Publications by authors named "Ali Ashraf"

126 Publications

Effect of double layer application on bond durability of universal adhesives to proximal dentin-cementum gingival margins.

Am J Dent 2021 Apr;34(2):80-86

Bioscience Research Center, College of Dentistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect on micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) of a double layer application of three universal adhesives applied in self-etch mode to proximal dentin/cementum gingival margins of class II direct composite restorations, immediately and after 12 months water storage.

Methods: 66 molars with compound class II cavities, with gingival margin 1 mm below CEJ, were divided into three groups according to the universal adhesive used. The adhesives evaluated included All-Bond Universal (AB), Single Bond Universal (SB), and Prime&Bond Elect (PB). The groups were further subdivided according to adhesive application technique, either single layer or double layer application. All teeth were restored with the same nanofilled resin composite. µTBS were examined at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute after 24 hours or 12 months water storage. Fracture mode was assessed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (P< 0.05).

Results: The double layer application µTBS values were significantly higher than single layer application in all groups. Regardless of the type of adhesive or application technique, all subgroups showed significantly decreased bond strength after aging. There were significant lower µTBS values for AB adhesive compared with the other two adhesives that demonstrated no significant differences between them. The double layer application technique was effective in enhancing µTBS values of all tested adhesives bonded to proximal dentin/cementum gingival margins compared to single layer application. Regardless of application technique, all tested adhesives were incapable of defying long-term water aging.

Clinical Significance: The double layer application technique may be recommended to enhance the bonding durability of universal adhesives to face challenges in bonding to dentin-cementum cervical margins.
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April 2021

The Correlation between Head of Bed Angle and Intra-Abdominal Pressure of Intubated Patients; a Pre-Post Clinical Trial.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2021 6;9(1):e23. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Nahavand School of Allied Medical Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Introduction: The recommended position for measuring Intra-Abdominal Pressure (IAP) is the supine position. However, patients put in this position are prone to Ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study was done to evaluate the relationship between bed head angle and IAP measurements of intubated patients in the intensive care unit.

Methods: In this clinical trial, seventy-six critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation were enrolled. IAP measurement was performed every 8 hours for 24 hours using the KORN method in three different degrees of the head of bed (HOB) elevation (0 , 15 , and 30 ). Bland-Altman analysis was performed to identify the bias and limits of agreement among the three HOBs. According to World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS), we can consider two IAP techniques equivalent if a bias of <1 mmHg and limits of agreement of - 4 to +4 were found between them. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (v. 19), and the significance level was considered as 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of intra-abdominal hypertension was 18.42%. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IAP were 8.44 ± 4.02 mmHg for HOB angle 0°, 9.58 ± 4.52 for HOB angle 15 and 11.10 ± 4.73 for HOB angle 30 (p = 0.0001). The IAP measurement bias between HOB angle 0°and HOB angle 15° was 1.13 mmHg. This bias was 2.66 mmHg between HOB angle 0° and HOB angle 30°.

Conclusion: Elevation of HOB angle from 0 to 30 degree significantly increases IAP. It seems that the measurement of IAP at HOB angle 15° was more reliable than 30°.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035694PMC
March 2021

Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: Review of Current Progress in the Properties and Manufacturing Process, and Possible Applications for COVID-19.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Bisha, P.O. Box 001, Bisha 67714, Saudi Arabia.

Over the last twenty years, researchers have focused on the potential applications of electrospinning, especially its scalability and versatility. Specifically, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds are considered an emergent technology and a promising approach that can be applied to biosensing, drug delivery, soft and hard tissue repair and regeneration, and wound healing. Several parameters control the functional scaffolds, such as fiber geometrical characteristics and alignment, architecture, etc. As it is based on nanotechnology, the concept of this approach has shown a strong evolution in terms of the forms of the materials used (aerogels, microspheres, etc.), the incorporated microorganisms used to treat diseases (cells, proteins, nuclei acids, etc.), and the manufacturing process in relation to the control of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of the mimetic nanofibers. However, several difficulties are still considered as huge challenges for scientists to overcome in relation to scaffolds design and properties (hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility) but also in relation to transferring biological nanofibers products into practical industrial use by way of a highly efficient bio-solution. In this article, the authors review current progress in the materials and processes used by the electrospinning technique to develop novel fibrous scaffolds with suitable design and that more closely mimic structure. A specific interest will be given to the use of this approach as an emergent technology for the treatment of bacteria and viruses such as COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13060916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002202PMC
March 2021

Dissecting Sex-Related Cognition between Alzheimer's Disease and Diabetes: From Molecular Mechanisms to Potential Therapeutic Strategies.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 5;2021:4572471. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

The brain is a sexually dimorphic organ that implies different functions and structures depending on sex. Current pharmacological approaches against different neurological diseases act distinctly in male and female brains. In all neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), sex-related outcomes regarding pathogenesis, prevalence, and response to treatments indicate that sex differences are important for precise diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. Pathogenesis of AD includes vascular dementia, and in most cases, this is accompanied by metabolic complications with similar features as those assembled in diabetes. This review discusses how AD-associated dementia and diabetes affect cognition in relation to sex difference, as both diseases share similar pathological mechanisms. We highlight potential protective strategies to mitigate amyloid-beta (A) pathogenesis, emphasizing how these drugs act in the male and female brains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4572471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960032PMC
March 2021

Molecular mechanisms of anticancer activities of polyphyllin VII.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Apr 7;97(4):914-929. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.

Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the world. The major therapies for cancer treatment are chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. All these therapies expensive, toxic and show resistance. The plant-derived compounds are considered safe, cost-effective and target cancer through different pathways. In these pathways include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dependent and independent, STAT3, NF-kB, MAPKs, cell cycle, and autophagy pathways. One of the new plants derived compounds is Polyphyllin VII (PPVII), which target cancer through different molecular mechanisms. In literature, there is a review gap of studies on PPVII; therefore in the current review, we summarized the available studies on PPVII to provide a base for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13818DOI Listing
April 2021

The environment contributes more than genetics to smaller hippocampal volume in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 31;137:579-588. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta GA; Atlanta VAMC, Decatur, GA, USA; The Vietnam Era Twin Registry, Seattle Veterans Administration Epidemiology Research, USA.

Background: Studies using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetrics showed smaller hippocampal volume in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These studies were cross-sectional and did not address whether smaller volume is secondary to stress-induced damage, or whether pre-existing factors account for the findings. The purpose of this study was to use a co-twin case control design to assess the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to hippocampal volume in PTSD.

Methods: Monozygotic (N = 13 pairs) and dizygotic (N = 21 pairs) twins with a history of Vietnam Era military service, where one brother went to Vietnam and developed PTSD, while his brother did not go to Vietnam or develop PTSD, underwent MR imaging of the brain. Structural MRI scans were used to manually outline the left and right hippocampus on multiple coronal slices, add the areas and adjust for slice thickness to determine hippocampal volume.

Results: Twins with Vietnam combat-related PTSD had a mean 11% smaller right hippocampal volume in comparison to their twin brothers without combat exposure or PTSD (p < .05). There was no significant interaction by zygosity, suggesting that this was not a predisposing risk factor or genetic effect.

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with smaller hippocampal volume in PTSD, and suggest that the effects are primarily due to environmental effects such as the stress of combat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.10.042DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of different polishing techniques on surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of three glass ionomer-based restorative materials: study.

J Clin Exp Dent 2020 Jul 1;12(7):e620-e625. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Clinical Professor and Chairman of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Background: Although many reports concluded that polishing of glass ionomers is crucial for smoother surface and limiting the adhesion of cariogenic bacteria, there is no specific surface treatment protocol recommended. A novel material in the same category was released recently claimed to have surface smoothness comparable to resin composite and bacterial adhesion less than other types of glass ionomers. In this study, different polishing systems were tested with three glass ionomers one of them is the novel material to find the most appropriate polishing protocol. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion to resin modified glass ionomer, bioactive ionic resin and conventional glass ionomer restorative materials after different polishing protocols in vitro.

Material And Methods: The materials tested includes resin modified glass ionomer, bioactive ionic resin, and conventional glass ionomer. The polishing protocols were divided into four groups: group 1 = (Mylar matrix strips, Control), group 2 = (one-step, PoGo), group 3 = (two-step, Prisma Gloss) and group 4 = (three-step, Sof-Lex). From each material, eleven cylindrical specimens were prepared for each group according to the manufacturers' instructions. The surface roughness for all specimens was measured using atomic force microscope in tapping mode. the same specimens were subjected to bacterial adhesion testing after being coated with artificial saliva. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance followed by Post hoc multiple comparisons.

Results: The highest Ra and adhesion values were recorded for all materials in two-step group. The lowest Ra and adhesion values were seen in one-step and three step groups.

Conclusions: One-step polishing system was more effective and may be preferable for polishing of the three studied glass ionomer-based materials compared to two-step and three-step systems. Activa bioactive restorative, glass ionomer, surface roughness, bacterial adhesion, surface treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.56616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462382PMC
July 2020

Towards thermoneutral hydrogen evolution reaction using noble metal free molybdenum ditelluride/graphene nanocomposites.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 29;581(Pt B):847-859. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA. Electronic address:

The development of efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen generation is an essential task to meet future energy demand. In recent years, molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe) has triggered incredible research interests due to intrinsic nontrivial band gap with promising semi-metallic behaviors. In this work, 2D MoTe nanosheets have been synthesized uniformly on graphene substrate through ultra-fast microwave-initiated approach, that shows a superior hydrogen evolution in acidic medium with low overpotential (~150 mV), low activation energy (8.4362 ± 1.5413 kJ mol), along with a Tafel slope of 94.5 mV/decade. Interestingly, MoTe/graphene exhibits the enhanced electrocatalytic stability during the long cycling test, resulting an increase in specific surface area of catalyst materials. Moreover, the results from periodic plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) indicate that, the best active sites are the corner of a Mo-atom and a critical bifunctional site comprised of adjacent Mo and Te edge atoms. Furthermore, the corresponding volcano plot reveals the near thermoneutral catalytic activity of MoTe/graphene for hydrogen generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.07.122DOI Listing
January 2021

Mechanisms of cancer stem cell therapy.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Nov 11;510:581-592. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Section of Surgery Room, Razi hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for carcinogenesis and tumorigenesis and are involved in drug and radiation resistance, metastasis, tumor relapse and initiation. Remarkably, they have other abilities such as inheritance of self-renewal and de-differentiation. Hence, targeting CSCs is considered a potential anti-cancer therapeutic strategy. Recent advances in the identification of biomarkers to recognize CSCs and the development of new techniques to evaluate tumorigenic and carcinogenic roles of CSCs are instrumental to this approach. Elucidation of signaling pathways that regulate CSCs colony progression and drug resistance are critical in establishing effective targeted therapies. CSCs play a central key role in immunomodulation, immune evasion and effector immunity, which alters immune system balancing. These include mTOR, SHH, NOTCH and Wnt/β-catering in cancer progression. In this review article, we discuss the importance of these CSCs pathways in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.08.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Socioeconomic status dependent medical complexities in children with sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 12;27(7):1781-1787. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Applied Nutrition Group, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

A look into the associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with prevalence of various complications in sickle cell disease (SCD) is necessary, for an improvement of societal norms, governmental health policies and strategies. We therefore studied the influence of SES indices on certain hematological and clinical parameters in children with SCD in Saudi Arabia. We included 32 female and 33 male patients aged 5-16 years, who were classified based upon their family income. Family monthly income was divided into 4 categories from lowest to highest, with socioeconomic class1 having low earnings of <5000 SAR; the middle income class divided further into class 2 with earnings >5000-10,000 SAR, and class 3 with earnings >10,000-15,000 SAR; and the higher income class 4 with earnings of >15,000 SAR. The assessment indices used were, the frequency of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), adverse events, and hematological parameters. A higher percentage of children affected with the disease were from class1, which is the low socio-economic class. It was found that the percentage of frequency of VOC pain crisis, and adverse events was higher in social class 1 patients than in the classes 2, 3, and 4. Also, the age group 5-10 years appeared more susceptible to adverse events and VOC. Our findings suggest the need to conduct future larger studies, to deduce the modifying influence of disparity in SES on certain clinical and hematological indices in children with SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296505PMC
July 2020

The Global Prevalence of Class 1 Integron and Associated Antibiotic Resistance in from Patients with Urinary Tract Infections, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Oct 13;26(10):1208-1218. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The present systematic review and meta-analysis study aimed to investigate the prevalence of class 1 integrons and their associated antibiotic resistance in uropathogenic A systematic search was conducted to identify studies meeting our inclusion criteria in the Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar electronic databases to the end of July 2019. Finally, 35 articles were selected for data extraction, and meta-analysis was performed using the metaprop program in the STATA, version 11.0, software. The pooled prevalence of class 1 integrons was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 40-54), ranging from 6% to 90%. There was significant heterogeneity among the 35 studies (χ = 840.37;  < 0.001;  = 95.95%). The results of the subgroup analysis based on characterization of patients indicated that pooled prevalence of class 1 integrons was 52% (95% CI: 41-63;  = 14 studies) and 43% (95% CI: 34-54;  = 19 studies) in hospitalized and community patients, respectively. The lowest and highest prevalence of antibiotic resistance was observed for imipenem and ampicillin, respectively. According to the results of Begg's and Egger's tests, we did not find significant publication bias both in the included studies and in the subgroup analysis. The results show the high prevalence of class 1 integrons and high level of antibiotic resistance in association with those among uropathogenic . Moreover, the prevalence of class 1 integrons in Asian countries, as well as hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI), was higher than in other countries and community-acquired UTI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0467DOI Listing
October 2020

Differential expression of circulating serum miR-1249-3p, miR-3195, and miR-3692-3p in non-small cell lung cancer.

Hum Cell 2020 Jul 25;33(3):839-849. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Global deregulation in miRNA expression is a hallmark of cancer cell. An estimated 2300 mature miRNAs are encoded by human genome; role of many of which in carcinogenesis and as cancer biomarkers remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated the utility of miR-3692-3p, miR-3195, and miR-1249-3p as biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For this prospective study, 115 subjects, including 75 NSCLC patients and 40 controls, were recruited. The expression of miR-3692-3p, miR-3195, and miR-1249-3p was checked using qRT-PCR. The miRNA expression was correlated with survival outcome and therapeutic response. There were no significant differences in the mean age of NSCLC patients and controls (56.2 and 55.3 years, respectively; p = 0.3242). Majority of NSCLC patients (67%) were smokers. We observed a significant upregulation of miR-3692-3p expression (p < 0.0001), while the expression of miR-3195 (p = 0.0017) and miR-1249-3p was significantly downregulated (p < 0.0001) in the serum of NSCLC patients as compared to controls. The expression of miR-1249-3p was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma versus lung squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0178). Interestingly, patients who responded to chemotherapy had higher expression of miR-1249-3p than non-responders (p = 0.0107). Moreover, patients with higher expression of miR-3195 had significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.0298). In multivariate analysis, miR-3195 emerged as independent prognostic factor for overall survival. We conclude that the miR-3195 may have prognostic significance, while miR-1249-3p may predict therapeutic response in NSCLC. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of these miRNAs in lung carcinogenesis and their utility as candidate cancer biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-020-00351-9DOI Listing
July 2020

Middle East respiratory syndrome: pathogenesis and therapeutic developments.

Future Virol 2019 Apr 18;14(4):237-246. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Hematology Lab Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

The first case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified in the year 2012, which spread rapidly and increased to more than 2200 in 2018. This highly pathogenic virus with high mortality rate is among one of the major public health concerns. Saudi Arabia remains to be the most affected region with the majority of MERS-CoV cases, and currently, no effective drugs and vaccines are available for prevention and treatment. A large amount of information is now available regarding the virus, its structure, route of transmission and its pathophysiology. Therefore, this review summarizes the current understanding of MERS-CoV's pathogenesis, treatment options and recent scientific advancements in vaccine and other therapeutic developments, and the major steps taken for MERS prevention control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fvl-2018-0201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080179PMC
April 2019

In vitro activity of colistin against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-24-like genes: A multicenter based study.

Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 2020 Mar 9;67(3):182-186. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

4Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

This study was aimed to evaluate occurrence of antibiotic resistance and the presence of resistance determinants among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. This cross-sectional study from January to September 2018 was performed on 59 A. baumannii strains isolated from clinical samples in the north of Iran. Isolates were identified by standard microbiologic tests and molecular method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The presence of carbapenem resistance genes was detected by PCR method. All isolates were resistant to cefepime, meropenem, imipenem and ceftazidime. The lowest resistance rate was observed against doxycycline with 33.9%. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results showed that all carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) isolates were susceptible to colistin with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 1/2 µg/mL. Among 59 CRAB, blaOXA-23-like was the most prevalent gene (86.4%) followed by blaOXA-24-like (69.5%). Meanwhile, none of the clinical isolates harbored blaOXA-58-like gene. We found a high prevalence of CRAB strains harboring OXA-type carbapenemases in the north of Iran. Our results suggests that the presence of OXA-type genes was not directly correlated with the increase of imipenem MIC level, but can be clinically important as they contribute to the selection of CRAB strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/030.2020.01031DOI Listing
March 2020

Efficient Power Control Framework for Small-Cell Heterogeneous Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Mar 7;20(5). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Instituto de Telecomunicações (IT) and Departamento de Eletrónica, Telecomunicações e Informática (DETI), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Heterogeneous networks are rapidly emerging as one of the key enablers of beyond fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks. It is gradually becoming clear to the network operators that existing cellular networks may not be able to support the traffic demands of the future. Thus, there is an upsurge in the interest of efficiently deploying small-cell networks for accommodating a growing number of user equipment (UEs). This work further extends the state-of-the-art by proposing an optimization framework for reducing the power consumption of small-cell base stations (BSs). Specifically, a novel algorithm has been proposed which dynamically switches off the redundant small-cell BSs based on the traffic demands of the network. Due to the dynamicity of the formulated problem, a new UE admission control policy has been presented when the problem becomes infeasible to solve. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed solution, the simulation results are compared with conventional techniques. It is shown that the proposed power control solution outperforms the conventional approaches both in terms of accommodating more UEs and reducing power consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085631PMC
March 2020

Identification of differentially expressed circulating serum microRNA for the diagnosis and prognosis of Indian non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Curr Probl Cancer 2020 08 23;44(4):100540. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: Identification of noninvasive blood-based biomarkers is of utmost importance for the early diagnosis and predicting prognosis of advance stage lung cancer patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in numerous diseases, however, their role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in Indian lung cancer patients has not been evaluated yet.

Methods: For the identification of differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, we performed small RNA sequencing. We validated the expression of 10 miRNAs in 75 NSCLC patients and 40 controls using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). miRNA expression was correlated with survival and therapeutic response.

Results: We identified 16 differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum of NSCLC patients as compared to controls. We observed significant downregulation of miR-15a-5p, miR-320a, miR-25-3p, miR-192-5p, let-7d-5p, let-7e-5p, miR-148a-3p, and miR-92a-3p in the serum of NSCLC patients. The expression of miR-375 and miR-10b-5p was significantly downregulated in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients than controls. The expression of miR-320a, miR-25-3p, and miR-148a-3p significantly correlated with stage. None of the miRNAs were correlated with survival outcome and therapeutic response.

Conclusions: We conclude that the relative abundance of miRNAs in serum may be explored for the development of miRNA-based assays for better diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLC. Moreover, further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of some of the less explored miRNAs, such as miR-375 and miR-320a, in the pathogenesis of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2020.100540DOI Listing
August 2020

Propagating Relationship of Cerebral Oximetric Volume and the Clinical Outcome of Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (r-TPA) Therapy on Acute Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Patients.

Adv J Emerg Med 2020 17;4(1):e7. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Poursina Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Introduction: Currently, the most available treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-TPA). A challenge in r-TPA therapy is the prediction of recovery in each case.

Objective: The aim was to find a possible relationship between the cerebral oximetry indexes and the clinical outcome of r-TPA therapy to assess the cerebral oximetry as a non-invasive monitoring agent for therapy.

Methods: The inclusion criteria were all patients with AIS who received r-TPA. The neurologic status was evaluated based on the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) score at arrival, and after a period of 24 hours. In addition, the levels of brain oxygenation in both hemispheres were measured before and continuously over the first 24 hours after r-TPA injection, using an oximetric sensor in the frontal lobes. The clinical success was defined as a 4-point improvement from the baseline NIHSS.

Results: Total 44 patients with the mean age of 58.2 ± 2.18 years were enrolled, of whom 68.18% were male. Twenty-eight patients remained clinically unimproved and 16 patients were improved. A significant difference was found in the mean surface area under the brain oximetric curve in the 24 hour, in the affected hemisphere in the improved group, compared to the unimproved group (P = 0.007). There was a significant difference between the mean increase in brain oxygenation within 24 hours in the improved and unimproved groups (P = 0.002).

Conclusion: It is likely that, The cerebral oximetry could contribute to predict the likelihood of r-TPA prognosis in patients with AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22114/ajem.v0i0.174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6955029PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Microleakage of Three Glass Ionomer-Based Class V Restorations: In Vitro Study.

Eur J Dent 2019 Oct 31;13(4):599-606. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the marginal adaptation and microleakage of class V cavities restored with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), and bioactive ionic resin (BIR) restorative materials after 6 months of water storage.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty standardized class V cavities (2 mm deep, 4 mm in width, and 3 mm in height) were prepared in sound extracted human molar teeth, where the coronal margins were in enamel while the cervical margins were in dentin. Three glass ionomer-based restorations were tested ( = 40): GIC (Equia Fil), RMGI (Fuji II LC), and BIR (ACTIVA Bioactive Restorative). Half of the teeth from each group ( = 20) were evaluated for their marginal adaptation with scanning electron microscopy and the other half submitted to dye penetration test to examine microleakage. Further division for each subgroup ( = 10) occurred to be tested immediately, while the remaining teeth were examined after keeping for 6 months and thermocycling.

Statistical Analysis: The outcomes were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.

Results: No statistically significant differences were observed among the three studied restorative materials. However, the differences were statistically significant in microleakage test between enamel and dentin and after water aging.

Conclusion: All tested restorative materials exhibited the same marginal adaptation and microleakage. Dentin substrate revealed greater microleakage than enamel, especially with BIR restorative material. Water aging had a negative effect on RMGI with respect to microleakage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3401435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938416PMC
October 2019

Zika Virus Targeting by Screening Inhibitors against NS2B/NS3 Protease.

Biomed Res Int 2019 22;2019:3947245. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Zika flavivirus is suspected to cause Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly, along with other congenital abnormalities in infants. Presently, no vaccines or therapeutics are available. Here, we report novel compounds identified by high-throughput virtual screening of Maybridge chemical database and molecular docking studies. We selected viral enzyme NS2B/NS3 serine protease as the therapeutic target because of its important role in viral replication. We selected seven potential compounds as antiviral drug candidates because of their high GOLD fitness score, high AutoDock Vina score, or X-Score binding energy and analyzed the strength of molecular interactions between the active site amino acids and selected compounds. Our study also provides a foundation for similar studies for the search of novel therapeutics against Zika virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3947245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893251PMC
May 2020

An optimized mixed-mode stationary phase based on silica monolith particles for the separation of peptides and proteins in high-performance liquid chromatography.

J Sep Sci 2019 Dec 20;42(24):3621-3630. Epub 2019 Oct 20.

Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon, South Korea.

A phase with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic functionalities has been synthesized by modification of ground silica monolith particles with C18 and 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] urea ligands. A series of phases was prepared by changing the ratio of the two ligands to determine the optimal ratio in view of separation efficiency. The resultant optimized stationary phase was packed in narrow-bore glass-lined stainless-steel columns (1 × 300 mm and 2.1 × 100 mm) and used for the separation of synthetic peptides and proteins. The average numbers of theoretical plates (N) of 52 100/column (174 000/m, 5.75 µm plate height) and 35 500/column (118 000/m, 8.47 µm plate height) were achieved with the 300 mm column at a flow rate of 25 µL/min (0.86 mm/s) in 60:40 v/v acetonitrile/30 mM aqueous ammonium formate for the mixture of peptides (Thr-Tyr-Ser, Val-Ala-Pro-Gly, angiotensin I, isotocin, and bradykinin) and for the mixture of proteins (myoglobin, human serum albumin, and insulin), respectively. Fast analysis of the peptides and proteins was also carried out at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min (6.88 mm/s) with the 100 mm column and all the analytes were eluted within 2 min with good separation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201900914DOI Listing
December 2019

Effects of a mental stress challenge on brain function in coronary artery disease patients with and without depression.

Health Psychol 2019 Oct 5;38(10):910-924. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Medicine.

Objective: Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with comorbid depression show an increase in mortality compared to cardiac patients without depression, but the mechanisms mediating this effect remain obscure. One possible explanation for this finding is that depressed patients with CAD exhibit an increased vulnerability to stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of stress and depression on brain function and to explore its relationship with myocardial ischemia in CAD patients.

Methods: Patients with CAD and depression ( = 13) and CAD without depression ( = 15) underwent imaging of the brain with positron emission tomography and [O-15] water and imaging of the heart with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [Tc-99] sestamibi under mental stress task and control conditions.

Results: CAD patients with depression compared to nondepressed showed decreased function with mental stress in the rostral anterior cingulate, the hippocampus, parts of the dorsolateral temporal and parietal cortex, the cerebellum, and the uncus, with increased blood flow in the parahippocampus, visual association cortex, and posterior cingulate. Depressed CAD patients who became ischemic during a mental stress task had relative decreases in the caudal and posterior cingulate, orbitofrontal cortex, and cerebellum, and increased activation in the parietal cortex and precuneus/visual association cortex compared to nonischemic depressed CAD patients.

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with dysfunction in a network of brain regions involved in the stress response in patients with comorbid CAD and depression that has direct and indirect links to the heart, suggesting a pathway by which stress and depression could lead to increased risk of heart disease related morbidity and mortality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746592PMC
October 2019

Impact of omega-3 fatty acids on calorie intake and certain anthropometric measurements in children with sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia.

Bioinformation 2019 15;15(3):189-193. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Hematology, Al-Noor Specialist hospital Makah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The nutritional status and growth in children with sickle cell disease is compromised due to intake of diet that is low in calories as well as deficient in nutrients. Growth stunting and a low body mass index have been observed in these children. Some children exhibit pica, which is an abnormal eating pattern by ingesting things other than food, like paper, wood etc. This also was found to correlate to lower hemoglobin values. Interventions with certain essential nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids are known to benefit these children in terms of lowering their complications due to the disease. We therefore wished to see if omega-3 fatty acids exhibit positive effects on their nutritional intake and growth parameters too. Hence, we supplemented these children with omega-3 fatty acids for a period of six months. Both the male and female children with the disease significantly improved their calorific intake as well as body mass index. Also a lowering of pica status was distinctly observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6026/97320630015189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637403PMC
March 2019

Significance of Cardiac Troponin I Elevation in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

Anesth Pain Med 2019 Apr 28;9(2):e90858. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Myocardial dysfunction is frequently described as an underlying cause of mortality in traumatic brain injury (TBI) known as brain-cardiac link. However the impact on prognosis of a disease remains uncertain.

Objectives: The current study aimed at investigating the correlation between TBI and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) rise and in-hospital mortality rate among patients with TBI.

Methods: In the current prospective study TBI patients with abbreviated injury scale score (AIS) > 3 and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score ≤ 8 with cTnI measurement within the first 24 hours of admission were evaluated. Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Logistic Regression tests were used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 166 eligible patients were studied .The mean age of the cases was 37.64 ± 17.21 years, largely under 65 (93.4%) and male (86.7%).The most common injuries were cerebral contusion (35.1%), while motor vehicle crash (MVC) was the most common cause of injuries (83.73%); 59 % of the patients showed detectable cTnI concentrations within 24 hours of admission; 65.7% of the patients expired; they showed higher levels of cTnI compared to survivors that showed lower levels, 0.148 ± 0.074 vs 0.057 ± 0.055, respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, a significant association was observed between mortality rate and lower admission GCS 3.49 ± 1.08 vs 6.79 ± 1.66, respectively (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Increased cTnI levels could be a predictor of mortality among patients with TBI. Its measurement and investigation for therapeutic strategies could lead to better management of these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.90858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614916PMC
April 2019

Minimum 20-Year Health-Related Quality of Life and Surgical Rates After the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Spine Deform 2019 05;7(3):417-427

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Study Design: Longitudinal cohort.

Objectives: To determine the patient-reported functional outcomes and need for related surgical procedures in a US cohort of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with minimum 20-year follow-up.

Summary Of Background Data: There is limited information regarding the long-term outcomes of scoliosis treatment in the US population.

Methods: A novel population of patients who underwent pediatric treatment for AIS with minimum 20-year follow-up was identified. Search of a single-center diagnostic registry generated 337 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria (AIS, curve magnitude >35°, and childhood treatment with bracing, surgery, or observation from 1975 to 1992). Any additional spine surgery as well as EQ5D, ODI, SRS 22, SAQ were determined. A total of 180 patients were included (mean of 30-year follow-up, range 20-37). Childhood treatment entailed bracing (41 patients), surgery (103 patients), and observation (36 patients).

Results: During the study period, only 1 of the 41 bracing patients underwent additional scoliosis-related spine surgery, whereas 5 of the 36 patients in the observation cohort underwent scoliosis surgery as adults. Seven of 103 childhood surgical patients required additional revision surgery as adults. Fifteen patients (4 braced, 7 fusion, and 4 observed) underwent chest wall surgery as adults. SRS scores were around 10% worse compared to population-based controls, with the exception of SRS mental health scores, which were similar to controls. Overall, 5.6% of patients were on disability, with no difference between operative and nonoperative groups.

Conclusion: We found a low rate of adult scoliosis surgery in the braced population, and a low rate of revision surgery at the 30-year follow-up in patients undergoing spine fusion for AIS between 1975 and 1992. No detected differences in patient-reported outcomes were found between the braced, surgical, and observed populations at a mean of 30 years' follow-up.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.09.003DOI Listing
May 2019

Treatment of Pediatric Osteoid Osteomas Not Amenable to Radiofrequency Ablation: A Retrospective Review of Surgical Outcomes.

J Surg Orthop Adv Winter 2018;27(4):299-302

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota; e-mail:

The purpose of this study is to describe the surgical treatment of osteoid osteomas in a pediatric cohort of patients who were found not to be candidates for percutaneous ablative therapies. Medical records for 29 pediatric patients who were treated surgically for osteoid osteomas were reviewed. Reasons for surgical management included diagnostic uncertainty or lesions that were in close proximity to an articular surface or neurovascular structure. Twenty-eight patients experienced complete symptom resolution. Surgical treatment may still be indicated in a select group of osteoid osteoma patients who are not candidates for percutaneous treatment. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 27(4):299-302, 2018).
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June 2019

Polystyrene bound silica monolith particles of reduced size as stationary phase of excellent separation efficiency in high performance liquid chromatograhy.

J Chromatogr A 2019 Jun 7;1594:72-81. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 100 Inharo, Michuhol-gu, Incheon 22212, South Korea. Electronic address:

Ground silica monolith particles of quite smaller average size (2 μm) have been prepared by sol-gel process followed by soft grinding and calcination. Next a highly efficient chromatographic stationary phase has been prepared by reaction of those particles with (3-chloropropyl) trimethoxysilane followed by initiator attachment and modification of polystyrene by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resultant phase of ca 3 μm particle size was packed in micro-columns (1.0 mm × 300 mm & 1.0 mm × 150 mm) to show the separation efficiencies as high as 67,600 and 35,500 plates/ column, respectively, for the separation of 5 small test molecules at a mobile phase flow rate of 25 μL/min. The 300 mm column shows a separation efficiency better than any of the commercially available conventional packed columns so far. Multiple shapes and high surface roughness as well as reduced particle size of the stationary phase of this study seem to contribute to such enhanced separation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.02.013DOI Listing
June 2019

Role of viruses, prions and miRNA in neurodegenerative disorders and dementia.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 29;29(4):419-433. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National, Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Research Center, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21224 USA.

Dementia is known as loss of cellular communications in the brain at a region caused by multi-factorial diseases and pathogenic infections. Approximately eighty percent reported cases of Alzheimer's disease are followed by vascular dementia. The common symptoms of dementia include memory loss, concentration problems, thinking, and language solving situations. Dementia is a multifactorial disease but based on latest research; various reports have been published describing the linkage and role of viruses, prions and miRNAs in neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative disorders resulting into dementia and due to this we selected to review and provide latest information related to dementia. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs carrying genetic regulatory information contributing to neurological disorders among human and animals. A prion is an infectious agent made of protein material. Recently, it has been reported that prions play a significant role in signaling processes, resulting in amyloidogenesis and neurological disorders. Viruses attack human immune system and central nervous system and affect classical pathways of neurodegenerative diseases. Comprehensive understandings of the expression profiles and activities of these miRNAs, Prions, Viruses will illuminate their roles as potential therapeutic targets in neurodegeneration and may lead to the discovery of breakthrough treatment strategies for neurodegenerative disorders and dementia. The provided information will further be significant not only in neuro-scientific research, but also in designing and development of management strategies for dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-018-0492-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261888PMC
December 2018

Doppler and biochemical assessment for the prediction of early pregnancy outcome in patients experiencing threatened spontaneous abortion.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2018 Nov 31;143(2):150-155. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beni Suef University, Beni Suef, Egypt.

Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of Doppler indices of the corpus luteum and uterine artery in combination with serum progesterone and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) as prognostic tools in first-trimester threatened spontaneous abortion.

Methods: Pregnant women with threatened spontaneous abortion at a pregnancy duration 8-10 weeks were enrolled into an observational prospective clinical trial at a university hospital in Egypt during 2015. Doppler indices (uterine artery/corpus luteum resistance index and pulsatility index) and biochemical markers (CA125, progesterone) were determined and compared by pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortion vs continuing pregnancy at 20 weeks).

Results: Of 100 women included, 16 had a spontaneous abortion. These women had a higher CA125 value than did women without an abortion (P<0.001), whereas the progesterone level among women with an abortion was lower (P<0.001). The Doppler indices were not significantly different between the groups, but calculation of the uterine artery resistance index as a percentage of the normal standard value at a given pregnancy duration revealed significant differences (P<0.001) between the two groups.

Conclusion: Serum progesterone and CA125 are useful provisional predictors of spontaneous abortion, whereas the Doppler indices are not. The two biomarkers could be used as a basis to counsel anxious couples. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02420769.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12631DOI Listing
November 2018

Spectroscopic Characterization of Key Aromatic Molecules: A Route toward The Origin of Life.

Astron J 2017 Aug;154(3)

Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

To gain information on the abiotic synthesis of the building blocks of life from simple molecules, and their subsequent chemical evolution to biological systems, the starting point is the identification of target species in Titan-like planets, i.e., planets that resemble the primitive Earth, as well as in Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of their star, namely planets where life can be already originated. In this scenario, molecular spectroscopy plays a crucial role because spectroscopic signatures are at the basis of an unequivocal proof for the presence of these target molecules. Thanks to the advances in many different techniques and to the NASA successful Kepler exoplanet transit mission, thousands of diverse planets outside of our solar system have been discovered. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled to be launched in 2018, will be very helpful in the identification of biosignature gases in Earth-like planets' atmospheres and of prebiotic molecule signatures in Titan-like atmospheres by observing their absorption during transits. While the search for key-target molecules in exoplanet atmospheres can be carried out by the JWST Transit Spectroscopy in the infrared (IR) region (0.6 - 29 µm wavelength range), opportunities for their detection in protostellar cores, protoplanetary disks and on Titan are also offered by the interferometric high spectral and spatial resolution observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). In the present work, target molecules have been selected and their spectroscopic characterization presented in view of supporting their infrared and complementary millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectral observations. In detail, the selected target molecules include: (1) the three-membered oxygen-containing heterocycles: oxirane and protonated oxirane, (2) the cyclopropenyl cation and its methyl derivative, (3) two examples of ortho- and peri-fused tri-cyclic aromatic rings, i.e., the phenalenyl cation (CH) and anion (CH-), and (4) uracil, a specific RNA base.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881883PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/aa7d54DOI Listing
August 2017