Publications by authors named "Ali Azari"

33 Publications

A global systematic review, meta-analysis and health risk assessment on the quantity of Malathion, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos in Vegetables.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 26;270:129382. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Food Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran. Electronic address:

It is widely believed that an increasing trend in the production and consumption of vegetables has led to a dramatic rise in the use of pesticides potentially threatening the health of consumers around the world. This systematic study along with meta-analysis has mainly centered on the evaluation of the quantity of three well-known pesticides namely, Malathion (MLT), Diazinon (DZN) and Chlorpyrifos (CPF) in vegetables. In this regard, a comprehensive literature search has been performed over the last decade (January 1, 2011 to June 21, 2020) within the scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus. Of 1239 articles identified through the database screening, 22 plus 37 data report were retained and included in the meta-analysis phase. Additionally, the probabilistic human health risks for the consumers due to the intake of CPF, DZN and MLT from eating vegetables were estimated by the Monte Carlo Simulated (MCS) method. According to the findings, the maximum quantities of MLT, DZN and CPF in the vegetables were observed in Pakistan (222 μg/kg, 95%CI = 214.94-229.08), Thailand (245.00, 95% CI = 235.2-254.8) and South Korea (440 μg/kg, 95% CI = 437.19-442.81), while the lowest concentration levels were reported in China (1.7 μg/kg, 95% CI = 1.56-1.84), Poland (0.57, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68) and Poland (5.78 μg/kg, 95% CI = 4.40-7.12), respectively. The results of the Egger's and the Begg's tests revealed that no bias with regard to the potential publication was observed. Finally, non-carcinogenic risk assessment results demonstrated that the exposure to the studied pesticides thorough vegetables consumption could not threaten the health of consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129382DOI Listing
December 2020

Green preparation of activated carbon from pomegranate peel coated with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) and isotherm and kinetic studies of amoxicillin removal in water.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 21;27(29):36732-36743. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

In present research, the activated carbon was prepared by a green approach from pomegranate peel coated with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (AC-nZVI) and developed as adsorbent for the removal of amoxicillin from aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the AC-nZVI were investigated using XRD, FTIR, and FESEM techniques. The optimal values of the parameters for the best efficiency (97.9%) were amoxicillin concentration of 10 mg/L, adsorbent dose of 1.5 g/L, time of 30 min, and pH of 5, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were fitted with the Langmuir monolayer isotherm model (qmax 40.282 mg/g, R 0. 0.999) and pseudo-first order kinetics (R 0.961). The reusability of the adsorbent also revealed that the adsorption efficiency decreased from 83.54 to 50.79% after five consecutive repetitions. Overall, taking into account the excellent efficiency, availability, environmental friendliness, and good regeneration, AC-nZVI can be introduced as a promising absorbent for amoxicillin from aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09310-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Isolated cardiac hydatid cyst presented as myopericarditis: A case report.

J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2020 6;12(1):75-77. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Pathology, Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Hydatidosis commonly affect the liver and lungs but in rare cases, it can involve heart tissue. A 42-year-old man from urban areas of Khorasan Razavi province, northeastern Iran, was referred to the cardiac clinic with palpitation, and atypical chest pain in 2018. Large pericardial effusion, reduced left ventricle systolic function was found. A cystic-like lesion was also seen in inter-ventricular septum in echocardiography and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Urgent cardiac surgery was done because of echocardiographic evidence of tamponade. Although the serologic analysis was negative for hydatidosis, surgical excision of cyst and the subsequent histopathological findings revealed a hydatid cyst. In endemic areas, hydatidosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of any cystic-like lesions, even if the serological analysis is negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jcvtr.2020.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080332PMC
January 2020

Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of dyes adsorption by carbon-based adsorbent materials: Classification and analysis of last decade studies.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 17;250:126238. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Carbon-based materials and their modifications have received significant attention over the last decades given the outstanding adsorption behavior toward various dyes from aqueous solutions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the adsorption capability of dyes on carbon-based adsorbent materials (CBAMs) has been compiled. Further, the effects of process variables i.e., pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and initial concentration), adsorption kinetics, and isotherms were investigated while considering the classification of different groups of dyes and adsorbents. The Metafor package provides functions for conducting meta-analyses in R software. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) from January 1, 2009 to May 1, 2018. The following parameters were evaluated according to predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. After detailed screening and analysis, 835 articles were eligible for the review section. Among them, 87 studies met all quantitative criteria for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a high heterogeneity (I = 99.99%). According to the evidence, basic dyes with n = 661 (∼50%) and powder activated carbon (PAC) sorbent with n = 752 (∼57%) have received the most attention among researchers. The results revealed that the mean of removal efficiency-based dyes classification was between 79.9 and 93.7% and the adsorption capacity was lied within the range of 76.8-303.6 mg/g. Meanwhile, the maximum adsorption capacity belongs to graphene families with Qm > 320 mg/g, while the minimum Qm was related to G and GAC with capacities of 108.5 and 110.7 mg/g, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model with 88.7% and Langmuir isotherm with 74% had the best fitting with the data studied. Baujat plot revealed that two studies (ID: 75 and 12) had the minimum influence on adsorption capacity with the highest dffits and cook's distance. According to the pooled data, the mean adsorption capacity varied between 140.90 and 208.25, with a mean of 174.57 mg/g across all studies. The results of Egger's test (t = 0.1332, p = 0.0844) and Begg's test (z = 0.8458, p = 0.3977) were not statistically significant, suggesting that no potential publication bias existed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126238DOI Listing
July 2020

Modeling and optimizing parameters affecting hexavalent chromium adsorption from aqueous solutions using Ti-XAD7 nanocomposite: RSM-CCD approach, kinetic, and isotherm studies.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 11;17(2):873-888. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

7Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Due to the high toxicity of chromium, particularly as Hexavalent chromium Cr (VI), it is removed from industrial effluents before their discharge into the environment by a variety of methods, including loading catalysts onto the polymeric supports. This study focused on the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using Amberlite XAD7 resin loaded titanium dioxide (Ti-XAD7).

Methods: Ti-XAD7 was synthesized using Amberlite XAD-7 impregnated with titanium tetraethoxide. The prepared Ti-XAD7 was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Isotherms and kinetic studies were carried out to describe the adsorption behavior of adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) ions. Quadratic models considering independent variables, i.e. the initial Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage, time, and pH, were evaluated and optimized to describe the behavior of Cr(VI) adsorption onto the Ti-XAD7 using RSM based on a Five-level-four-factor CCD approach.

Results: The accuracy and the fitting of the model were evaluated by ANOVA with R > 0.725 and value = 5.221 × 10. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process were an initial Cr(VI) concentration 2750 ppb, contact time of 51.53 min, pH of 8.7, and Ti-XAD7 dosage of 5.05 g/L. The results revealed that the Langmuir and Sips isotherm models with R = 0.998 and 0.999 were the The adsorption capacity of Ti-XAD7 and R constant were 2.73 mg/g and 0.063-0.076 based on the Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Kinetic studies also indicated that the adsorption behavior of Cr(VI) was acceptably explained by the Elovich kinetic model with a good fitting (R = 0.97).

Conclusions: Comparison of the Ti-XAD7 and XAD7 yield in chromium adsorption showed that modified XAD7 had higher removal efficiency (about 98%) compared to XAD7 alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00405-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985374PMC
December 2019

Degradation of dimethyl phthalate using persulfate activated by UV and ferrous ions: optimizing operational parameters mechanism and pathway.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 12;17(2):685-700. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

4Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The present study aimed to model and optimize the dimethyl phthalate (DMP) degradation from aqueous solution using UV/ NaSO/Fe system based on the response surface methodology (RSM). A high removal efficiency (97%) and TOC reduction (64.2%) were obtained under optimum conditions i.e. contact time = 90 min, SPS concentration = 0.601 mM/L, Fe = 0.075 mM/L, pH = 11 and DMP concentration = 5 mg/L. Quenching experiments confirmed that sulfate radicals were predominant radical species for DMP degradation. The effect of CO on DMP degradation was more complicated than other aquatic background anions. The possible pathway for DMP decomposition was proposed according to HPLC and GC-MS analysis. The average oxidation state (AOS) and carbon oxidation state (COS) values as biodegradability indicators demonstrated that the UV/SPS/Fe system can improve the bioavailability of DMP over the time. Finally, the performance of UV/SPS/Fe system for DMP treatment in different aquatic solutions: tap water, surface runoff, treated and raw wastewater were found to be 95.7, 88.5, 80.5, and 56.4%, respectively. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00384-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985424PMC
December 2019

Desorption kinetics and isotherms of phenanthrene from contaminated soil.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Jun 7;17(1):171-181. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

6Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Prediction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) desorption from soil to estimate available fraction regarding to initial concentration of the contaminant is of great important in soil pollution management, which has poorly been understood until now. In the present study estimation of fast desorption fraction which is considered as available fraction was conducted by evaluating desorption kinetics of phenanthrene (a three ring PAH) from artificially contaminated soils through the mathematical models.

Methods: Desorption rate of phenanthrene (PHE) was investigated by using the nonionic surfactant Tween80 in a series of batch experiments. The effects of reaction time from 5 to 1440 min and initial PHE concentration in the range of 100-1600 mg/kg were studied.

Results: Available fractions of the contaminant were achieved within the first hour of desorption process as the system reached to equilibrium conditions. Experimental data were examined by using kinetic models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order in four linearized forms, and fractional power. Among the models tested, experimental data were well described by pseudo-second-order model type (III) and (IV) and fractional power equation. Fast desorption rates, as Available fractions were determined 79%, 46%, 40%, 39%, and 35% for initial PHE concentrations of 100, 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 mg/kg respectively. Among the evaluated isotherm models, including Freundlich, Langmuir in four linearized forms, and Temkin, the equilibrium data were well fitted by the first one.

Conclusion: Applying the nonionic surfactant Tween80 is a useful method to determine available fraction of the contaminant. This method will provide the management of contaminated sites by choosing a proper technique for remediation and predicting achievable treatment efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00338-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582045PMC
June 2019

Experimental design, modeling and mechanism of cationic dyes biosorption on to magnetic chitosan-lutaraldehyde composite.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Jun 8;131:633-645. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz university Jedhah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Magnetic separation of toxic dyes has become a potential and effective method in wastewater treatments. In present research, a facile in situ one step co-precipitation synthetic approach is used to develop water-dispersible FeO/Chitosan/Glutaraldehyde nanocomposites (MCS-GA) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the MCS-GA were investigated using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, and VSM techniques. 5-level and 3-factors central composite design (CCD) combined with the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the statistical relationships between independent variables i.e. initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and adsorption process as response. The optimal values of the parameters for the best efficiency (99.99%) were as follows: pH of 11, the initial dye concentration of 60 mg L and MCS-GA dosage of 0.817 g L, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were fitted with the Langmuir monolayer isotherm model (q: 105.467 mg g, R: 0.996) and pseudo-second order kinetics (R: 0.960). Thermodynamic parameters (R > 0.941, ΔH°: 690.609-896.006 kJ mol, ΔG°: -1.6849 to -13.4872 kJ mol, ΔS°: 0.168-0.232 kJ mol K) also indicated CV adsorption is feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Overall, taking into account the excellent efficiency, good regeneration and acceptable performance in real terms, MCS-GA can be introduced as a promising absorbent for dyes removal from the textile wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.03.058DOI Listing
June 2019

Prevalence and probabilistic health risk assessment of aflatoxins B, B, G, and G in Iranian edible oils.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 23;25(35):35562-35570. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

The prevalence of aflatoxins (AFs) B, B, G, and G in Iranian edible oils were assessed by immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Ninety-seven samples including sunflower, canola, refined olive, unrefined olive, frying, and blend oils were collected from eight provinces (n = 15 samples of refined olive oil, n = 15 samples of unrefined olive oil, n = 15 samples of sunflower oil, n = 15 samples of canola oil, n = 17 samples of frying oil, and n = 20 samples of blend oil). Also, cancer risk of aflatoxins in the adults and children due to ingestion of edible oils was estimated via margin of exposure (MOE) estimation in the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model. Considering the limit of detection (LOD) of the current study, two unrefined olive oil samples from Zanjan Province were contaminated with AFB in the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 ng/g while other samples were free from AFB, AFB, AFG, and AFG. This study revealed that about 98% of the collected samples were free from AFs and the concentrations of AFs in the polluted samples were within the standard range suggested by European Commission regulation (20 μg/kg). However, health risk assessment indicated that both adult and children in the Zanjan Province are at considerable liver cancer risk (percentile 95% of MOE < 10,000 value). Therefore, national plan to address this issue and strict inspection of edible oil products by the regulatory bodies are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3510-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Determination of heavy metal content of processed fruit products from Tehran's market using ICP- OES: A risk assessment study.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 May 3;115:436-446. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

In this study, the levels of Cd, Hg, Sn, Al, Pb and As of 72 samples (36 samples for fruits juices and 36 samples for fruits canned) of three different brands including of Peach, Orange, Cherry, and Pineapple (18 samples of each fruits) marketed in Tehran, Iran (2015) were evaluated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Also, Probabilistic risk assessment (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks) was estimated by models include target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk (CR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. However, all samples were contaminated with the heavy metals investigated, most of them not surpassed established standards. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb as average in fruit juices were reported as 340.62 (65.17-1039.2), 72.33 (49.76-119.4), 3.76 (1.137-18.36), 2.12 (0.89-3.44), 0.351 and 40.86 (27.87-66.1) μg/kg, respectively. The level of heavy metals measured in different kinds of fruit juices was ranked as Al > Sn > Pb > As > Cd > Hg, and for fruits canned this rank was Pb > Al > Sn > As > Cd > Hg. The range of concentration for Al, Sn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in fruits canned were reported as 361.23 (43.15-1121.2), 101.42 (71.45-141.61), 3.92 (1.279-19.50), 2.78 (1.09-5.56), 0.35 and 690.54 (470.56-910.14) μg/kg, respectively. The lead (Pb) concentration in 97.22% (35 out of 36 samples) of fruit juices samples surpassed Codex limit (0.05 mg/kg) and in all samples of FC was lower than the legal limit of Codex limit (1 mg/kg). All of the samples had Tin (Sn) lower than the legal limit of Codex (fruit juices 100 mg/kg and FC 250 mg/kg). The MCS indicated that the rank order of heavy metals in both adults and children based on THQ was Al > Sn > As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The THQ of Al and Sn in the FJ and FC, for both adults, and children, was considerably higher than 1 value. Also, CR of As in both adults and children were higher than 1E-6 value. Although the mean concentration of heavy metal in the FJ and FC was lower than the standard limit, the MCS indicated that adults and children are at considerable non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.03.044DOI Listing
May 2018

Mitral leaflet separation to evaluate the severity of mitral stenosis: Validation of the index by transesophageal three-dimensional echocardiography.

Echocardiography 2018 03 21;35(3):361-367. Epub 2018 Jan 21.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vascular Surgery Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Determining severity of mitral stenosis (MS) by planimetry of mitral valve orifice area (MVA) has been a challenging issue in clinical practice, especially for less experienced cardiologists. Mitral leaflet separation (MLS) has shown a good correlation with MVA measurements. However, it has never been validated against multiplane 3DTEE planimetry (MVA ). We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of MLS index (MLSI ) in predicting MS severity.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 144 patients with MS who underwent clinically indicated 2DTTE and 3DTEE. MLSI was yield by averaging the maximal leaflet tip distance in diastole, in parasternal long-axis and apical four-chamber views. MVA was used as the reference method.

Results: MLSI showed an excellent discriminatory ability between different grades of MS (P < .001). There was a significant positive correlation between MLSI and MVA (r = .93, P < .001) irrespective of concurrent mitral regurgitation (r = .94, P < .001) and/or atrial fibrillation (r = .92, P < .001). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, MLSI  ≤ 8.6 mm showed 100% sensitivity and 76% specificity for very severe MS. MLSI  ≥ 11.2 mm determined progressive MS with 100% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The study population was then divided into a derivation group and a validation group. A regression equation for MVA by MLSI was derived in first group. Then, the MVA was calculated by this equation in validation group and was not significantly different from MVA .

Conclusion: MLSI showed an excellent ability to assess MS severity and correlates well with planimetered MVA measured by 3DTEE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.13805DOI Listing
March 2018

Catalytic decomposition of 2-chlorophenol using an ultrasonic-assisted FeO-TiO@MWCNT system: Influence factors, pathway and mechanism study.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Feb 12;512:172-189. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

As a reusable sonocatalyst, magnetically separable FeO-TiO@MWCNT (FMT) was synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted wet impregnation method and was evaluated in the removal of 2-chlorophenol (2CP). Physical and chemical properties of the catalyst composite materials were investigated by all catalysts were systematically characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), and N-physisorption. The efficiency and kinetics of 2CP removal by FMT-assisted sonocatalysis (FMT-US) was systematically investigated under various operational parameters i.e. pH, FMT and 2CP concentration, temperature and ultrasonic power. The results indicated that 0.4gL FMT dosage, pH 5, temperature of 35°C as well as 50 w ultrasound power are the most favorable conditions for the degradation of the 2CP. Furthermore, both of the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were produced in the reaction, however, superoxide radicals were assumed to be the dominating reactive species for the 2CP degradation, according to the scavenging tests and electron paramagnetic resonance tests. Moreover, the FMT catalyst exhibited a high reusability and stability in the US/FMT system during the five repetitive experiments. The intermediate products were identified by GC-MS, thereby a possible degradation pathway is proposed. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and corresponding total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiencies were 64.9% and 56.7%, respectively. Finally, toxicity tests showed that the toxicity of the solution increased during the first 5min and then decreased significantly with the progress of the oxidation. The mechanisms of ultrasound irritation enhanced FMT activation were also proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2017.10.015DOI Listing
February 2018

A comparative study of anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor for biological removal of diethyl phthalate from wastewater: a performance, kinetic, biogas, and metabolic pathway study.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2017 31;10:139. Epub 2017 May 31.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Background: Phthalic acid esters, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), which are considered as top-priority and hazardous pollutants, have received significant attention over the last decades. It is vital for industries to select the best treatment technology, especially when the DEP concentration in wastewater is high. Meanwhile, anaerobic biofilm-based reactors are considered as a promising option. Therefore, in the present study, for the biological removal of DEP from synthetic wastewater, two different anaerobic biofilm-based reactors, including anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor (AnFFBR) and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (UAnFFFBR), were compared from kinetic and performance standpoints. As in the previous studies, only the kinetic coefficients have been calculated and the relationship between kinetic coefficients and their interpretation has not been evaluated, the other aim of the present study was to fill this research gap.

Results: In optimum conditions, 90.31 and 86.91% of COD as well as 91.11 and 88.72% of DEP removal were achieved for the AnFFBR and UAnFFFBR, respectively. According to kinetic coefficients (except biomass yield), the AnFFBR had better performance as it provided a more favorable condition for microbial growth. The Grau model was selected as the best mathematical model for designing and predicting the bioreactors' performance due to its high coefficients of determination (0.97 < ). With regard to the insignificant variations of the calculated Grau kinetic coefficients () when the organic loading rate (with constant HRT) increased, it can be concluded that both of the bioreactors can tolerate high organic loading rate and their performance is not affected by the applied DEP concentrations.

Conclusions: Both the bioreactors were capable of treating low-to-high strength DEP wastewater; however, according to the experimental results and obtained kinetic coefficients, the AnFFBR indicated higher performance. Although the AnFFBR can be considered as a safer treatment option than the UAnFFFBR due to its lower DEP concentrations in sludge, the UAnFFFBR had lower VSS/TSS ratio and sludge yield, which could make it more practical for digestion. Finally, both the bioreactors showed considerable methane yield; however, compared to the UAnFFFBR, the AnFFBR had more potential for bioenergy production. Although both the selected bioreactors achieved nearly 90% of DEP removal, they can only be considered as pre-treatment methods according to the standard regulations and should be coupled with further technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0826-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452402PMC
May 2017

Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

Sci Rep 2017 02 20;7:41020. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep41020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316953PMC
February 2017

Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbons developed from eucalyptus bark and Crataegus oxyacantha core.

Water Sci Technol 2016 Nov;74(9):2021-2035

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran E-mail:

In this study, eucalyptus bark and Crataegus oxyacantha core-based activated carbon were synthesized and their morphological features characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The efficiency of synthesized adsorbents in removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated in a series of batch experiments. Furthermore, the influences of various experimental factors involving the contact time, the initial dye concentration, the adsorbent dosage, and the pH of the dye solution were investigated. The point of zero charge (pH) of the applied adsorbents was also determined. In addition, the experimental data were expressed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isotherms and pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. Adsorption equilibrium of the two adsorbents was reached within 1 h for MB concentrations of 20 to 100 mg/L. The equilibrium data obtained at optimum conditions of MB sorption by eucalyptus bark activated carbon and Crataegus oxyacantha core activated carbon were best fitted to Tempkin and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. Besides, it was revealed that the adsorption rate follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. From the findings of this study, it can be postulated that these adsorbents could be of great potential as a new class of adsorbents for organic dye removal from polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.287DOI Listing
November 2016

Which is better for optimizing the biosorption process of lead - central composite design or the Taguchi technique?

Water Sci Technol 2016 Sep;74(6):1446-1456

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran E-mail: Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study is to evaluate central composite design (CCD) and the Taguchi technique in the adsorption process. Contact time, initial concentration, and pH were selected as the variables, and the removal efficiency of Pb was chosen for the designated response. In addition, face-centered CCD and the L orthogonal array were used for the experimental design. The result indicated that, at optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Pb was 80%. However, the value of R was greater than 0.95 for both the CCD and Taguchi techniques, which revealed that both techniques were suitable and in conformity with each other. Moreover, the results of analysis of variance and Prob > F < 0.05 showed the appropriate fit of the designated model with the experimental results. The probability of classifying the contributing variables by giving a percentage of the response quantity (Pb removal) made the Taguchi model an appropriate method for examining the effectiveness of different factors. pH was evaluated as the best input factor as it contributed 66.2% of Pb removal. The Taguchi technique was additionally confirmed by three-dimensional contour plots of CCD. Consequently, the Taguchi method with nine experimental runs and easy interaction plots is an appropriate substitute for CCD for several chemical engineering functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.318DOI Listing
September 2016

The study of non-linear kinetics and adsorption isotherm models for Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions by magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate.

Water Sci Technol 2016;74(5):1235-42

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran and Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran E-mail:

Azo dyes are widely used in various industries. These substances produce toxic byproducts in aquatic environments in addition to their mutagenic and carcinogenic potential effects. In this study, the effect of magnetite nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles modified by sodium alginate in batch systems and nonlinear kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and then modified and used as adsorbent to adsorb Acid Red 18. After determining the optimum pH and adsorbent dose, non-equilibrium models for kinetic adsorption were tested with concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and at eight different periods of time (1-15 min) and the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order non-linear models were used to describe the results. For adsorption isotherm, a contact time of 120 min was studied in different concentrations (25-100 mg/L) and the residual concentration of Acid Red 18 was obtained. The results are described by non-linear Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The optimum amounts of pH for magnetite nanoparticles and for modified ones were 3 and 5, respectively, the efficiencies were 0.75 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. According to the results sodium alginate has a high performance in adsorption of Acid Red 18. Adjusted correlation coefficients and chi-square test showed that Freundlich isotherm and then Langmuir isotherm can well describe the experimental results. In Freundlich, the value of (Kf) was 3.231 (L/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 21.615 (L/g) for modified adsorbent. In Langmuir, the value of (qm) was 16.259 (mg/g) for magnetite nanoparticles and 73.464 (mg/g) for modified adsorbent. Comparing the Langmuir maximum calculated adsorption capacity indicated that modified adsorbent can adsorb the pollutants 6.5 times more than the other one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2016.320DOI Listing
October 2018

Investigation of outdoor BTEX: Concentration, variations, sources, spatial distribution, and risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2016 Nov 31;163:601-609. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to measure BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) concentrations in the ambient air of Tehran, the capital of Iran, and investigate their seasonal variations, probable sources, spatial mapping, and risk assessment. The concentrations of BTEX were measured using a continuous monitoring device installed in seven stations around the city. Spatial mapping procedure was conducted using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks imposed by BTEX. The highest and lowest annual mean concentrations of toluene and ethylbenzene were recorded as 16.25 and 3.63 μg m(-3), respectively. The maximum (6.434) and minimum (3.209) toluene/benzene (T/B) ratio was observed in summer and winter, respectively. The spatial distribution of BTEX pollution indicated that the highest concentrations were found along the major roads because of heavy traffic. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and concentration ratios showed that BTEX were produced by the multiemission sources. The mean of inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene was 3.93 × 10(-7), which is lower than the limits recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The hazard quotient (HQ), noncarcinogenic risk index, for all BTEX compounds was <1. The obtained results showed no threat of BTEX concentrations to human health. However, as the concentrations of BTEX will increase due to the rapid growth of vehicles and industrial activities, much effort is required to control and manage the levels of these compounds in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.088DOI Listing
November 2016

Enhanced removal of nitrate from water using nZVI@MWCNTs composite: synthesis, kinetics and mechanism of reduction.

Water Sci Technol 2015 ;72(11):1988-99

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran E-mail:

Herein, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as the carrier of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) particles to fabricate a composite known as nZVI@MWCNTs. The composite was then characterized and applied in the nitrate removal process in a batch system under anoxic conditions. The influential parameters such as pH, various concentrations of nitrate and composite were investigated within 240 min of the reaction. The mechanism, kinetics and end-products of nitrate reduction were also evaluated. Results revealed that the removal nitrate percentage for nZVI@MWCNTs composite was higher than that of nZVI and MWCNTs alone. Experimental data from nitrate reduction were fitted to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The values of observed rate constant (kobs) decreased with increasing the initial concentration of nitrate. Our experiments proved that the nitrate removal efficiency was favorable once both high amounts of nZVI@MWCNTs and low concentrations of nitrate were applied. The predominant end-products of the nitrate reduction were ammonium (84%) and nitrogen gas (15%). Our findings also revealed that ZVI@MWCNTs is potentially a good composite for removal/reduction of nitrate from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.417DOI Listing
February 2016

Surgical embolectomy in the management of massive and sub-massive pulmonary embolism: The results of 30 consecutive ill patients.

ARYA Atheroscler 2015 May;11(3):208-13

Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital AND Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital AND School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Despite the improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pulmonary embolism, it is yet a common clinical problem. The actual role of open embolectomy has not been well understood. The present report aimed to extrapolate the outcome of early open pulmonary embolectomy in a number of patients with acute (sub) massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE/ASMPE).

Methods: A prospective study was performed on 30 patients who underwent emergency embolectomy at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during January 2005 to November 2012. All patients with an indication for pulmonary embolectomy according to recent American Heart Association guideline were enrolled in this study. Echocardiographic features, pulmonary artery pressure, and right ventricular (RV) diameter were recorded. The patients were followed up monthly by two cardiologists.

Results: Indications for operation in descending order consisted of contraindication for fibrinolytic therapy (30%), failure to respond to fibrinolysis (26.66%), cardiopulmonary arrest (20%), patent foramen ovale (20%), right atrium clot (10%), and cardiogenic shock (10%). Mean pulmonary artery pressures were 52.26 ± 6.54 and 29.43 ± 2.87 mmHg before and after the operation, respectively (P < 0.0001). RV function and diameter improved significantly after surgery (P < 0.0001 and < 0.0001, respectively). Complete follow-up was performed in all surviving patients. All patients survived the operation, except one who died 2 days after surgery due to profound hypotension.

Conclusion: Short and long-term outcomes of early open embolectomy seemed to be satisfactory in high-risk patients presenting high clot burden in central pulmonary arteries. This study demonstrated that pulmonary embolectomy may play a promising role in the management of AMPE and ASMPE and recommended for future clinical trials.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4568195PMC
May 2015

Malondialdehyde-Modified LDL IgG Antibody Levels and Indices of Cardiac Function in Valvular Heart and Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

Med Princ Pract 2015 26;24(5):424-31. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Biochemistry of Nutrition Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: To compare the changes in anti-malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) IgG levels among patients undergoing off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valvuloplasty.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 38, 39 and 34 patients who underwent off-pump CABG, on-pump CABG and valvuloplasty, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Serum anti-MDA-LDL IgG values were measured 24 h before and after the operative procedures and at discharge. Echocardiography was also done before surgery and before discharge. The results were compared with values from 50 healthy controls.

Results: In all patients, a reduction in antibody titers was observed post-operatively. However, the decrease was significant only in the off-pump CABG - before surgery: 42.33 (25.83-58.51), after surgery: 30.86 (16.36-51.33) and at discharge: 10.96 (6.82-23.57; p = 0.027). There was a significant positive association between anti-MDA-LDL IgG levels and ejection fraction (r = 0.248, p = 0.036) and a negative association with E/E', a marker of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, in the coronary patients (r = -0.345, p = 0.012), but no significant associations were found in patients with valvular heart disease.

Conclusions: Serum anti-MDA-LDL IgG levels were associated with cardiac function indices in coronary patients undergoing CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000431178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588258PMC
April 2016

Surgical embolectomy versus thrombolytic therapy in the management of acute massive pulmonary embolism: Short and long-term prognosis.

Heart Lung 2015 Jul-Aug;44(4):335-9

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: Comparison between surgical embolectomy and thrombolytic therapy in patients suffering from acute massive pulmonary embolism (AMPE).

Background: Prompt treatment of AMPE is necessary, although optimal management is a matter of debate.

Methods: Patients with AMPE were assigned to either thrombolytic therapy or pulmonary surgical embolectomy. Early and late mortality, systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP), right ventricular diameter (RVD) and bleeding complications were evaluated.

Results: Seventy eight patients were treated with thrombolytic therapy and 30 patients underwent surgery. The difference between pre-intervention and third-day post-intervention in terms of RVD and SPAP was significantly greater in patients under surgical embolectomy (P < 0.001). There was a significant decline in RVD and SPAP in both groups during follow-up (P < 0.001). Mortality rate in the surgical embolectomy group was lower than the thrombolytic group although not significantly.

Conclusion: Early surgical treatment was associated with fewer complications in comparison to thrombolytic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2015.04.008DOI Listing
December 2015

Study of moving bed biofilm reactor in diethyl phthalate and diallyl phthalate removal from synthetic wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2015 May 16;183:129-35. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Phthalic acid esters have received significant attention over the last few years since they are considered as priority pollutants. In this study, effects of different operation conditions including hydraulic retention time, phthalates loading rates and aeration rate on process performance of moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removing diethyl phthalate (DEP) and diallyl phthalate (DAP) from synthetic wastewater was evaluated. In optimum conditions, 94.96% and 93.85% removal efficiency were achieved for DEP and DAP, respectively. Moreover, MBBR achieved to remove more than 92% of COD for both phthalates. The results showed that DEP had a higher biodegradation rate compared to DAP, according to the selected parameters such as half saturation constant, overall reaction rate and maximum specific growth rate. The Grau second order model found as the best model for predicting MBBR performance due to its high correlation coefficients and more conformity of its kinetic coefficients to the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.122DOI Listing
May 2015

An unusual biatrial cardiac myxoma in a young patient.

Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2015 Feb 5;48(1):67-9. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine ; Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine ; Department of Cardiology, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

This is a report of a biatrial cardiac myxoma in a young man with a 10-month history of exertional dyspnea and palpitation. The echocardiogram revealed biatrial myxoma prolapsing through the mitral and tricuspid valves during diastole. All cardiac chambers were enlarged and dysfunctional. The electrocardiogram revealed a rapid ventricular response with atrial flutter rhythm. The masses were resected and diagnosed as myxoma by a histological examination. The follow-up echocardiogram revealed significant improvement in ventricular function and reduction in the cardiac chambers' volume. There was no evidence of myxoma recurrence. The most probable cause of the patient's heart failure was considered to be tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5090/kjtcs.2015.48.1.67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333846PMC
February 2015

An improved technique for pulmonary endarterectomy.

Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014 Jun 5;47(3):287-90. Epub 2014 Jun 5.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran ; Department of Cardiology, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

We report a modified technique for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) on a 67-year-old man with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) who presented with dyspnea. He was referred to our medical center for coronary artery bypass grafting. CTEPH had not been detected in his first visit to another medical center, but upon re-evaluation, the diagnosis was confirmed. PEA was performed with a modified method, which seems to be safe and suitable for the removal of clot and fibrotic materials. Iatrogenic dissection was performed with normal saline injection in the pulmonary artery, and then, the clot was removed completely. Although the technique may not be applicable for all cases, it can be used as an alternative to using an aspirating dissector and a pair of forceps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5090/kjtcs.2014.47.3.287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4157482PMC
June 2014

Enhanced chromium (VI) removal using activated carbon modified by zero valent iron and silver bimetallic nanoparticles.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 21;12(1):115. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahrood University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Recently, adsorption process has been introduced as a favorable and effective technique for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the present study, bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of zero valent iron and silver were loaded on the activated carbon powder for the preparation of a new adsorbent (PAC-Fe(o)/Ag). The above adsorbent was characterized by using XRD, SEM and TEM techniqes. Experimental data were exploited for kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic evaluations related to the adsorption processes. The Cr(VI) adsorption process was found to be favorable at pH 3 and it reached equilibrium state within 60 min. The stirring rate did not have a significant effect on the adsorption efficiency. Furthermore, the monolayer adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) based on the Langmuir model was measured to be 100 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich adsorption and pseudo second-order models. According to the thermodynamic study, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature, indicating the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the temperature. The results also revealed that the synthesized composite can be potentially applied as a magnetic adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) contaminants from aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-014-0115-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147180PMC
September 2014

A case of left atrial myxoma with unusual tumor vascularity.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2015 May 26;23(4):458-60. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Cardiology, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

A 69-year-old woman presented with a 2-week history of chest pain and mitral and aortic valve replacement 15 and 5 years earlier. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a well-seated monoleaflet mitral valve and a bileaflet aortic valve with normal function. Cardiac catheterization showed 3-vessel coronary artery disease and an abnormal cluster of new vessels derived from the left atrial circumflex and posterior ventricle branches. Two- and 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography identified a semi-mobile oval left atrial mass with multiple internal cystic spaces, attached to the fossa ovalis region in the interatrial septum. The mass was resected. The pathological diagnosis was atrial myxoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492313513776DOI Listing
May 2015

Congenital coronary artery anomaly simulating a ventricular septal defect.

Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2015 Nov 9;23(9):1062-4. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Atherosclerosis Prevention Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Department of Cardiology, Ghaem hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Anomalous origin of the circumflex artery of the right sinus of Valsalva is a rare finding which may be present with other cardiac malformations. A 19-year-old man presented with syncope. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed discrete subaortic stenosis with a small defect just below the aortic valve, suggesting a ventricular septal defect. Transesophageal echocardiography showed anomalous origin of the circumflex artery from the right sinus of Valsalva. This was confirmed by coronary angiography. The patient underwent successful web resection without concomitant coronary surgery. Failure to demonstrate a coronary artery anomaly can be misleading for surgeons and perilous for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0218492314531422DOI Listing
November 2015

Carcinoid heart disease and the utility of 3D trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography: Two clinical cases.

J Saudi Heart Assoc 2014 Jan 28;26(1):51-5. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Cardiology, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad ; Member of Cardiovascular Research Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad ; Member of Preventive Cardiovascular Care Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad.

Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine malignancies. We present two cases of metastatic carcinoid tumors, complicated by carcinoid syndrome and by cardiac valve involvement. Carcinoid syndrome is characterized by secretory diarrhea, episodic flushing, and bronchospasm. Cardiac involvement occurs in up to 50% of patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors which commonly causes abnormalities of the right sided valves. Echocardiography is the best available and non invasive technique for diagnosis. Characteristic features of carcinoid heart disease are thickened, shortened, retracted, and fixed or partially fixed valve leaflets. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography provided an en face view of pulmonary and tricuspid valve, not obtainable by two-dimensional echocardiography, and improved delineation of the relationship between these structures and cardiac chambers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsha.2013.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3936238PMC
January 2014

Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 gene polymorphism C1858T is not associated with leprosy in Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran.

Indian J Hum Genet 2013 Oct;19(4):403-7

Bababaghi Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a human chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Several types of study support a role for host genetics in susceptibility to leprosy. The protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) gene encodes an intracellular lymphoid protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been shown to play a negative regulatory role in T-cell activation.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to find out associating the PTPN22 C1858T (R620W) polymorphism and leprosy in the Azeri population from Northwest Iran.

Materials And Methods: A total of 153 treated leprosy patients and 197 healthy and ethnic matched controls entered this study. We used restriction fragment length polymorphism method to type PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism.

Results: There was no significant difference in distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism between leprosy patients and controls (P = 0.641 and 0.645; respectively). Moreover, there was no significant association between different clinical findings (karnofsky performance status score, clinical forms and manifestations of leprosy) and PTPN22 C1858T polymorphism. Data showed a low frequency of the minor (T) allele by 2.3% in leprosy and 1.5% in healthy individuals.

Conclusions: The PTPN22 C1858T (R620W) is not relevant in susceptibility to leprosy in the Azeri population of Northwest Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.124365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897133PMC
October 2013