Publications by authors named "Ali Düzova"

86 Publications

LONG TERM RENAL SURVIVAL OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH LUPUS NEPHRITIS.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more severe than adult-onset disease, including more frequent kidney involvement. This study aimed to investigate baseline clinical features, treatment modalities, short- and long-term renal outcomes of pediatric patients with lupus nephritis (LN).

Materials And Methods: This study enrolled 53 LN patients out of 102 childhood-onset SLE patients followed at Hacettepe University between 2000-2020. The demographic and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively from the medical charts and electronic records. All SLE patients with renal involvement underwent renal biopsy either at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up.

Results: The median age at onset of SLE was 13.3 (IQR : 10.4-15.8) years. The median follow-up duration was 43.1 (IQR : 24.3-69.3) months. Of the 102 SLE patients, 53 patients (52%) had lupus nephritis (LN). The most frequent histopathological class was class IV LN (54.7%), followed by class III LN (22.6%). The proportion of patients who achieved either complete or partial remission were 77.3% and 73% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. In the overall LN cohort, 5- and 10-year renal survival rates were 92% and 85.7%, respectively. The remission rate at 6th month was significantly higher in Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and Cyclophosphamide (CYC) treated groups than other combination therapies (p = 0.02). Although no difference was found between the CYC and MMF response rates (p = 0.57), in the proliferative LN (Class III and IV), the vast majority of class IV patients (%79) received CYC as induction threapy. There was no difference between the response rates in any treatment regimens at 12th month (p = 0.56). In the multivariate analysis; male gender, requiring dialysis at the time of LN diagnosis, failure to achieve remission at 6th and at 12 th months were found to be associated with poor renal outcome.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that male gender, failure to achieve remission at 6th and at 12 th months, and requiring dialysis at the time of diagnosis were the best predictors of poor renal outcome. Therefore, appropriate and agressive management of pediatric LN is essential to achieve and maintain remisson.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab152DOI Listing
April 2021

Hemodiafiltration maintains a sustained improvement in blood pressure compared to conventional hemodialysis in children-the HDF, heart and height (3H) study.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

University College London Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Background: Hypertension is prevalent in children on dialysis and associated with cardiovascular disease. We studied the blood pressure (BP) trends and the evolution of BP over 1 year in children on conventional hemodialysis (HD) vs. hemodiafiltration (HDF).

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the "3H - HDF-Hearts-Height" dataset, a multicenter, parallel-arm observational study. Seventy-eight children on HD and 55 on HDF who had three 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) measures over 1 year were included. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated and hypertension defined as 24-h MAP standard deviation score (SDS) ≥95th percentile.

Results: Poor agreement between pre-dialysis systolic BP-SDS and 24-h MAP was found (mean difference - 0.6; 95% limits of agreement -4.9-3.8). At baseline, 82% on HD and 44% on HDF were hypertensive, with uncontrolled hypertension in 88% vs. 25% respectively; p < 0.001. At 12 months, children on HDF had consistently lower MAP-SDS compared to those on HD (p < 0.001). Over 1-year follow-up, the HD group had mean MAP-SDS increase of +0.98 (95%CI 0.77-1.20; p < 0.0001), whereas the HDF group had a non-significant increase of +0.15 (95%CI -0.10-0.40; p = 0.23). Significant predictors of MAP-SDS were dialysis modality (β = +0.83 [95%CI +0.51 - +1.15] HD vs. HDF, p < 0.0001) and higher inter-dialytic-weight-gain (IDWG)% (β = 0.13 [95%CI 0.06-0.19]; p = 0.0003).

Conclusions: Children on HD had a significant and sustained increase in BP over 1 year compared to a stable BP in those on HDF, despite an equivalent dialysis dose. Higher IDWG% was associated with higher 24-h MAP-SDS in both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-04930-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Self-management program for adolescents with chronic kidney disease: A randomized controlled trial.

J Ren Care 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, İhsan Doğramacı Children Hospital, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: It is important to develop self-management behaviours in adolescents to prevent chronic kidney disease progression.

Objectives: This study evaluates the effect of a self-management program that was developed based on individual and family self-management theory to aid adolescents with chronic kidney disease in the acquisition of competencies in the management of their disease.

Design: This is a randomized controlled study.

Participants: The study was conducted with 20 intervention and 20 control patients, who were treated at two hospitals in Ankara between December 2018 and May 2019.

Measurements: Self-Management Assessment Form, Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory-Adolescent Form and clinical parameters. A training program, specific to chronic kidney disease, was administered over three sessions in a group training setting when the patients came to the clinic for follow-up. After the training program was completed, the patients were monitored for three months through home visits once every two weeks, totalling six visits.

Results: Following the application of self-management training, a statistically significant difference was found self-management knowledge and behaviours, quality of life and anxiety mean scores of intervention and control group (p <.05), a significant decrease in only blood urea nitrogen among the clinical parameters when compared to the control group.

Conclusions: In this study, a self-management training program was developed based on Individual and Family Self-Management Theory, aiming to have a positive effect on the self-management behaviours of adolescents in the cognitive and psychosocial domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jorc.12357DOI Listing
December 2020

Determinants of outcomes in chronic pediatric peritoneal dialysis: a single center experience.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(6):940-948

Deparments of Pediatric Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: In situations where it may take a long time to perform renal transplantation peritoneal dialysis may become a long-term maintenance treatment, especially in countries with low donor rates. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate peritonitis, catheter revision and survival rates in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD); and to define related factors in a single tertiary center from a WHO upper middle income country.

Methods: Between January 1998 and September 2018, data of pediatric patients receiving CPD with a followup longer than 3 months were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic, clinical and catheter-related data were collected. Patients were grouped as being operated before/after 2009 in order to evaluate the effects of 2 different periods on outcomes.

Results: A total of 229 catheters in 132 patients were included in the study. The female to male ratio was 60/72. The mean age at the time of dialysis was 8.9 ± 5.5 years. The median follow-up period was 22.5 months (IQR 8.25-50; range 3-139). Peritonitis incidence in 1998-2008 and 2009-2018 periods was 0.13 episodes/patient-year and 0.09 episodes/ patient-year, respectively. The overall revision rate was 1 per 46.7 patient-months. Peritonitis history was the only independent risk factor for access revision (p=0.003). Peritoneal dialysis failure was observed in 25% (33/132) of patients. The need for catheter revision due to any cause, the presence of peritonitis, history of HD and infancy were independent risk factors for PD failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.2%(20/132). Having a history of temporary PD catheter placement and being infant were independent risk factors for mortality.

Conclusions: Access revision is still an important complication leading to PD failure despite the development of surgical techniques. Peritonitis is the most important cause of access revision and PD failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.06.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Serum indoxyl sulfate concentrations associate with progression of chronic kidney disease in children.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(10):e0240446. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

The uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a consequence of altered gut microbiota metabolism and a decline in renal excretion. Despite of solid experimental evidence for nephrotoxic effects, the impact of uremic toxins on the progression of CKD has not been investigated in representative patient cohorts. In this analysis, IS and pCS serum concentrations were measured in 604 pediatric participants (mean eGFR of 27 ± 11 ml/min/1.73m2) at enrolment into the prospective Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study. Associations with progression of CKD were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazard models. During a median follow up time of 2.2 years (IQR 4.3-0.8 years), the composite renal survival endpoint, defined as 50% loss of eGFR, or eGFR <10ml/min/1.73m2 or start of renal replacement therapy, was reached by 360 patients (60%). Median survival time was shorter in patients with IS and pCS levels in the highest versus lowest quartile for both IS (1.5 years, 95%CI [1.1,2.0] versus 6.0 years, 95%CI [5.0,8.4]) and pCS (1.8 years, 95%CI [1.5,2.8] versus 4.4 years, 95%CI [3.4,6.0]). Multivariable Cox regression disclosed a significant association of IS, but not pCS, with renal survival, which was independent of other risk factors including baseline eGFR, proteinuria and blood pressure. In this exploratory analysis we provide the first data showing a significant association of IS, but not pCS serum concentrations with the progression of CKD in children, independent of other known risk factors. In the absence of comorbidities, which interfere with serum levels of uremic toxins, such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome, these results highlight the important role of uremic toxins and accentuate the unmet need of effective elimination strategies to lower the uremic toxin burden and abate progression of CKD.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240446PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591021PMC
December 2020

Clinical characteristics of children with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract and predictive factors of chronic kidney disease.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(5):746-755

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood. Determining the clinical course, outcome, and prognostic factors of this heterogeneous disease group is important to provide appropriate management and follow-up. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors of CKD in CAKUT and the differences in clinical courses between disease subgroups.

Methods: Three hundred patients (M/F: 203/97) divided into 16 CAKUT categories were enrolled in the study. Logistic regression and survival analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for CKD that is defined as estimated GFR (eGFR) lower than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 for at least 6 months.

Results: The median age of the study population at the time of the diagnosis was 0.6 years (IQR; 0.1-4.0 years). Among available prenatal diagnoses (n= 138), hydronephrosis (HN) (n= 83; 60.1%) and multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) (n= 39; 28.2%) were the most frequently encountered ones. A total of 24 patients had CKD, and 13 of them (54.1%) progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with posterior urethral valve (PUV) had CKD and ESRD more frequently when compared to the other diagnostic groups (p < 0.001 for CKD, and p < 0.001 for ESRD). Furthermore, the PUV subgroup progressed to ESRD (median 3.63 years) earlier than the other subgroups. The diagnosis of PUV, proteinuria on the first admission, vesicoureteral reflux, and oligohydramnios were identified as independent predictors for CKD in the multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Conclusions: Knowing predictive factors for CKD in patients with CAKUT is valuable for physicians in order to determine appropriate treatment strategies and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.05.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Predictors for the use of herbal and dietary supplements in children and adolescents with kidney and urinary tract diseases.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Jan 6;180(1):253-262. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Complementary and alternative medicine are treatments administered alone or in combination with conventional medical treatments. Data on complementary and alternative medicine use in children with kidney and urinary tract diseases are limited. In this cross-sectional study, the frequency and preferred methods of complementary and alternative medicine use and factors associated with their use were evaluated in 201 patients (48% female; median age, 11 years; median disease duration, 5.1 years) with kidney and urinary tract diseases and 260 healthy (without chronic disease) controls. Data were collected through a questionnaire-based interview and patients' medical records. Herbal and dietary supplements, including fish oil, were the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine agents in both groups. There was no difference in herbal and dietary supplement use between the groups when fish oil was excluded (29% vs. 28%; p = 0.88). Herbal and dietary supplements were mainly used to improve/mitigate renal disease (52%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that disease duration > 7 years (odds ratio (OR), 3.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-9.20), current use of six or more drugs (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.28-24.41), and recurrent urinary tract infection or nephrolithiasis (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.02-15.09) were the independent risk factors for herbal and dietary supplement use, except fish oil. Middle socioeconomic status was associated with decreased herbal and dietary supplement use, except fish oil, compared with low socioeconomic status (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.81). Herbal and dietary supplements were used by 78% patients, despite knowing that these products could have side effects; only 42% of the patients shared the information about herbal and dietary supplement use with their doctors.Conclusion: Herbal and dietary supplement use is frequent in children with kidney and urinary tract diseases. Educating health professionals regarding such use is mandatory for developing strategies to prevent critical consequences. What is Known: • Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practices are therapeutic approaches that do not have sufficient efficacy and safety evidence. • CAM is widely used in healthy children and in certain chronic diseases. What is New: • Herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) were the most commonly used method in kidney and urinary tract diseases. • Duration of disease, number of drugs, and socioeconomic status are determinants of HDS use except fish oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03757-7DOI Listing
January 2021

COL4A3 mutation is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in children with Alport syndrome.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 10 11;35(10):1941-1952. Epub 2020 May 11.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, 06230, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited glomerular disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Associations between clinical manifestations and genotype are not yet well defined. Our study aimed to define clinical and genetic characteristics, establish genotype-phenotype correlations, and determine prognosis of AS in children.

Methods: A total of 87 children with AS from 10 pediatric nephrology centers, whom had genetic analyses performed at the Hacettepe University Nephrogenetics Laboratory between February 2017 and February 2019, were included. Data regarding demographics, family history, clinical and laboratory characteristics, histopathological and genetic test results, treatments, and yearly follow-up results were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Of 87 patients, 16% presented with nephrotic syndrome. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, kidney biopsy findings showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in 79%, and COL4A3 mutations were the leading genetic abnormality (50%). Twenty-four percent of all patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The rate of progression to CKD and the decline in the glomerular filtration rate of the patients with COL4A3 mutation were higher than other mutation groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). In kidney survival analysis, nephrotic syndrome presentation, histopathology of FSGS, COL4A3 mutations, and autosomal recessive inheritance were found as independent risk factors for earlier progression to CKD. Cyclosporin A treatment did not improve kidney survival.

Conclusions: We emphasize that genetic testing is important for patients suspected as having AS. Furthermore, COL4A mutations should be considered in patients with FSGS and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. This approach will shed light on the prognosis of patients and help with definitive diagnosis, preventing unnecessary and potentially harmful medications. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04574-8DOI Listing
October 2020

Discontinuation of RAAS Inhibition in Children with Advanced CKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 05 6;15(5):625-632. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Although renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition (RAASi) is a cornerstone in the treatment of children with CKD, it is sometimes discontinued when kidney function declines. We studied the reasons of RAASi discontinuation and associations between RAASi discontinuation and important risk markers of CKD progression and on eGFR decline in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: In this study, 69 children with CKD (67% male, mean age 13.7 years, mean eGFR 27 ml/min per 1.73 m) who discontinued RAASi during prospective follow-up were included. Initial change in BP, albuminuria, and potassium after discontinuation were assessed (median time 6 months). Rate of eGFR decline (eGFR slope) during a median of 1.9 years before and 1.2 years after discontinuation were estimated using linear mixed effects modeling.

Results: Physician-reported reasons for RAASi discontinuation were increase in serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, and symptomatic hypotension. After discontinuation of RAASi, BP and albuminuria increased, whereas potassium decreased. eGFR declined more rapidly after discontinuation of RAASi (-3.9 ml/min per 1.73 m per year; 95% confidence interval, -5.1 to -2.6) compared with the slope during RAASi treatment (-1.5 ml/min per 1.73 m per year; 95% confidence interval, -2.4 to -0.6; =0.005). In contrast, no change in eGFR slope was observed in a matched control cohort of patients in whom RAASi was continued.

Conclusions: Discontinuation of RAASi in children with CKD is associated with an acceleration of kidney function decline, even in advanced CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.09750819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269205PMC
May 2020

Sex and age as determinants for high blood pressure in pediatric renal transplant recipients: a longitudinal analysis of the CERTAIN Registry.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 03 7;35(3):415-426. Epub 2019 Dec 7.

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: High prevalence of arterial hypertension is known in pediatric renal transplant patients, but how blood pressure (BP) distribution and control differ between age groups and whether sex and age interact and potentially impact BP after transplantation have not been investigated.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included 336 pediatric renal transplant recipients (62% males) from the Cooperative European Pediatric Renal Transplant Initiative Registry (CERTAIN) with complete BP measurement at discharge and 1, 2 and 3 years post-transplant.

Results: At discharge and 3 years post-transplant, arterial hypertension was highly prevalent (84% and 77%); antihypertensive drugs were used in 73% and 68% of the patients. 27% suffered from uncontrolled and 9% from untreated hypertension at 3 years post-transplant. Children transplanted at age < 5 years showed sustained high systolic BP z-score and received consistently less antihypertensive treatment over time. Younger age, shorter time since transplantation, male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), high cyclosporine A (CSA) trough levels, and a primary renal disease other than congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) were significantly associated with higher systolic BP z-score. Sex-stratified analysis revealed a significant association between high CSA and higher systolic BP in older girls that likely had started puberty already. An association between BP and estimated glomerular filtration rate was not detected.

Conclusions: BP control during the first 3 years was poor in this large European cohort. The description of age- and sex-specific risk profiles identified certain recipient groups that may benefit from more frequent BP monitoring (i.e. young children) or different choices of immunosuppression (i.e. older girls).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04395-4DOI Listing
March 2020

A rare cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in a child: Answers.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 Apr 6;35(4):621-623. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Ümraniye Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04385-6DOI Listing
April 2020

A rare cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in a child: Questions.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 Apr 6;35(4):619-620. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Ümraniye Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04381-wDOI Listing
April 2020

Surgical management of renovascular hypertension in children and young adults: a 13-year experience.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2019 11;29(5):746-752

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the early and mid-term outcomes of surgery for renovascular hypertension (RVH) at our institution, within the last 13 years.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients who underwent surgery for RVH, between 2005 and 2017. The age at operation, clinical characteristics, cause of arterial stenosis, diagnostic workup, surgical management and outcomes during the follow-up were analysed. The continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation.

Results: Twelve female and 7 male patients underwent surgery for RVH. Their mean age was 17.07 ± 11.9 years (range 4-42 years). Nine patients had renal arterial stenosis, and 10 patients had midaortic syndrome (MAS). Aortorenal bypass with the saphenous vein was performed in 6 patients with renal arterial stenosis and 1 patient with MAS. An isolated thoracic aorta-abdominal aortic bypass was performed in 1 patient with MAS, and thoracic aorta-abdominal aortic bypass combined with unilateral aortarenal bypass was performed in 9 patients with MAS. The other surgical procedures performed were 2 autotransplantations and 2 unilateral nephrectomies. Among the patients with MAS, 4 underwent reoperation. The mean follow-up duration was 45.58 ± 32.7 months. Hypertension was cured in 3 patients and improved in 14 patients. The postoperative follow-up creatinine levels were similar to preoperative creatinine levels. All bypasses were patent on mid-term follow-up. One patient who underwent aortorenal bypass died 14 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: Surgical management is a suitable option for patients with RVH, who were unresponsive to medical and/or endovascular management. Surgical methods are safe and effective in children and young adults with RVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivz157DOI Listing
November 2019

BK virus associated nephropathy and severe pneumonia in a kidney transplanted adolescent with Schimke immuneosseous- dysplasia.

Turk J Pediatr 2019;61(1):111-116

Department of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Düzova A, Gülhan B, Topaloğlu R, Özaltın F, Cengiz AB, Yetimakman AF, Doğru D, Güçer Ş, Beşbaş N. BK virus associated nephropathy and severe pneumonia in a kidney transplanted adolescent with Schimke immune-osseous-dysplasia. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 111-116. Patients with juvenile onset Schimke immune-osseous-dysplasia (SIOD) have less severe symptoms and can survive in the second and third decade of life. We present an 18 year-old adolescent with juvenile onset SIOD who was diagnosed after renal transplantation and developed BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and severe pneumonia during follow-up. The patient developed nephrotic syndrome, unresponsive to immunosuppressives, at the age of 8 years. He had a history of meningitis, short stature, microcephaly, prominent ears, and bilateral cryptorchidism. A renal transplantation was performed at the age of 15 years. During follow-up, he suffered from leucopenia, urinary tract infections, herpes labialis, and candida esophagitis. Sanger sequencing of SMARCAL1 revealed a missense mutation on exon 11 (R586W). A renal biopsy performed after a sharp increase in serum creatinine (without significant viremia) revealed BKVAN which responded to sirolimus monotherapy and cidofovir. Three months later, he suffered from productive cough and dyspnea with diffuse ground glass pulmonary infiltrates. His clinical situation deteriorated and non-invasive mechanical ventilation was started. Cidofovir (2 mg/kg) was re-started weekly for a possible BKV pneumonia with intravenous immunoglobulin. After 5 doses of cidofovir and intense antibiotic regime, his dyspnea resolved with stable graft functions. In our case; BKVAN, which developed without significant viremia, and possibly associated pneumonia were treated successfully with cidofovir and sirolimus monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2019.01.018DOI Listing
January 2020

CD80 expression and infiltrating regulatory T cells in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood.

Pediatr Int 2019 Dec 2;61(12):1250-1256. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: CD80 (also known as B7-1) is a co-stimulatory molecule that is expressed in biopsies and also excreted in urine in patients with minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). CD80 is inhibited by the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated-antigen 4 (CTLA4), which is mainly expressed on regulatory T cells (Tregs). Ineffective circulating Treg response is involved in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. In this study, we evaluated CD80 expression and infiltrating Tregs in children with MCD and FSGS.

Methods: Evaluation of CD80 expression and semi-quantitative evaluation of Tregs (FOXP3-positive CD4 T cells) were carried out in 31 kidney biopsies (12 MCD, 19 FSGS) with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry staining.

Results: All MCD sections were stained negative; whereas six out of 19 FSGS sections (all from steroid-resistant (SR) patients), including one from a Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) mutation-positive FSGS patient, stained positive for anti-CD80 goat antibody, and negative for anti-CD80 rabbit antibody. FSGS biopsy specimens had significantly higher FOXP3-positive cells/mm compared with MCD and control samples (P < 0.001). Biopsy samples from SR-FSGS patients (n = 12) with positive CD80 staining (n = 6) had significantly less Tregs (FOXP3-positive CD4 T cells) compared with CD80 (-) biopsies (n = 6; P = 0.004).

Conclusion: CD80 expression was not detected in the majority of the archival biopsy sections and the results were not consistent across the different antibodies. In the SR-FSGS sections, however, CD80-positive biopsies had decreased FOXP3-positive CD4 T cells, suggesting that a decreased anti-inflammatory milieu may be the cause of increased CD80 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14005DOI Listing
December 2019

Indoxyl sulfate associates with cardiovascular phenotype in children with chronic kidney disease.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 12 19;34(12):2571-2582. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Children's Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins increase with deterioration of kidney function and are associated with cardiac comorbidities in adult CKD patients.

Methods: Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in serum of children participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) Study. Results were correlated with measurements of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children aged 6-17 years with initial eGFR of 10-60 ml/min per 1.73 m.

Results: The median serum levels of total IS and of pCS, measured in 609 patients, were 5.3 μmol/l (8.7) and 17.0 μmol/l (21.6), respectively. In a multivariable regression model, IS and pCS showed significant positive associations with urea and negative associations with eGFR and uric acid. Furthermore, positive associations of pCS with age, serum albumin, and non-Mediterranean residency and a negative association with glomerular disease were observed. By multivariable regression analysis, only IS was significantly associated with a higher cIMT SDS at baseline and progression of PWV SDS within 12 months, independent of other risk factors.

Conclusions: Serum levels of gut-derived uremic toxins IS and pCS correlated inversely with eGFR in children. Only IS was significantly associated with surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease in this large pediatric CKD cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-019-04331-6DOI Listing
December 2019

Rituximab for Children With Difficult-to-Treat Nephrotic Syndrome: Its Effects on Disease Progression and Growth.

Front Pediatr 2019 30;7:313. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Since the early 2000s rituximab (RTX) has been thought of as an alternative treatment for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). This study aimed to determine the effects of RTX treatment on disease outcome and growth in pediatric SSNS and SRNS patients. The medical records of pediatric SSNS and SRNS patients that began RTX treatment at the mean age of 10.8 ± 5.1 years between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Additionally, the effect of RTX on growth was evaluated based on patient height, weight, and BMI z scores. The study included 41 children, of which 21 had SSNS and 20 had SRNS. Mean age at diagnosis of NS was 5.8 ± 4.7 years. Mean duration of post-RTX treatment follow-up was 2.3 ± 1.6 years. Among the SSNS patients, 6 and 11 patients were steroid free and calcineurin inhibitor free at the last follow-up visit, respectively. The 1-year cumulative steroid and calcineurin inhibitor doses both decreased after RTX treatment, as compared to before RTX ( = 0.001 and = 0.015, respectively). The median height -score at the time of RTX initiation was -1.2 and the median height -score at the last follow-up visit was -0.6 ( = 0.044). The median BMI -score decreased from 1.6 (IQR; 0.9-3.0) at the time RTX was initiated to 1.1 IQR; [(-0.7)-2.5] at the last follow-up visit ( = 0.007). At the last follow-up visit 4 SRNS patients had complete remission and 4 had partial remission. The 1-year cumulative steroid dosage in the SRNS patients decreased significantly after RTX, as compared to before RTX ( = 0.001). The median height -score at the time of RTX initiation was -0.8 and the median height -score at the last follow-up visit was -0.7 ( = 0.81). The median BMI -score decreased from 0.3 at the time RTX was initiated to -0.1 at the last follow-up visit ( = 0.11). RTX has a more positive effect on disease outcome and growth in SSNS patients than in those with SRNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6682627PMC
July 2019

Isolated nocturnal and isolated daytime hypertension associate with altered cardiovascular morphology and function in children with chronic kidney disease: findings from the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease study.

J Hypertens 2019 11;37(11):2247-2255

Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Prevalence of isolated nocturnal hypertension (INH) and isolated daytime hypertension (IDH) is around 10% in adults. Data in children, especially in chronic kidney disease (CKD), are lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional multicenter cohort study was to define the prevalence of INH and IDH and its association with cardiovascular morphology and function, that is, pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), or left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in children with CKD.

Methods: Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring profiles were analyzed in 456 children with CKD stages III-V participating in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Study (64.3% males, 71.3% congenital anomaly of the kidney and urinary tract, age 12.5 ± 3.2 years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 29 ± 12 ml/min per 1.73 m). Baseline PWV, cIMT, and LVMI were compared in normotension, INH, IDH, or sustained 24-h hypertension.

Results: Prevalence of sustained hypertension was 18.4%, of INH 13.4%, and of IDH 3.7%. PWV SDS (SD score) and cIMT SDS were significantly higher in sustained hypertension and INH, and PWV SDS was significantly higher in IDH, compared with normotension. LVMI was significantly increased in sustained hypertension, but not in INH or IDH. Determinants of INH were smallness for gestational age, older age, higher height SDS and parathyroid hormone, and shorter duration of CKD. In logistic regression analysis, day/night-time hypertension or ambulatory BP monitoring pattern (normal, INH, IDH, sustained hypertension) were independently associated with cardiovascular outcome measures: elevated night-time BP was associated with increased cIMT, PWV, and left ventricular hypertrophy; INH was associated with cIMT.

Conclusion: INH is present in almost one out of seven children with predialysis CKD; INH and nocturnal hypertension in general are associated with alterations of arterial morphology and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002160DOI Listing
November 2019

Effects of Hemodiafiltration versus Conventional Hemodialysis in Children with ESKD: The HDF, Heart and Height Study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 04 7;30(4):678-691. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nephrology Unit, Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Hypertension and cardiovascular disease are common in children undergoing dialysis. Studies suggest that hemodiafiltration (HDF) may reduce cardiovascular mortality in adults, but data for children are scarce.

Methods: The HDF, Heart and Height study is a nonrandomized observational study comparing outcomes on conventional hemodialysis (HD) versus postdilution online HDF in children. Primary outcome measures were annualized changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) SD score and height SD score.

Results: We enrolled 190 children from 28 centers; 78 on HD and 55 on HDF completed 1-year follow-up. The groups were comparable for age, dialysis vintage, access type, dialysis frequency, blood flow, and residual renal function. At 1 year, cIMT SD score increased significantly in children on HD but remained static in the HDF cohort. On propensity score analysis, HD was associated with a +0.47 higher annualized cIMT SD score compared with HDF. Height SD score increased in HDF but remained static in HD. Mean arterial pressure SD score increased with HD only. Factors associated with higher cIMT and mean arterial pressure SD-scores were HD group, higher ultrafiltration rate, and higher 2-microglobulin. The HDF cohort had lower 2-microglobulin, parathyroid hormone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at 1 year; fewer headaches, dizziness, or cramps; and shorter postdialysis recovery time.

Conclusions: HDF is associated with a lack of progression in vascular measures versus progression with HD, as well as an increase in height not seen in the HD cohort. Patient-related outcomes improved among children on HDF correlating with improved BP control and clearances. Confirmation through randomized trials is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018100990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442347PMC
April 2019

Clinical and histopathological prognostic factors affecting the renal outcomes in childhood ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Pediatr Nephrol 2019 05 4;34(5):847-854. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) are very rare in childhood with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate renal prognostic factors in childhood AAV from the perspective of ANCA serotype, histopathological classification, and five-factor score (FFS).

Methods: Pediatric AAV patients from 11 referral centers in Turkey had been included to the study. The demographics, clinical findings, AAV subtypes, outcomes, and FFS were evaluated retrospectively. Kidney biopsies were classified histopathologically.

Results: Totally, 39 patients were enrolled in the study. Among all patients, 74.4% had renal involvement, 56.4% ear-throat-nose involvement, and 51.3% had musculoskeletal involvement. Proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA was positive in 48.7%, and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA was positive in 30.8%. 69.2% of patients had impaired renal function, and 28.2% had progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during the follow-up. At the time of diagnosis, FFS was ≥ 2 in 53.8%. The most common histopathologic classifications were as follows: crescentic type in 40.7% and sclerotic type in 25.9%. Gastrointestinal and renal involvement, MPO-ANCA positivity, serum creatinine levels, and impaired renal function during the follow-up were significantly higher in patients with FFS ≥ 2, compared to patients with FFS < 2. Patients with FFS ≥ 2 had more common crescentic, mixed and sclerotic histopathologic findings in biopsies. By logistic regression analysis forward method, the strongest single-risk factor among all the parameters was the initial level of creatinine in patients with ESRD, compared to the other patients (p = 0,007).

Conclusions: Evaluation of the FFS, ANCA serology, and the creatinine levels may help to predict renal prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-018-4162-5DOI Listing
May 2019

Response to Early Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Is not Sustained in CoQ10 Deficiency Caused by CoQ2 Mutation.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 11 27;88:71-74. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: COQ2 mutations cause a rare infantile multisystemic disease with heterogeneous clinical features. Promising results have been reported in response to Coenzyme Q10 treatment, especially for kidney involvement, but little is known about the long-term outcomes.

Methods: We report four new patients from two families with the c.437G→A (p.Ser146Asn) mutation in COQ2 and the outcomes of two patients after long-term coenzyme Q10 treatment.

Results: Index cases from two families presented with vomiting, nephrotic range proteinuria, and diabetes in early infancy. These patients were diagnosed with coenzyme Q10 deficiency and died shortly after diagnosis. Siblings of the index cases later presented with neonatal diabetes and proteinuria and were diagnosed at the first day of life. Coenzyme Q10 treatment was started immediately. The siblings responded dramatically to coenzyme Q10 treatment with normalized glucose and proteinuria levels, but they developed refractory focal clonic seizures beginning at three months of life that progressed to encephalopathy.

Conclusions: In our cohort with CoQ10 deficiency, neurological involvement did not improve with oral coenzyme Q10 treatment despite the initial recovery from the diabetes and nephrotic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.07.008DOI Listing
November 2018

Recovery of Kidney Function in Children Treated with Maintenance Dialysis.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 10 20;13(10):1510-1516. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/ European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry, Department of Medical Informatics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Data on recovery of kidney function in pediatric patients with presumed ESKD are scarce. We examined the occurrence of recovery of kidney function and its determinants in a large cohort of pediatric patients on maintenance dialysis in Europe.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Data for 6574 patients from 36 European countries commencing dialysis at an age below 15 years, between 1990 and 2014 were extracted from the European Society for Pediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry. Recovery of kidney function was defined as discontinuation of dialysis for at least 30 days. Time to recovery was studied using a cumulative incidence competing risk approach and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Two years after dialysis initiation, 130 patients (2%) experienced recovery of their kidney function after a median of 5.0 (interquartile range, 2.0-9.6) months on dialysis. Compared with patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, recovery more often occurred in patients with vasculitis (11% at 2 years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 20.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 9.7 to 42.8), ischemic kidney failure (12%; adjusted HR, 11.4; 95% CI, 5.6 to 23.1), and hemolytic uremic syndrome (13%; adjusted HR, 15.6; 95% CI, 8.9 to 27.3). Younger age and initiation on hemodialysis instead of peritoneal dialysis were also associated with recovery. For 42 patients (32%), recovery was transient as they returned to kidney replacement therapy after a median recovery period of 19.7 (interquartile range, 9.0-41.3) months.

Conclusions: We demonstrate a recovery rate of 2% within 2 years after dialysis initiation in a large cohort of pediatric patients on maintenance dialysis. There is a clinically important chance of recovery in patients on dialysis with vasculitis, ischemic kidney failure, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which should be considered when planning kidney transplantation in these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01500218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218837PMC
October 2018

Management of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome: challenging treatment paradigms.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2019 08;34(8):1369-1377

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Management of children with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS) is challenging. Bilateral nephrectomies followed by dialysis and transplantation are practiced in most centres, but conservative treatment may also be effective.

Methods: We conducted a 6-year review across members of the European Society for Paediatric Nephrology Dialysis Working Group to compare management strategies and their outcomes in children with CNS.

Results: Eighty children (50% male) across 17 tertiary nephrology units in Europe were included (mutations in NPHS1, n = 55; NPHS2, n = 1; WT1, n = 9; others, n = 15). Excluding patients with mutations in WT1, antiproteinuric treatment was given in 42 (59%) with an increase in S-albumin in 70% by median 6 (interquartile range: 3-8) g/L (P < 0.001). Following unilateral nephrectomy, S-albumin increased by 4 (1-8) g/L (P = 0.03) with a reduction in albumin infusion dose by 5 (2-9) g/kg/week (P = 0.02). Median age at bilateral nephrectomies (n = 29) was 9 (7-16) months. Outcomes were compared between two groups of NPHS1 patients: those who underwent bilateral nephrectomies (n = 25) versus those on conservative management (n = 17). The number of septic or thrombotic episodes and growth were comparable between the groups. The response to antiproteinuric treatment, as well as renal and patient survival, was independent of NPHS1 mutation type. At final follow-up (median age 34 months) 20 (80%) children in the nephrectomy group were transplanted and 1 died. In the conservative group, 9 (53%) remained without dialysis, 4 (24%; P < 0.001) were transplanted and 2 died.

Conclusion: An individualized, stepwise approach with prolonged conservative management may be a reasonable alternative to early bilateral nephrectomies and dialysis in children with CNS and NPHS1 mutations. Further prospective studies are needed to define indications for unilateral nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy165DOI Listing
August 2019

Effect of haemodiafiltration vs conventional haemodialysis on growth and cardiovascular outcomes in children - the HDF, heart and height (3H) study.

BMC Nephrol 2018 08 10;19(1):199. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in children on dialysis and accounts for almost 30% of all deaths. Randomised trials in adults suggest that haemodiafiltration (HDF) with high convection volumes is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to high-flux haemodialysis (HD); however paediatric data are scarce. We designed the haemodiafiltration, heart and height (3H) study to test the hypothesis that children on HDF have an improved cardiovascular risk profile, growth and nutritional status and quality of life, compared to those on conventional HD. We performed a non-randomised parallel-arm intervention study within the International Paediatric Haemodialysis Network Registry comparing children on HDF and conventional HD to determine annualised change in cardiovascular end-points and growth. Here we present the 3H study design and baseline characteristics of the study population.

Methods: 190 children were screened and 177 (106 on HD and 71 on HDF) recruited from 28 centres in 10 countries. There was no difference in age, underlying diagnosis, comorbidities, previous dialysis therapy, dialysis vintage, residual renal function, type of vascular access or blood flow between HD and HDF groups. High flux dialysers were used in 63% of HD patients and ultra-pure water was available in 52%. HDF patients achieved a median convection volume of 13.3 L/m; this was associated with the blood flow rate only ((p = 0.0004, r = 0.42) and independent of access type (p = 0.38).

Discussion: This is the largest study on dialysis outcomes in children that involves deep phenotyping across a wide range of cardiovascular, anthropometric, nutritional and health-related quality of life measures, to test the hypothesis that HDF leads to improved cardiovascular and growth outcomes compared to conventional HD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02063776 . The trial was prospectively registered on the 14 Feb 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-018-0998-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086045PMC
August 2018

Risk Factors for Early Dialysis Dependency in Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease.

J Pediatr 2018 08 9;199:22-28.e6. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Center for Molecular Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors for dialysis within the first year of life in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) as a basis for parental counseling after prenatal and perinatal diagnosis.

Study Design: A dataset comprising 385 patients from the ARegPKD international registry study was analyzed for potential risk markers for dialysis during the first year of life.

Results: Thirty-six out of 385 children (9.4%) commenced dialysis in the first year of life. According to multivariable Cox regression analysis, the presence of oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, prenatal kidney enlargement, a low Apgar score, and the need for postnatal breathing support were independently associated with an increased hazard ratio for requiring dialysis within the first year of life. The increased risk associated with Apgar score and perinatal assisted breathing was time-dependent and vanished after 5 and 8 months of life, respectively. The predicted probabilities for early dialysis varied from 1.5% (95% CI, 0.5%-4.1%) for patients with ARPKD with no prenatal sonographic abnormalities to 32.3% (95% CI, 22.2%-44.5%) in cases of documented oligohydramnios or anhydramnios, renal cysts, and enlarged kidneys.

Conclusions: This study, which identified risk factors associated with onset of dialysis in ARPKD in the first year of life, may be helpful in prenatal parental counseling in cases of suspected ARPKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.03.052DOI Listing
August 2018

Prevalence of Hypertension in Children with Early-Stage ADPKD.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 06 19;13(6):874-883. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatric Subspecialties, and

Background And Objectives: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common inheritable kidney disease, frequently thought to become symptomatic in adulthood. However, patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may develop signs or symptoms during childhood, in particular hypertension. Although ambulatory BP monitoring is the preferred method to diagnose hypertension in pediatrics, data in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are limited.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Our retrospective multicenter study was conducted to collect ambulatory BP monitoring recordings from patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease age <18 years old. Basic anthropometric parameters as well as data on kidney function, BP treatment, and kidney ultrasound were also collected.

Results: Data from 310 children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease with a mean age of 11.5±4.1 years old were collected at 22 European centers. At the time when ambulatory BP monitoring was performed, 95% of children had normal kidney function. Reference data for ambulatory BP monitoring were available for 292 patients. The prevalence rates of children with hypertension and/or those who were treated with antihypertensive drugs were 31%, 42%, and 35% during daytime, nighttime, or the entire 24-hour cycle, respectively. In addition, 52% of participants lacked a physiologic nocturnal BP dipping, and 18% had isolated nocturnal hypertension. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between a categorical cyst score that was calculated on the basis of the number of cysts >1 cm per kidney and daytime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.4; =0.002), nighttime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.63; =0.02), or 24-hour hypertension (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.81; =0.01). Kidney length, expressed as SD score, was also significantly associated with nighttime hypertension (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.42; =0.10).

Conclusions: These data indicate high prevalence of hypertension in children with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease starting at young ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.11401017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5989684PMC
June 2018

Effects of nutritional vitamin D supplementation on markers of bone and mineral metabolism in children with chronic kidney disease.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018 12;33(12):2208-2217

Department of Pediatric Kidney, Liver and Metabolic Diseases, Hannover Medical School Children's Hospital, Hannover, Germany.

Background: We investigated the effects of nutritional vitamin D supplementation on markers of bone and mineral metabolism, i.e. serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), Klotho, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and sclerostin, in two cohorts with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods: In all, 80 vitamin D-deficient children were selected: 40 with mild to moderate CKD from the ERGO study, a randomized trial of ergocalciferol supplementation [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 55 mL/min/1.73 m2], and 40 with advanced CKD from the observational Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) study (eGFR 24 mL/min/1.73 m2). In each study, vitamin D supplementation was started in 20 children and 20 matched children not receiving vitamin D served as controls. Measures were taken at baseline and after a median period of 8 months. Age- and gender-related standard deviation scores (SDSs) were calculated.

Results: Before vitamin D supplementation, children in the ERGO study had normal FGF23 (median 0.31 SDS) and BAP (-0.10 SDS) but decreased Klotho and sclerostin (-0.77 and -1.04 SDS, respectively), whereas 4C patients had increased FGF23 (3.87 SDS), BAP (0.78 SDS) and sclerostin (0.76 SDS) but normal Klotho (-0.27 SDS) levels. Vitamin D supplementation further increased FGF23 in 4C but not in ERGO patients. Serum Klotho and sclerostin normalized with vitamin D supplementation in ERGO but remained unchanged in 4C patients. BAP levels were unchanged in all patients. In the total cohort, significant effects of vitamin D supplementation were noted for Klotho at eGFR 40-70 mL/min/1.73 m2.

Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation normalized Klotho and sclerostin in children with mild to moderate CKD but further increased FGF23 in advanced CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfy012DOI Listing
December 2018

A girl with Henoch Schönlein purpura associated with acute rheumatic fever and review of literature.

Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(5):576-580

Division of Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Aypar E, Demirtaş D, Aykan HH, Kara-Eroğlu F, Düzova A. A girl with Henoch Schönlein purpura associated with acute rheumatic fever and review of literature. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 576-580. Henoch Schönlein purpura (HSP) with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a rare entity and only few cases have been reported so far. In all previously reported cases with HSP and ARF, patients initially presented with purpuric rash, arthralgia/arthritis, or abdominal pain and later diagnosed as ARF. We report an 11-year-old girl with features of both ARF and HSP. She initially presented with arthralgia and murmur. Echocardiography showed mild to moderate mitral regurgitation. Later, the clinical course was complicated by purpuric rash and abdominal pain. She was treated conservatively with IM penicillin, acetylsalicylic acid and oral prednisolone. Our patient is the first patient with HSP and ARF who initially presented with features of ARF. A review of literature revealed a limited number of cases of HSP associated with ARF (14 cases including the present case); and that the response to treatment in cases suffering from ARF associated with HSP was good; but one should also be aware of serious cardiac complications in HSP patients which may be fatal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2018.05.017DOI Listing
June 2019

Early Effects of Renal Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children With End-Stage Kidney Disease: Findings From the 4C-T Study.

Transplantation 2018 03;102(3):484-492

Integrated Research and Treatment Center Transplantation, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: The early impact of renal transplantation on subclinical cardiovascular measures in pediatric patients has not been widely investigated. This analysis is performed for pediatric patients participating in the prospective cardiovascular comorbidity in children with chronic kidney disease study and focuses on the early effects of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality on cardiovascular comorbidity in patients receiving a preemptive transplant or started on dialysis.

Methods: We compared measures indicating subclinical cardiovascular organ damage (aortal pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index) and evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in 166 pediatric patients before and 6 to 18 months after start of RRT (n = 76 transplantation, n = 90 dialysis).

Results: RRT modality had a significant impact on the change in arterial structure and function: compared to dialysis treatment, transplantation was independently associated with decreases in pulse wave velocity (ß = -0.67; P < 0.001) and intima media thickness (ß = -0.40; P = 0.008). Independent of RRT modality, an increase in pulse wave velocity was associated with an increase in diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.31; P < 0.001). Increasing intima media thickness was associated with a larger increase in body mass index (ß = 0.26; P = 0.003) and the use of antihypertensive agents after RRT (ß = 0.41; P = 0.007). Changes in left ventricular mass index were associated with changes in systolic blood pressure (ß = 1.47; P = 0.01).

Conclusions: In comparison with initiating dialysis, preemptive transplantation prevented further deterioration of the subclinical vascular organ damage early after transplantation. Classic cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and obesity are of major importance for the development of cardiovascular organ damage after renal transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001948DOI Listing
March 2018