Publications by authors named "Ali Canbolat"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fully endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal lumbar discectomy: Analysis of 47 complications encountered in a series of 835 patients.

Neurocirugia (Astur) 2017 Sep - Oct;28(5):235-241. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To report perioperative complications in fully endoscopic lumbar discectomy (FELD).

Methods: From September 2010 to November 2016, 835 patients underwent FELD. In total, 865 disc levels were operated on. Of the 835 patients, the transforaminal (TF) approach was used in 174 patients, while 691 patients were operated on using the interlaminar (IL) approach. Surgical complications occurred in 47 patients, which were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Neurological deficits occurred in six patients. In four of these six patients, deficits resolved spontaneously. In one patient, symptoms resolved after a laminectomy procedure. In only one case, the neurological deficit was permanent. Seven patients complained of dysesthesia, which resolved spontaneously with medical treatment in four patients. In the remaining two patients, dysesthesia symptoms improved after epidural and foraminal injections. Dural tears were encountered in 26 patients. Pudendal neuralgia occurred in three patients. Two cases showed wound infection. The other complications comprised one disc infection, one retroperitoneal hematoma and one wrong level surgery.

Conclusion: The FELD procedure has a steep learning curve and it is a difficult procedure to master. Surgeons should be aware of complications that can occur with the FELD procedure, most of which resolve spontaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucir.2017.03.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Fully endoscopic interlaminar and transforaminal lumbar discectomy: short-term clinical results of 163 surgically treated patients.

World Neurosurg 2014 Nov 4;82(5):884-90. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with lumbar disc disease undergoing fully endoscopic surgery at a single clinic.

Methods: Between August 2009 and January 2012, 163 patients (74 men and 89 women) underwent fully endoscopic lumbar discectomy. All patients were followed for 1 year after surgery. The Oswestry Disability Index and a visual analog scale were used to analyze outcomes.

Results: During the follow-up period, 114 (70%) patients had no complaints, 30 (18%) patients had occasional pain, and 19 (12%) patients had no improvement. During postoperative follow-up, 8 patients required repeat surgery for recurrence or residual fragments. Postoperatively, 4 patients experienced dysesthesia, which completely resolved in time. Neurologic deterioration occurred in 5 patients, 4 of whom recovered completely without any intervention. Dural tears occurred in 6 patients.

Conclusions: Fully endoscopic interlaminar or transforaminal surgeries are safe and effective treatment modalities for lumbar disc herniations. Despite the difficulties of acquiring this new technique, good results can be achieved with sufficient experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2014.05.032DOI Listing
November 2014

Unilateral endoscopic optic nerve decompression for idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a series of 10 patients.

World Neurosurg 2014 Nov 2;82(5):745-50. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Several surgical treatment modalities, including lumboperitoneal or ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery, subtemporal decompression, endovascular venous sinus stenting, optic nerve decompression (OND), were used in the management of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Each surgical technique has different advantages and disadvantages. Endoscopic OND is rarely used in the management of IIH. There are only four reported cases. The aim of this study is to describe the surgical results of patients treated with this less invasive surgical technique.

Methods: A series of 10 consecutive cases of unilateral OND was reviewed. Between December 2008 and December 2012 these patients underwent the endoscopic approach without nerve sheath opening. Presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings, magnetic resonance venography imaging results, fundoscopic and visual acuity examination findings, and automated perimetry test results were recorded. Perioperative results, including complications and length of hospital stay, were evaluated. Findings at follow-up evaluations were also recorded.

Results: This report is the first series of unilateral OND performed using the endoscopic approach. The mean patient age was 34.1 years (range, 9-49 years); there were nine female and one male patients. Visual impairment was the main symptom in this patient group, whereas headache was a secondary complaint. The patients were first managed with medical treatment for at least 3 months. Unilateral endoscopic OND was performed on the side with the most visual failure. Mean follow-up was 28.4 months (range, 8-55 months). The visual field defects and visual acuity improved in eight of nine patients, whereas papilloedema improved in seven of nine patients. Also headaches resolved in four of seven patients. There were no complications in this relatively small series.

Conclusions: The surgical treatment of IIH by using the unilateral endoscopic OND technique is a safe and effective method in the hands of experienced surgeons with advanced endoscopic skills. A collaboration with the ophthalmology team is needed for the follow-up. Further studies with larger patient numbers is needed to compare unilateral endoscopic OND technique with the current techniques used in the surgical management of IIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2014.03.045DOI Listing
November 2014

Effects of combined and individual use of N-methyl-D aspartate receptor antagonist magnesium sulphate and caspase-9 inhibitor z-LEDH-fmk in experimental spinal cord injury.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2013 Jul;19(4):313-9

Department of Neurosurgery, İU İstanbul Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background: We investigated the individual and combined effects of magnesium sulphate, which is an N-Methyl-D aspartate receptor antagonist (NMDA), and z-LEHD-FMK, which is a caspase 9 inhibitor, on the genesis of secondary injury in a rat spinal cord injury model. We aimed to minimize the effects of secondary injury in spinal cord trauma by choosing these two agents which served to block the two major mechanisms of cell loss, apoptosis and necrosis.

Methods: The drugs were given to the subjects according to their groups, either in singular or combined fashion. For motor examination, the subjects were kept under close clinical evaluation for five days. Histopathological examination and the emerging spinal cord samples were prepared with haematoxylene-eosin and Tunel techniques.

Results: A statistically significant difference in favor of the treatment groups has been found between the treatment and control groups in terms of histological data. However, there was no difference in the evaluation of motor examination between trauma and treatment groups.

Conclusion: We have found no difference between the individual and combined uses of MgSO4 and z-LEHD-FMK in the prevention of secondary injury; however, there were better histological results in the treatment groups compared to trauma and control groups which gives us hope for future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5505/tjtes.2013.45804DOI Listing
July 2013

Posterior fossa epidural hematomas in children: clinical experience with 40 cases.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2012 Feb;9(2):139-43

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Object: Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematoma (PFEDH) is rare, but among children it may have a slightly higher incidence. With the widespread use of CT scanning, the diagnosis of PFEDH can be established more accurately, leading to an increased incidence of the lesion and possibly to a better patient prognosis. This study presents 40 pediatric cases with PFEDH.

Methods: The authors assessed the type of trauma, clinical findings on admission, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, CT findings (thickness of the hematoma, bone fracture, compression of the fourth ventricle, and ventricle enlargement), type of treatment, clinical course, and prognosis. Early postoperative CT scans (within the first 6 hours) were obtained and reviewed in all surgical cases.

Results: Twenty-nine patients underwent surgery and 11 patients received conservative therapy and close follow-up. All patients fared well, and there was no surgical mortality or morbidity.

Conclusions: Based on the data in this large series, the authors conclude that PFEDH in children can be treated in experienced centers with excellent outcome, and there is no need to avoid surgery when it is indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2011.11.PEDS11177DOI Listing
February 2012

Expression of Ki-67, p53 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concomitantly in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas; which one has a role in tumor behavior ?

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2010 ;31(6):823-8

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: In many pituitary tumor, immunohistochemical studies have been shown to be correlated with different aspects of tumor behavior.There is no study up to date in which markers of Ki-67, p53, VEGF were evaluated concomitantly in GH-secreting adenomas.This study aims to determine which marker has a major role in tumor behavior and whether these markers have a cut-off value to distinguish invasive adenoma from non-invasive pituitary adenoma.

Methods: Fourty-seven acromegalic patients operated by the same neurosurgeon were included in this study.Twenty-one patients(5micro/16 macro) had non-invasive adenomas and 26 had invasive macroadenomas.Eight patients(6 invasive macroadenomas, 2 microadenomas) were treated with OCT-LAR until one month prior to surgery with treatment duration range of 3-11 months.These patients were excluded from the study group as the noninvasive and invasive adenomas were compared.A separate analysis was performed in invasive adenomas to compare OCT(+) and OCT(-)patients.

Results: Both Ki-67 and p53 expressions showed no correlation with the invasive character of adenomas, but VEGF expression in invasive adenomas was significantly higher with respect to noninvasive group.Our study has taken intermediate staining (>25 %)for VEGF as a cut off value for invasive adenomas.It was also observed that the decrease in VEGF staining in OCT pretreated invasive adenomas was significantly more than those not treated with OCT.

Conclusion: VEGF becomes an independent stimulator of angiogenic growth and progression for GH-secreting adenomas with >25% cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.This cut-off value may be useful in determination of prognosis and appropriate treatment strategy.A short term preoperative OCT treatment may be useful as adjunctive therapy especially for locally invasive GH- secreting adenomas.
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March 2011

Analyses of clinical prognostic factors in operated traumatic acute subdural hematomas.

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2010 May;16(3):233-6

Departments of Neurosurgery, Istanbul University Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Traumatic acute subdural hematoma is the most lethal of all head injuries.

Methods: In this study, 113 patients with the diagnosis of posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma, who were operated between 1998 and 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect any effects of the variables of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission, time interval between the trauma and operation, and abnormality in the pupil reaction on the disease mortality and morbidity.

Results: Results obtained in the study are discussed and compared with the related current literature. The overall mortality in 113 patients was 56.6%.

Conclusion: According to the results, the most important determinants of the prognosis are GCS score of the patient on admission, abnormality in pupil reaction, timing of the operation, and the patient's age.
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May 2010

Surgical outcome in hippocampal sclerosis following selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy.

Turk Neurosurg 2008 Oct;18(4):374-9

Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common form of intractable partial epilepsy in adults with hippocampal sclerosis accounting for the majority of cases. Selective amygdalo-hippocampectomy (SEAH) is suggested as a safe and effective surgical procedure with the advantage of a better cognitive outcome.

Methods: We prospectively documented 56 consecutive patients with medically refractory medial temporal lob epilepsy. Candidates for surgery were determined as those with characteristic clinical and imaging findings, ictal recordings, and neuropsychological evaluation. A standard SEAH was performed and hippocampal sclerosis was histologically confirmed.

Results: In our study 76.7% of patients were classified as Engel I and 62.2% as ILAE I at their last follow up. Overall, at the last follow-up, 51.8% of patients were seizure-free since surgery (Engel 1a and ILAE 1a), 25% had stopped antiepileptic treatment, and another 52% had decreased either the dosage or number of antiepileptic drugs. 86.3% of the patients with abnormality on neurocognitive tasks showed improvement at the end of the 6 months post surgery.

Conclusion: SEAH is a safe and effective surgical procedure without the necessity of a larger resection and further invasive methods.
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October 2008

Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine.

Eur Spine J 2008 Aug 12;17(8):991-5. Epub 2008 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, CAPA, Istanbul, Turkey.

The sympathetic trunk is sometimes damaged during the anterior and anterolateral approach to the cervical spine, resulting in Horner's syndrome. No quantitative regional anatomy in fresh human cadavers describing the course and location of the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) and its relation to the longus colli muscle (LCM) is available in the literature. The aims of this study are to clearly delineate the surgical anatomy and the anatomical variations of CST with respect to the structures around it and to develop a safer surgical method that will diminish the potential risk of CST injury. In this study, 30 cadavers from the Department of Forensic Medicine were dissected to observe the surgical anatomy of the CST. The cadavers used in this study were fresh cadavers chosen at 12-24 h postmortem. The levels of superior and intermediate ganglions of cervical sympathetic chain were determined. The distance of the sympathetic trunk from the medial border of LCM at C6, the diameter of the CST at C6 and the length and width of the superior and intermediate (middle) cervical ganglion were measured. Cervical sympathetic chain is located posteromedial to carotid sheath and just anterior to the longus muscles. It extends longitudinally from the longus capitis to the longus colli over the muscles and under the prevertebral fascia. The average distance between the CST and medial border of the LCM at C6 is 11.6 +/- 1.6 mm. The average diameter of the CST at C6 is 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm. Superior ganglion of CSC in all dissections was located at the level of C4 vertebra. The length and width of the superior cervical ganglion were 12.5 +/- 1.5 and 5.3 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively. The location of the intermediate (middle) ganglion of CST showed some variations. The length and width of the middle cervical ganglion were 10.5 +/- 1.3 and 6.3 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively. The CST's are at high risk when the LC muscle is cut transversely, or when dissection of the prevertebral fascia is performed. Awareness of the CST's regional anatomy may help the surgeon to identify and preserve it during anterior cervical surgeries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-008-0696-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2518767PMC
August 2008

Effects of arterial and venous wall homogenates, arterial and venous blood, and different combinations to the cerebral vasospasm in an experimental model.

Surg Neurol 2009 May 2;71(5):573-9; discussion 579. Epub 2008 Jun 2.

Istanbul School of Medicine Neurosurgery Department, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34360, Turkey.

Background: Risks related to rebleeding of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm have decreased. However, ischemic neurologic deficits related to vasospasm are still the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. It is well known that vasospasm is a dynamic process affected by various factors. The severity of vasospasm in animal models and clinical observations differ from each other. This variability has not been completely explained by blood and blood degradation products. Therefore, metabolites released from the damaged vessel wall during the bleeding are thought to play an important role in vasospasm.

Method: To test this hypothesis, we used 46 male Wistar rats that were divided into 7 groups and administered one of the following to cisterna magna: venous blood, arterial blood, arterial wall homogenate, venous wall homogenate, combined mixture of arterial blood and artery wall homogenate, or combined mixture of venous blood and venous wall homogenate. Brainstems of the rats were excised, and the basilar arteries were harvested for morphometric measurements.

Result: There were significant differences between the degree of vasospasm caused by arterial and venous blood (P < .0001). The intraluminal area of the basilar artery was significantly narrower after application of arterial blood, artery wall homogenate, or their combination (49% +/- 1%) than after venous groups (30% +/- 1.9%) (P < .0001).

Conclusion: The results of this experiment demonstrated that metabolites from vessel walls play as important roles in the pathophysiology of vasospasm as blood and blood degradation products. Further investigation of these metabolites will improve our understanding of vasospasm, pathophysiology, and its treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surneu.2008.02.048DOI Listing
May 2009

Traumatic epidural hematomas of the posterior cranial fossa.

Surg Neurol 2008 Mar;69(3):247-51; dicussion 251-2

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34093, Turkey.

Background: Traumatic EDHs of the posterior cranial fossa are rare and have a higher mortality than supratentorial localizations. Early diagnosis of TEHPCF and prompt surgical evacuation provide excellent recovery. Active use of cranial CT scanning has taken a major role in the diagnosis, surgical indication, close observation, and strategy planning. As a result, better prognosis is achieved. In this study, we represent our results and experiences in the management of TEHPCF.

Methods: Between 1993 and 2006, 65 patients with TEHPCF were treated in Istanbul University Faculty Of Medicine, Neurosurgery and Emergency Surgery Departments. The hospital records of these patients were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Of 65 patients, whose diagnosis and management decisions were determined by cranial CT scans, 53 were treated through surgery and 12 by conservative methods. Of the 53 surgically treated patients, 2 (3%) patients died, and 2 (3%) other patients remained moderately disabled during their discharge. As a result, 61 (94%) of 65 patients had excellent recovery.

Conclusion: When compared with the literature, our mortality rate was superior to other previously reported studies. In our opinion, this is a result of extensive use of the cranial CT scan together with aggressive surgery. Patients with occipital trauma should be evaluated using cranial CT scans, and those showing mass effect should be immediately treated surgically. The patients that have no mass effect on CT scans can be closely observed by planned serial control CT scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surneu.2007.02.024DOI Listing
March 2008

Spinal cavernous malformations: a report of 5 cases.

Surg Neurol 2008 Jun 4;69(6):602-7; discussion 607. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Neurosurgery Department, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: This is a report of 5 patients treated surgically for SCMs.

Methods: During the period from 1998 to 2003, 5 patients (4 male and 1 female) harboring SCMs were treated surgically (all of them underwent complete surgical removal). Patients' ages ranged between 22 and 57 years (mean age, 46 years). Median duration of symptoms was 31 months (1-120 months). Diagnosis was made by MRI scan showing lesions in length of 1 to 6 cm in diameter (mean length, 2.9 cm). Three lesions were found in the cervical, one in the upper dorsal, and one in the lower dorsal cord. One of them was located extradurally, one of them intradural extramedullary, and 3 of them intramedullary.

Results: An MRI examination showing total removal was performed postoperatively in each patient (the postoperative MRI examinations revealed total removal in all cases). The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 4 years (mean, 27 months). All patients showed clinical improvement, with 3 of them worsening early in the postoperative period but doing better in long-term follow-up (although 3 of 5 patients had worse neurological examinations in the early postoperative period, all recovered in long-term follow-up and clinically improved relative to preoperative status).

Conclusion: Neurological status of the patients can worsen in the early postoperative period, causing intramedullary operation; but it usually improves relative to preoperative status. Surgical removal seems to be a safe and a promising way of treatment of symptomatic SCMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surneu.2007.01.074DOI Listing
June 2008

Anterolateral approach to the cervical spine: major anatomical structures and landmarks. Technical note.

J Neurosurg Spine 2007 Dec;7(6):669-78

Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul University, Turkey.

Object: The authors undertook a study to explore the topographic anatomical features seen during the anterolateral approach to cervical spine, anatomical variations, and certain landmarks related to the surgical procedure.

Methods: The study was conducted in 30 fresh cadavers.

Results: The common carotid artery bifurcation was mostly found at the level of C-4 (78%). The inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle was seen to cross the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the C5-6 disc level along the entire C-6 vertebral body. To reach the lower cervical region, the sacrifice of this muscle makes the procedure easier. The facial vein drained into the internal jugular vein mostly at the level of C3-4 (54%). The superior ganglion of the cervical sympathetic chain was located at the C-4 vertebra, but the location of the intermediate ganglion exhibited some variation. The vertebral artery entered the transverse foramen of C-6 in 27 cadavers (90%), the transverse foramen of C-7 in two cadavers (7%), and the transverse foramen of C-4 in one cadaver (3%). Because the inferior thyroid artery crossed the C6-7 interspace obliquely, the course of the inferior thyroid artery may complicate the procedure. The C-5 uncinate process was shortest and narrowest and had the greatest distance from the medial edge of the process to the anterior tubercle (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Understanding the qualitative anatomy of this region not only improves the safety of anterior and anterolateral cervical spine surgery but also allows adequate decompression of neural elements and resolution of the other pathological processes of this region. In this fresh cadaveric study, our goal was to improve the approach and decrease the incidence of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/SPI-07/12/669DOI Listing
December 2007