Publications by authors named "Ali Asghar Farazi"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intra-familial Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Arak, Central Iran.

Iran J Pathol 2016 ;11(4):328-333

Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The household transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major health problem. High incidence of HBV infection is observed within the household contacts of HBV carriers. We aimed to evaluate serological markers of hepatitis B infection among family members of HBV carriers in Arak, central Iran.

Methods: Data were collected from the 100 chronic HBV carriers (subjects with positive HBsAg for at least 6 months period) as index cases and 700 members of their family. Then, we checked serologic markers of hepatitis B [hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti- HBs)] using the ELISA test.

Results: The prevalence rate of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc among household members was 23.3%, 20.4% and 23% respectively. Isolated anti-HBc (positive anti-HBc with negative HBsAg and anti-HBs) found in 0.4% of family members. Mothers and children with 47.6% and 17.2% had the highest and lowest rates of HBV infection, respectively (=0.00). There was a significant difference between mothers and spouses of index case (47.6% and 29.8%) regarding HBsAg positivity (=0.03).

Conclusion: The low rate of HBV infection reported in children reveal the effective prevention of HBV transmission with the universal vaccination programs and also importance of pregnant women screening for HBV serological markers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563930PMC
January 2016

Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Arak city, central province of Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2016 Oct;8(5):321-325

Department of Clinical Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide concern and it is the major cause of liver disease. Several genotypes of the HCV have been reported from different regions of the world. The determination of the HCV genotypes is important for the prediction of response to antiviral treatment and clinical outcomes. So, HCV genotyping in each region is of great importance. This investigation was performed to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes in Arak city, Central province of Iran.

Patients & Methods: In this cross sectional study, 174 cases with chronic HCV infection from Arak city were enrolled. HCV infection was confirmed by positive results in HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and HCV-RNA tests. HCV genotypes were determined using a PCR based genotyping kit.

Results: A total of 174 HCV infected patients with mean age of 37.5±10.24 years were enrolled. 97.7% of cases were male and 2.3% were female. The main route of HCV transmission was injection drug use (IDU) which was observed in 59.8% of cases. Genotyping results demonstrated that subtype 3a (52.9%) was the most prevalent HCV type in Arak, followed by subtype 1a (22.9%) and subtype 1ab (17.8%).

Conclusion: This study showed that HCV subtype 3a was the most prevalent HCV type, followed by subtype 1a and subtype 1ab in Arak, central province of Iran. Investigation of HCV genotypes in different parts of the country is needed to facilitate treatment options and preventive strategies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5277601PMC
October 2016

Antimycobacterial activity assessment of three ethnobotanical plants against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: An In Vitro study.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2016 Dec 27;5 Suppl 1:S108-S109. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Infectious Diseases Research Center (IDRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Objective/background: Resistances to herbal medicines are still not defined and finding natural remedies against drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has research priority. The antimycobacterial susceptibility method for herbal extracts is unclearly defined and there is no standard method for assessment of the materials against bacteria. In the present study, time kill of three medicinal plants was determined against MTB.

Methods: The clinical isolate of MTB from a patient who harbored confirmed tuberculosis was used in the study. Aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaves, mint, and Hypericum perforatum were prepared using reflux distillation. Disk diffusion methods were conducted in Petri dishes and McCartney bottles containing Löwenstein-Jensen medium to measure the sensitivity of plant extracts in serial concentrations of 0.25-8mg/mL. A pour plate method was performed by mixing 0.7mL of each concentration of extract in 5mL Löwenstein-Jensen medium followed by surface culturing of MTB fresh cells. The time kill method was conducted by bacterial suspension in equal amounts of the extract and viable evaluation in fresh culture at the beginning, and at 24-h, 48-h, 72-h, and 1-week intervals. All cultures were incubated at 37°C for 4weeks. Inoculum concentrations were considered as a variable.

Results: The zones of inhibition of A. vera, H. perforatum, and mint extracts in the disk diffusion method in McCartney bottles were 60mm, 41mm, and zero, respectively, but Petri dishes did not have repeatable results. In the pour plate method, an extract concentration up to 1mg/mL could inhibit cell growth. In mint extract, colony forming was four times more than the others at 0.5mg/mL. Time kill of 95% of cells occurred when exposed to extracts of A. vera and H. perforatum separately, but was 50% in 24 h and 20% in 10 min. The time kill for mint was 95% in 1week.

Conclusion: The results give some scientific basis to the use of plant extracts for growth control of MTB cells. Clinical trials are recommended for assessment of the extract as complementary medicine, as well as for antisepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmyco.2016.10.025DOI Listing
December 2016

Extensive Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Province of Iran.

Tuberc Res Treat 2014 19;2014:195287. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

PPD Tuberculin Department, Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute, Karaj 3197619751, Iran.

Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant disease in many countries. According to Iran's borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are among the 22 high burden countries around the world, this study was conducted to analyze the current molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and survey genetic diversity of Mtb strains in Markazi Province in center of Iran. In this experimental study, 75 sputum specimens and one gastric lavage from all smear-positive TB patients admitted to the public hospitals across the Markazi Province were cultured on specific mycobacterial culture media. Genomic DNA was digested by PvuII and transferred to positively charged nylon membrane by southern blotting method and hybridization by PGRS and DR probes. Genotyping of the isolates by PGRS-RFLP and DR-RFLP displayed a wide range of genetic diversity as 25 and 26 genotypes were identified, respectively. Generally speaking, despite the relatively limited number of isolates in the study, high age of patients and also large heterogeneity found in the setting are both in opposition to active circulation of Mtb strains between patients under study either Iranian or Afghan nationals. Thus, it seems that reactivation of latent infection has had the main role in the spread of tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/195287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253705PMC
December 2014

Serological response to one intradermal or intramuscular hepatitis B virus vaccine booster dose in human immunodeficiency virus-infected nonresponders to standard vaccination.

Perspect Clin Res 2014 Jul;5(3):134-8

Department of Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Purpose: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients without HBV immunity. However, serological response to standard HBV vaccination is frequently suboptimal in this population and the appropriate strategy for revaccination of HIV-infected nonresponders remained controversial. We aimed to determine the serological response to one booster dose of HBV vaccine given by intradermal (ID) or intramuscular (IM) route in HIV-positive nonresponders to standard HBV vaccination.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 42 HIV-infected nonresponders were enrolled. We randomized them to receive either 10 μg (0.5 mL) for ID (20 cases) or 20 μg (1 mL) for IM (22 cases) administration of HBV vaccine as a one booster dose. After 1 month, anti-HBs titer was checked in all cases. A protective antibody response (seroconversion) defined as an anti-HBs titer ≥10 IU/L.

Results: Seroconversion was observed in 47.6% of subjects after 1 ID dose. A total of 30% showed antibody titers above 100 IU/L. Except one case, all responders had CD4(+) >200 cells/mm(3). Mean anti-HBs titer was 146.5 ± 246 IU/L. After the one IM booster dose, seroconversion was observed in 50% of cases. A total of 36.3% of subjects had anti-HBs ≥100 IU/L. All responders had CD4(+) >200 cells/mm(3), except one case. Mean anti-HBs titer was 416.4 ± 765.6 IU/L. Responders showed significantly higher CD4(+) cell counts, in comparison to nonresponders (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: One booster dose administered IM or ID to HIV-infected nonresponders resulted in similar rates of seroconversion, overall response rate 50%. However, higher anti-HBs titers observed more frequently in IM group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2229-3485.134318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073551PMC
July 2014

Comparison of two durations of triple-drug therapy in patients with uncomplicated brucellosis: A randomized controlled trial.

Scand J Infect Dis 2014 Aug 16;46(8):573-7. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

From the Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center (TPIRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences , Arak , Iran.

Background: Brucellosis remains the most common zoonotic disease throughout the world and especially in Iran. Several clinical trials have tested different therapeutic regimens for brucellosis, but few have assessed the optimal duration of treatment.

Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial to compare a triple-drug regimen of doxycycline plus rifampicin for 6 weeks and streptomycin for the first 7 days with doxycycline plus rifampicin for 8 weeks and streptomycin for 7 days in patients with uncomplicated brucellosis in Arak, Iran. The primary outcome measure for the treatment groups was the relapse rate measured at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after cessation of therapy.

Results: Eligible patients were randomized to one of the 2 groups with 72 per arm. We found no significant difference in the relapse rate for the 8-week treatment group compared to the 6-week group (9.7% vs 13.9%). There were no significant differences between the 6-week and 8-week groups regarding the relapse rate, period between clinical presentation and beginning of treatment, and time of relapse. Symptom resolution was achieved in all cases at a median 9.5 days and no cases experienced continuing symptoms after treatment.

Conclusions: Our trial found no significant difference between 6-week and 8-week regimens of doxycycline and rifampicin plus streptomycin for the first 7 days. Further comparative studies with a large sample size should be implemented to achieve a consistent therapeutic regimen for uncomplicated brucellosis, to help identify those who may benefit from longer treatment, and to minimize adverse effects and unnecessary continuation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2014.918275DOI Listing
August 2014

Screening of family members of patients with acute brucellosis in an endemic area of Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2013 Sep;5(3):215-9

Clinical Research Dept., Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and it's still endemic in Iran. There are some reports regarding brucellosis infection in family members sharing same risk factors and remain unrecognized. However, few studies on the importance of family screening are available. We aimed to screen household members of index cases with acute brucellosis for detecting additional unrecognized cases in central province of Iran.

Patients And Methods: 163 family members of 50 index cases were enrolled in the study. Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination were checked in all samples. A case with STA titer ≥ 1:80, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination ≥ 40 and compatible signs and symptoms was considered positive for brucellosis.

Results: 15 (9.2%) of family members were seropositive for Brucella agglutinin and among them, 8 (53.3%) were asymptomatic and 7 (46.7%) were symptomatic. STA titer ranged from 1:80 to 1:640 in seropositive members. 4 of the 15 seropositive cases who identified by screening came from one index case with 6 family members. All symptomatic seropositive cases treated for Brucella infection and recovered without any complications in 6 months follow up.

Conclusion: On the basis of our data, family members of brucellosis patients are at risk of disease acquisition, and screening of household members provides an effective way for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However cost benefit of screening should be evaluated to reach definite decision for the implementation of the screening as a nationwide program.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895557PMC
September 2013

No correlation between interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphisms and hepatitis B virus infection outcome.

Hepat Mon 2013 May 19;13(5):e8803. Epub 2013 May 19.

Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran.

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of the interleukin (IL)-10 genes have a role in determining hepatitis B virus (HBV) outcome.

Objectives: This study evaluates the correlation between HBV infection and SNP in IL-10 gene promoter.

Patients And Methods: Ninety-six HBV-infected patients (32 chronic hepatitis B infection patients, 34 healthy carriers, 30 spontaneously recovered cases) and 31 healthy controls were enrolled. Three biallelic (-819,-592,-1082) regions in the IL-10 gene promoter were sequenced for all patients.

Results: Genotypes and haplotypes of IL-10 gene promoter region at position -1082, -819 and -592 were not significantly different among controls, HBV recovered cases, carriers and chronic HBV patients. Nevertheless, A/A genotype at position -592 and T/T genotype at position -819 were more frequently seen in the HBV clearance group, while frequency of G/G genotype at position -1082 was more prevalent in the persistence group. GCC/GCC and GCC/ACC haplotypes were significantly observed in anti-HBe positive individuals.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that IL-10 promoter polymorphisms were not correlated with HBV infection prognosis. Nevertheless, individuals carrying high and intermediate producer of IL-10 haplotypes had a better ability to develop anti-HBe than low producer carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.8803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3734898PMC
May 2013

Serum profile of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokines in hepatitis C virus infected patients.

Hepat Mon 2012 Dec 29;12(12):e6156. Epub 2012 Dec 29.

Tuberculosis and Pediatric Infectious Research Center (TPIRC), Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran.

Background: T-helper (Th) lymphocyte cytokine production may be important in the immune pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Th1 cytokines such as; interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) are necessary for host antiviral immune responses, while Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) can inhibit the development of these effector mechanisms.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the serum profile of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in treated and non-treated HCV infected individuals.

Patients And Methods: This study was carried out in 63 HCV infected patients (31 under treatment and 32 untreated) and 32 matched HCV-sero negative healthy subjects. Serum samples were checked with an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) for IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma.

Results: Levels of circulating IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma were significantly elevated in HCV patients versus normal controls (2 822.6 ± 1 259.92 vs. 950.8 ± 286.9 pg/mL; 1 987 ± 900.69 vs. 895.91 ± 332.33 pg/mL; 1 688.5 ± 1 405.1 vs. 519.03 ± 177.64 pg/mL and 1 501.9 ± 1 298 vs. 264.66 ± 71.59 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.001). The serum levels of all cytokines were significantly lower in the patients under treatment than those of the untreated patients (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: On the basis of our data, the simultaneous increase of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines may indicate that both Thl and Th2 cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of HCV infections. Moreover, this activated T-cell response in HCV infected patients may be regulated by treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.6156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575547PMC
December 2012

Viral hepatitis and HIV infection among injection drug users in a central Iranian City.

J Addict Med 2012 Dec;6(4):292-6

Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and occult HBV infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with isolated anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc).

Methods: A total of 153 male IDUs were tested for anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined in plasma samples of individuals with isolated anti-HBc (HBsAg negative, anti-HBs negative, and anti-HBc positive) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results: The prevalence of markers for viral hepatitis and HIV infections was 59.5% for anti-HCV, 44.4% for anti-HBs, 22.9% for anti-HBc, 7.2% for HBsAg, and 5.9% for anti-HIV. Several markers for coinfection, including HBV-HCV (5.9%), HCV-HIV (5.2%), HBV-HIV (2.0%), and HBV-HCV-HIV (1.3%), were present. Of the 7.2% of IDUs with isolated anti-HBc, all were anti-HCV positive and 18.2% were anti-HIV positive; however, no cases had detectable HBV-DNA as a marker of occult infection.

Conclusions: Markers for HCV, HBV, HIV, and combinations of these infections were common among IDUs in a city of central Iran. Isolated anti-HBc was associated with HCV but not with occult HBV infection in this sample. The 10-fold higher prevalence of HCV than HIV infection may be a harbinger of increasing HIV among IDUs in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0b013e3182659928DOI Listing
December 2012

Determination of principal genotypic groups among susceptible, MDR and XDR clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Belarus and Iran.

Tuberk Toraks 2012 ;60(2):153-9

Research Center of Molecular Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Introduction: All members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were assigned to one of the three principle genetic groups based on KatG463/GyrA95 polymorphism.

Materials And Methods: A total of 202 isolates of M. tuberculosis consisting of 50 susceptible, 121 MDR (multidrug resistant) and 31 XDR (extensively drug resistant) isolated from culture-confirmed tuberculosis patients in different regions of Belarus and Iran (Tehran and Markazi province). Isolates were screened by sequencing and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, and were further divided into three principal genetic groups (PGG), based on Sreevatsan's pattern as polymorphisms in KatG463/GyrA95 codons.

Results: Among the 104 isolates, characterized as MDR from Belarus, 57 (54.8 ± 4.8%), 30 (28.8 ± 4.43%), 17 (16.3 ± 3.6), belonged to PGG 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p< 0.05). Thirty one XDR isolates from Belarus had a similar pattern as 15 (48.4%), 12 (38.7%), 4 (12.9%) PGG 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From Iranian samples, Markazi isolates (susceptible to drugs) had a pattern as 12 (36.5%), 15 (45.5%), 3 (6%), and Tehran samples were (selected MDR): 9 (53%), 6 (35.2%), 2 (11.8%) (PGG 1, 2, and 3, respectively). In a study of tuberculosis patients, who were in prison, no relation was found between PGG and resistance to isoniazid, but most of the identified isolates belonged to PGG 1 (45.5 ± 10.9%) (p< 0.05). Overall, the group 1 isolates showed more frequency in MDR and XDR rather than susceptible strains, and there aren't any relations to geographic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.3520DOI Listing
September 2012

Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A virus in children of different age groups in Tehran, Iran: implications for health policy.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2010 May 11;8(3):176-9. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Background: Hepatitis A is one of the most frequently reported vaccine-preventable diseases throughout the world and remains endemic in many areas. Studies in various communities have shown that Hepatitis A virus (HAV) prevalence rises with age. The current data regarding hepatitis A epidemiology in Iran is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the seroepidemiology of hepatitis A in children of different age groups in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: Plasma samples of 1065 children between ages of 6 months and 20 years were tested for the presence of total anti-HAV. The study population was stratified according to age.

Results: The prevalence of total anti-HAV was 61.6%. HAV prevalence rates according to age groups were as follows: 61.5% between 6 months and 1.9 years, 51.7% between 2 and 5.9 years, 52.9% between 6 and 10.9 years, 65.2% between 11 and 15.9 years, 85% between 16 and 20 years. Total anti-HAV seroprevalence was significantly different between age groups.

Conclusion: The study findings indicate that hepatitis A is prevalent in children in Tehran, Iran and HAV infection is an important public health problem in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2010.02.004DOI Listing
May 2010