separation and quantification of Tranylcypromine enantiomers in biological samples.

J Sep Sci 2018 Jan 3;41(2):475-482. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Surfactant-assisted electromembrane extraction coupled with cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis was developed for the separation and determination of Tranylcypromine enantiomers in biological samples. This combination would provide a new strategy for selective and sensitive determination of target analytes. The addition of surfactant in the donor solution improved the analyte transport into the lumen of hollow fiber that resulted in an enhancement in the analytes migration into acceptor solution. Optimization of the variables, affecting proposed method, was carried out and best results were achieved with a 175 V potential as driving force of the electromembrane extraction, 2-nitrophenyloctylether as the supported liquid membrane, donor solution containing 0.2 mM Triton X-100 with pH 3 and 0.1 M HCl for acceptor solution. Then, the extract was analyzed using cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis method for separation of Tranylcypromine enantiomers. The best results were obtained with a phosphate running buffer (100 mM, pH 2.0) containing 7% w/v hydroxypropyl-α-cyclodextrin. Under the optimum conditions, a low limit of detection (3.03 ng/mL), good linearity (R  > 0.9953), and relative standard deviations below 4.0% (n = 5) were obtained. Finally, this procedure was applied to determine the concentration of Tranylcypromine enantiomers in urine samples with satisfactory results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201700488DOI Listing
January 2018

DRD4 Gene Polymorphisms as a Risk Factor for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian Population.

Int Sch Res Notices 2017 24;2017:2494537. Epub 2017 May 24.

Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background And Objective: Dopamine dysfunction is known to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is one of the important genes in this pathway. This study intended to investigate the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3 of the DRD4 gene in Iranian children and adolescents.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 130 children with ADHD, aged 6-14 years, and 130 healthy children, within the same age range, were enrolled. All children were selected from northwest of Iran which have Caucasian ethnic background and are of a Turkic ethnic group. VNTR polymorphisms of the DRD4 gene were evaluated by PCR using exon 3-specific primers followed by agarose gel electrophoresis.

Findings: The Hardy-Weinberg principle and Chi-square test showed a significant difference in 4-repetition (4R) alleles between the ADHD (76.2%) and control (53.8%) groups ( = 0.004; = 17.39; df = 5). The least percentage of repetition alleles in both groups was 2R.

Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between the 4R alleles of DRD4 and ADHD in the northwest of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/2494537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463114PMC
May 2017

All-in-one solid-phase microextraction: Development of a selective solid-phase microextraction fiber assembly for the simultaneous and efficient extraction of analytes with different polarities.

J Sep Sci 2016 May;39(9):1709-16

Department of Pure Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, I.R. Iran.

In the present work, for the first time, an all-in-one solid-phase microextraction technique was developed for the simultaneous and efficient extraction of analytes within a vast polarity range. A novel fiber assembly composed of two different steel components each coated with different coatings (polydimethylsiloxane and polyethylene glycol) in terms of polarity by sol-gel technology was employed for the extraction of model compounds of different polarity in a single run followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Effective parameters in the extraction step and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis were optimized for all model compounds. The detection limits of the developed method for model compounds were below 0.2 ng/L. The repeatability and reproducibility of the proposed method, explained by relative standard deviation, varied between 7.22 and 9.15% and between 7.95 and 14.90 (n = 5), respectively. Results showed that, under random conditions, compared to separate extractions performed by two other differently end-coated components that had not been assembled as the final dual fiber, as two individual fibers; simultaneous, efficient and relatively selective extraction of all model compounds was obtained in a single run by the proposed all-in-one technique. Finally, the optimized procedure was applied to extraction and determination of the model compounds in spiked water samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201501385DOI Listing
May 2016

Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

Eat Weight Disord 2016 Dec 29;21(4):645-651. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Purpose: Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students.

Methods: In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates.

Results: Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were <0.001, 0.008, 0.02, and 0.045 respectively). Students who ate breakfast every day, more than 8 servings of fruit and vegetables daily, and had 3 meals in addition to 1-2 snacks per day had the highest happiness score.

Conclusion: Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-016-0261-0DOI Listing
December 2016

Preoperative Education and Decreasing Preoperative Anxiety Among Children Aged 8 - 10 Years Old and Their Mothers.

Anesth Pain Med 2015 Aug 22;5(4):e25036. Epub 2015 Aug 22.

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Preoperative anxiety is associated with adverse clinical, behavioral, and psychological outcomes. Various effective interventions targeting preoperative anxiety in children exist.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational intervention by residents on children and maternal anxiety and their satisfaction from anxiety management.

Patients And Methods: After obtaining the institutional ethics committee approval and written informed parental consent, 36 ASA-I, II children (age range, 8 - 10 years) underwent small operations were included in this prospective randomized study. The participants were allocated into the intervention (n =18) and control (n =18) groups. Children in the first group were prepared routinely. In the second group children and their mothers received data about anesthesia and operation by the booklet. Children-maternal anxiety was assessed using the anxiety level form, at the night and in the morning before surgery. Few days after surgery mothers, residents, and children experiences and satisfaction from anxiety management were assessed in the focus group discussion.

Results: Mean scores and standard deviations of state anxiety in the intervention group before and after training were 33.1 ± 5.5 and 30.8 ± 6, respectively (P = 0.06). In the control group it was 32 ± 6.5 on the night and 34.1 ± 6.7 in the morning before surgery (P = 0.00). Comparison between groups was not significant (P = 0.6) and (P = 0.1). The mean levels of anxiety in the control group mothers on the night before and in the morning of surgery were 39.2 ± 13.1 and 42.8 ± 14 (P = 0.00), respectively. In the intervention group, mothers' anxiety before education was 41 ± 12.7 and after education it was 35.6 ± 9.5 (P = 0.04). Comparison between groups was not significant (P = 0.7) and (P = 0.1). According to the focus group discussions, booklet study, provided education, sympathy of medical team, spiritual issues and beliefs reduced anxiety and fear of surgery. Anesthesia and lack of knowledge of what will happen, crying and restlessness of children increased preoperative anxiety.

Conclusions: In this study, the preoperative anxiety was reduced by explaining anesthesia and surgery to the mothers and children (in mothers it was significant P < 0.05). Since there is a direct relation between mothers' and their children's anxiety, using an effective method to reduce anxiety in children and their mothers together at the same time would be very useful for children and their mothers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.25036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603247PMC
August 2015