Publications by authors named "Ali Al Asadi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Post-embolization outcomes of splenic artery pseudoaneurysms: A single-center experience.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 26;80:160-166. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Splenic artery pseudoaneurysms (PSA) are relatively rare but associated with high mortality/morbidity when presenting acutely. Embolization has emerged as the treatment of choice. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of embolization for the treatment of splenic artery PSAs.

Methods: From 2007 to 2019, all patients that underwent embolization for splenic artery PSAs were included in this IRB-approved review. Evaluated outcomes included complications, morbidity/mortality rates, and 30-day white blood cell count. Student t-tests were performed to compare laboratory values before and after embolization. 5-year survival rates were estimated using Kaplan Meier methodology.

Results: A retrospective analysis of 24 patients (14 males, mean age 51 ± 19 years) who underwent splenic artery PSA embolization was performed. Fifteen PSA embolizations were performed in an emergent setting. There was technical success in 23/24 patients. Etiologies included trauma (10), pancreatitis (9), post-surgical (3), and malignancy (2). Post-embolization patients had a mean length of stay of 19 days and within 30 days, 9 patients developed leukocytosis (median of 14,800/μl). The 5-year survival rate of these patients was 89% [95% CI 75% - 100%]. Post-procedure, 4 patients developed grade 2 complications. Grade 3 complications were observed in 5 patients. One (4.2%) splenic abscess was identified. Of the 19 patients with follow-up imaging, 14 patients had splenic infarcts (5 infarcts were >50% of splenic volume).

Conclusions: Splenic artery PSAs are encountered in the emergent setting and are most frequently secondary to trauma or pancreatitis. Embolization can be life-saving in these critically ill patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.07.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients undergoing curative-intent resection of localized adrenocortical carcinoma.

Am J Surg 2021 07 4;222(1):119-125. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center Department of Surgery, 2160 S 1st Ave, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.

Background: Studies evaluating the role of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) in Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ACC) are limited due to its rarity. The objective of this study was to evaluate if ACT provides a survival benefit in patients who underwent curative-intent resection of localized ACC and to determine factors associated with receipt of ACT.

Methods: The National Cancer Data Base was queried to identify patients (2010-2016) with curative-intent resection of localized ACC (T1-T3, N0, M0).

Results: Of 577 patients with adrenalectomy, 389 (67%) had adrenalectomy alone, and 188 (33%) received ACT. Private insurance, lymphovascular invasion, stage II, and radiotherapy were predictors of ACT (P < 0.05). Advanced (T3) stage lymphovascular invasion, and being uninsured were associated with decreased OS (P < 0.05). There was no association between ACT and OS.

Conclusions: For patient who underwent curative-intent resection of localized ACC, there was no association between ACT and OS. Private insurance, lymphovascular invasion, stage II disease, and radiotherapy were associated with receipt of ACT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.10.038DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction to: Prognosticating Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Elevated Baseline Alpha-fetoprotein Treated with Radioembolization Using a Novel Laboratory Scoring System: Initial Development and Validation.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2020 May;43(5):806

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

The name of the eleventh author is listed incorrectly in the published article as Nitin Kataraya. The correct name is Nitin Katariya.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-020-02429-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Safety and efficacy of radioembolization with glass microspheres in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with elevated lung shunt fraction: analysis of a 103-patient cohort.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 04 10;47(4):807-815. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. St. Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Background: Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin is used to estimate lung shunt fraction (LSF) prior to yttrium-90 (Y90). Studies have debated the safety and efficacy of Y90 in patients with LSF > 15%. We aimed to assess the role of Y90 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with LSF > 15%.

Methods: With IRB approval, we searched our prospectively acquired database of HCC patients with Y90 treated with LSF > 15%. Median LSF and liver and lung doses were calculated. The response was assessed using RECIST. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from date of first Y90.

Results: A total of 103 HCC patients underwent Y90. The median baseline LSF was 24.4% (IQR 18.1-28.8). Patients exhibited multifocal disease (59/103, 60%) and median tumor size of 7.85 cm (IQR 5.2, 10.57). BCLC class was A, B, C, and D in 7 (7%), 5 (5%), 85 (83%), and 6 (6%) patients, respectively. The median liver dose was 84.6 Gy (IQR 57.4, 107.55). The median lung dose per session and cumulatively was 22.9 Gy (IQR 15-28) and 29.5 Gy (IQR 20.5-44.3). Thirty-three patients (32%) demonstrated partial response, 57 stable disease, and 13 (13%) had progressive disease. The median OS was 7.3 months (95% CI 5.3, 11.47). Twenty patients (19%) had non-specific pulmonary symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, wheezing) in the 1-year post-Y90. The median time to the appearance of non-specific pulmonary symptoms was 63 days (range 7-224). Thoracic imaging demonstrated no pulmonary fibrosis/injury following treatment in any patient.

Conclusion: Y90 can be performed in patients with LSF > 15%. The RECIST response was identified in 32% of the patients. In isolation, LSF > 15% should not deter from treatment with Y90.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04517-yDOI Listing
April 2020

Technical Aspects and Practical Approach Toward Same-Day Y90 Radioembolization in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Tech Vasc Interv Radiol 2019 Jun 28;22(2):93-99. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) has been proven safe and effective for the treatment of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Standard protocols have necessitated planning angiography with Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc99m MAA) administration/scan typically 1-2 weeks prior to the radioembolization therapy. The intent of this practice is to ensure appropriate patient selection and treatment candidacy while also confirming best dosimetry approaches. At our center, we started performing "same-day Y90" in 2008; in a subset of international patients with travel hardship, we performed the planning and treatment procedures consecutively on the same day. In this article, we reveal our practical approach to treating patients on the same day as planning angiography. With more than 160 same-day procedures completed between 2008 and 2017, the safety and efficacy of such a paradigm has been established at our center. This approach is appealing to patients, their families, and referring physicians. Appropriate patient selection and proper preprocedure planning based on baseline imaging are key elements in successful same-day radioembolization treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.tvir.2019.02.009DOI Listing
June 2019

Prognosticating Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Elevated Baseline Alpha-fetoprotein Treated with Radioembolization Using a Novel Laboratory Scoring System: Initial Development and Validation.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2019 May 1;42(5):700-711. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Aims: To investigate laboratory parameters as predictors of overall survival (OS) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with radioembolization and develop/validate a scoring system.

Methods: With IRB approval, we included all patients with baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) > 100 ng/dL from our prospectively acquired HCC radioembolization database. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI), and AFP were measured at baseline and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month post-radioembolization Landmarks. OS was assessed from these Landmarks. Univariate/multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate OS predictability of these parameters. Baseline Imaging, Laboratory, and Combination scoring systems were developed. Developing/validating groups were created to investigate/validate the score's OS predictability. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were evaluated. Patients were stratified into groups I, II, and III by using 25th and 75th percentile cutoffs according to change in Laboratory Score from baseline.

Results: 345/401 (86%), 238/401 (59%), and 167/401 (42%) patients had laboratory parameters available at the 1-, 3-, and 6-month Landmarks, respectively. ALBI and AFP were significant OS prognosticators at all Landmarks. The Laboratory Score [ALBI + (0.3 × LnAFP)] was developed/internally validated to predict OS from these Landmarks. Areas under the curve of time-dependent ROCs of the Baseline Imaging vs. Laboratory scores in predicting patient OS post 3 and 6 months Landmarks were 0.56 versus 0.82 and 0.57 versus 0.77, respectively. OS differences in groups I, II, and III according to change in Laboratory Score from baseline were significant (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Post-radioembolization AFP and ALBI scores were significant OS prognosticators. A decrease in post-therapeutic Laboratory Score, which combines AFP and ALBI, correlates with an improved OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-019-02191-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Radiation Segmentectomy: Potential Curative Therapy for Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Radiology 2018 Jun 24;287(3):1050-1058. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

From the Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology (R.J.L., A.G., N.A., R.A., A.A., R.A.M., K.D., B.T., S.M., R.H., A.R., R.S.), Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology (L.K., D.G.), Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation (J.C.C., M.A., R.S.), and Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology (R.S.), Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, 676 N St. Clair St, Suite 800, Chicago IL 60611.

Purpose To report long-term outcomes of radiation segmentectomy (RS) for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The authors hypothesized that outcomes are comparable to curative treatments for patients with solitary HCC less than or equal to 5 cm and preserved liver function. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 70 patients (median age, 71 years; range, 22-96 years) with solitary HCC less than or equal to 5 cm not amenable to percutaneous ablation who underwent RS (dose of >190 Gy) between 2003 and 2016. Patients who underwent subsequent curative liver transplantation were excluded to eliminate this confounding variable affecting survival. Radiologic response of time to progression and median overall survival were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method per the guidelines of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results Seventy patients were treated with RS over 14 years. Sixty-three patients (90%) showed response by using EASL criteria, of which 41 (59%) showed complete response. Fifty patients (71%) achieved response by using WHO criteria, of which 11 (16%) achieved complete response. Response rates at 6 months were 86% and 49% by using EASL and WHO criteria, respectively. Median time to progression was 2.4 years (95% confidence interval: 2.1, 5.7), with 72% of patients having no target lesion progression at 5 years. Median overall survival was 6.7 years (95% confidence interval: 3.1, 6.7); survival probability at 1, 3, and 5 years was 98%, 66%, and 57%, respectively. Overall survival probability at 1, 3, and 5 years was 100%, 82%, and 75%, respectively, in patients with baseline tumor size less than or equal to 3 cm (n = 45) and was significantly longer than in patients with tumors greater than 3 cm (P = .026). Conclusion RS provides response rates, tumor control, and survival outcomes comparable to curative-intent treatments for selected patients with early-stage HCC who have preserved liver function. RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2018171768DOI Listing
June 2018

Y Radioembolization for Locally Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Thrombosis: Long-Term Outcomes in a 185-Patient Cohort.

J Nucl Med 2018 07 7;59(7):1042-1048. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

We report survival outcomes for patients with advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) treated with Y radioembolization. With institutional review board approval, we searched our prospectively acquired database for Y patients treated between 2003 and 2017. Inclusion criteria were patients who had HCC with tumor PVT. Patients with metastases were excluded. Laboratory data were collected at baseline and 1 mo after Y radioembolization. Toxicity grades were reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0, and long-term survival outcomes were reported and stratified by Child-Pugh class (CP). Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. A subanalysis for patients with a high level of α-fetoprotein (AFP) (>100 ng/dL) was conducted. In total, 185 patients with HCC PVT underwent Y radioembolization. Seventy-four (40%) were CP-A, 51 (28%) were CP-B7, and 60 (32%) were ≥CP-B8. New albumin, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase grade 3/4 toxicities were, respectively, 3%, 10%, and 0% for CP-A; 14%, 12%, and 6% for CP-B7; and 23%, 32%, and 3% for ≥CP-B8. Median overall survival for CP-A patients was 13.3 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.7-15.7 mo). CP-B7 and ≥CP-B8 patients exhibited median overall survival of 6.9 mo (95% CI, 5.3-10.1 mo) and 3.9 mo (95% CI, 2.9-5.0 mo), respectively. Significant overall survival prognosticators on univariate analysis were albumin, bilirubin, ascites, tumor size 5 cm or smaller, focality, distribution, infiltration, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status, AFP level, and PVT extent. Multivariate analysis showed the prognosticators of overall survival to be bilirubin, no ascites, tumor size 5 cm or smaller, solitary lesion, baseline AFP level lower than 100 ng/dL, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status. Of 123 patients with a high AFP level (>100 ng/dL), 12 patients achieved restored normal AFP levels (<13 ng/dL) and exhibited median overall survival of 23.9 mo (95% CI, 20.1-124.1 mo). AFP responders at 1 mo had better overall survival than nonresponders, at 8.5 mo versus 4.8 mo ( = 0.018); AFP responders at 3 mo had overall survival of 13.3 mo, versus 6.9 mo for nonresponders ( = 0.021). Y radioembolization can serve as a safe and effective treatment for advanced-stage HCC patients with tumor PVT. Overall survival outcomes are affected by baseline liver function, tumor size, and AFP level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.117.199752DOI Listing
July 2018

Institutional decision to adopt Y90 as primary treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma informed by a 1,000-patient 15-year experience.

Hepatology 2018 10 29;68(4):1429-1440. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Yttrium-90 transarterial radioembolization (TARE) is a locoregional therapy (LRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we present overall survival (OS) outcomes in a 1,000-patient cohort acquired over a 15-year period. Between December 1, 2003 and March 31, 2017, 1,000 patients with HCC were treated with TARE as part of a prospective cohort study. A comprehensive review of toxicity and survival outcomes was performed. Outcomes were stratified by baseline Child-Pugh (CP) class, United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging systems. Albumin and bilirubin laboratory toxicities were compared to baseline. OS outcomes were reported using censoring and intention-to-treat methodologies. All treatments were outpatient, with a median one treatment per patient. Five hundred six (51%) were CP A, 450 (45%) CP B, and 44 (4%) CP C. Two hundred sixty-three (26%) patients were BCLC A, 152 (15%) B, 541 (54%) C, and 44 (4%) D. Three hundred sixty-eight (37%) were UNOS T1/T2, 169 (17%) T3, 147 (15%) T4a, 223 (22%) T4b, and 93 (9%) N/M. In CP A patients, censored OS for BCLC A was 47.3 (confidence interval [CI], 39.5-80.3) months, BCLC B 25.0 (CI, 17.3-30.5) months, and BCLC C 15.0 (CI, 13.8-17.7) months. In CP B patients, censored OS for BCLC A was 27 (CI, 21-30.2) months, BCLC B 15.0 (CI, 12.3-19.0) months, and BCLC C 8.0 (CI, 6.8-9.5) months. Forty-nine (5%) and 110 (11%) patients developed grade 3/4 albumin and bilirubin toxicities, respectively.

Conclusion: Based on our experience with 1,000 patients over 15 years, we have made a decision to adopt TARE as the first-line transarterial LRT for patients with HCC. Our decision was informed by prospective data and incrementally reported demonstrating outcomes stratified by BCLC, applied as either neoadjuvant or definitive treatment. (Hepatology 2017).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.29691DOI Listing
October 2018

Pictorial essay: imaging findings following Y90 radiation segmentectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2018 07;43(7):1723-1738

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, 676 N. St. Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Transarterial radioembolization is a novel therapy that has gained rapid clinical acceptance for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Segmental radioembolization [also termed radiation segmentectomy (RS)] is a technique that can deliver high doses (> 190 Gy) of radiation selectively to the hepatic segment(s) containing the tumor. The aim of this comprehensive review is to provide an illustrative summary of the most relevant imaging findings encountered after radiation segmentectomy. A 62-patient cohort of Child-Pugh A patients with solitary HCC < 5 cm in size was identified. A comprehensive retrospective imaging review was done by interventional radiology staff at our institution. Important imaging findings were reported and illustrated in a descriptive account. For the purposes of completeness, specific patients outside our initial cohort with unique educational imaging features that also underwent segmentectomy were included in this pictorial essay. This review shows that response assessment after RS requires a learning curve with common drawbacks that can lead to false-positive interpretations and secondary unnecessary treatments. It is important to recognize that treatment responses and pathological changes both are time dependent. Findings such as benign geographical enhancement and initial benign pathological enhancement can easily be misinterpreted. Capsular retraction and segmental atrophy are some other examples of unique post-RS response that are not seen in any other treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-017-1391-1DOI Listing
July 2018

Survival Analysis of Advanced HCC Treated with Radioembolization: Comparing Impact of Clinical Performance Status Versus Vascular Invasion/Metastases.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2018 Feb 6;41(2):260-269. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Purpose: In this study, we aim to compare the effects of prognostic indicators on survival analysis for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) C patients undergoing yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y-90).

Methods: A prospectively acquired database (2003-2017) for BCLC C hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients that underwent radioembolization with Y-90 was searched. The criteria for BCLC C status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 1 or 2, metastases, and/or portal vein thrombosis (PVT)) were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed from the date of the first radioembolization with Y-90, censored to curative treatment, to determine median overall survival (OS). Cox regression hazards model was used for multivariate analyses. Significance was set at P < 0.05.

Results: 547 BCLC C patients treated with radioembolization with Y-90 had a median OS of 10.7 months (range: 9.5-12.9). 43% (233 of 547) patients classified as BCLC C solely by their ECOG PS had a median OS of 19.4 months (14.7-23.7); 57% (314 of 547) patients with PVT/metastases had a median OS of 7.7 months (6.7-8.7). On multivariate analysis, ECOG PS was not found to be a statistically significant prognostic indicator of OS in BCLC C whereas metastases and PVT exhibited hazards ratios (95%CI) of 0.51 (0.38-0.69) and 0.49 (0.38-0.63), respectively (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Patients classified as BCLC C due to ECOG PS 1 demonstrated longer survival when compared to those presenting with PVT, metastases and/or ECOG PS 2. Hence, ECOG PS 1, as an isolated variable, may not be a true indicator of advanced disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-017-1791-1DOI Listing
February 2018

Radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Statistical confirmation of improved survival in responders by landmark analyses.

Hepatology 2018 03 26;67(3):873-883. Epub 2018 Jan 26.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL.

Does imaging response predict survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)? We studied the ability of posttherapeutic imaging response to predict overall survival. Over 14 years, 948 patients with HCC were treated with radioembolization. Patients with baseline metastases, vascular invasion, multifocal disease, Child-Pugh > B7, and transplanted/resected were excluded. This created our homogeneous study cohort of 134 patients with Child-Pugh ≤ B7 and solitary HCC. Response (using European Association for Study of the Liver [EASL] and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 [RECIST 1.1] criteria) was associated with survival using Landmark and risk-of-death methodologies after reviewing 960 scans. In a subanalysis, survival times of responders were compared to those of patients with stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Uni/multivariate survival analyses were performed at each Landmark. At the 3-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.82; P = 0.002) but not RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.70; CI, 0.37-1.32; P = 0.32). At the 6-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.32; CI, 0.15-0.77; P < 0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.50; CI, 0.29-0.87; P = 0.021). At the 12-month Landmark, responders survived longer than nonresponders by EASL (HR, 0.34; CI, 0.15-0.77; P <  0.001) and RECIST 1.1 criteria (HR, 0.52; CI 0.27-0.98; P = 0.049). At 6 months, risk of death was lower for responders by EASL (P <  0.001) and RECIST 1.1 (P = 0.0445). In subanalyses, responders lived longer than patients with SD or PD. EASL response was a significant predictor of survival at 3-, 6-, and 12-month Landmarks on uni/multivariate analyses.

Conclusion: Response to radioembolization in patients with solitary HCC can prognosticate improved survival. EASL necrosis criteria outperformed RECIST 1.1 size criteria in predicting survival. The therapeutic objective of radioembolization should be radiologic response and not solely to prevent progression. (Hepatology 2018;67:873-883).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.29480DOI Listing
March 2018

Clinical outcomes of Y90 radioembolization for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following curative resection.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2017 Dec 15;44(13):2195-2202. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern University, 676 N. St. Clair, Suite 800, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Purpose: To assess safety/efficacy of yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90) in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative surgical resection.

Methods: With IRB approval, we searched our prospectively acquired database for patients that were treated with Y90 for recurrent disease following resection. Baseline characteristics and bilirubin toxicities following Y90 were evaluated. Intention-to-treat overall survival (OS) and time-to-progression (TTP) from Y90 were assessed.

Results: Forty-one patients met study inclusion criteria. Twenty-six (63%) patients had undergone minor (≤3 hepatic segments) resection while 15 (37%) patients underwent major (>3 hepatic segments) resections. Two patients (5%) had biliary-enteric anastomoses created during surgical resection. The median time from HCC resection to the first radioembolization was 17 months (95% CI: 13-37). The median number of Y90 treatment sessions was 1 (range: 1-5). Ten patients received (entire remnant) lobar Y90 treatment while 31 patients received selective (≤2 hepatic segments) treatment. Grades 1/2/3/4 bilirubin toxicity were seen in nine (22%), four (10%), four (10%), and zero (0%) patients following Y90. No differences in bilirubin toxicities were identified when comparing lobar with selective approaches (P = 0.20). No post-Y90 infectious complications were identified. Median TTP and OS were 11.3 (CI: 6.5-15.5) and 22.1 months (CI: 10.3-31.3), respectively.

Conclusions: Radioembolization is a safe and effective method for treating recurrent HCC following surgical resection, with prolonged TTP and promising survival outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-017-3792-3DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparative study of post-transplant outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with chemoembolization or radioembolization.

Eur J Radiol 2017 Aug 20;93:100-106. Epub 2017 May 20.

Department of Radiology, Section of Interventional Radiology, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Surgery, Division of Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To analyze long-term outcomes in patients bridged/downstaged to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or yttrium-90 radioembolization (Y90) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: 172 HCC patients who underwent OLT after being treated with transarterial liver-directed therapies (LDTs) (Y90: 93; TACE: 79) were identified. Pre-LDT and pre-OLT clinical/imaging/laboratory characteristics including United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) staging and alpha-fetoprotein values (AFP) were tabulated. Post-OLT HCC recurrence was assessed by imaging follow-up per standard of care. Recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Uni/multivariate and sub-stratification analyses were performed.

Results: Time-to-OLT was longer in the Y90 group (Y90: 6.5 months; TACE: 4.8 months; p=0.02). With a median post-OLT follow-up of 26.1 months (IQR: 11.1-49.7), tumor recurrence was found in 6/79 (8%) TACE and 8/93 (9%) Y90 patients. Time-to-recurrence was 26.6 (CI: 7.0-49.5) and 15.9 months (CI: 7.8-46.8) for TACE and Y90, respectively (p=0.48). RFS (Y90: 79 months; TACE: 77 months; p=0.84) and OS (Y90: 57% alive at 100 months; TACE: 84.2 months; p=0.57) were similar. 54/155 patients (Y90: 29; TACE: 25) were downstaged to UNOS T2 or less. RFS hazard ratios for patients downstaged to ≤T2 versus those that were not were 0.6 (CI: 0.33-1.1) and 1.7 (CI: 0.9-3.1) respectively (p=0.13). 17/155 patients (Y90: 8; TACE: 9) that were >T2 were downstaged to UNOS T2 or less (within transplant criteria). Distribution (unilobar/bilobar), AFP, and pre-transplant UNOS stage affected RFS on univariate analyses.

Conclusion: Despite longer time-to-OLT for Y90 patients, post-OLT outcomes were similar between patients bridged or downstaged by TACE or Y90. A trend towards improved RFS for downstaged patients was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2017.05.022DOI Listing
August 2017

Multiple comorbidities of 21 psychological disorders and relationships with psychosocial variables: a study of the online assessment and diagnostic system within a web-based population.

J Med Internet Res 2015 Feb 26;17(2):e55. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.

Background: While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables.

Objective: We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life.

Methods: An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age.

Results: A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders.

Conclusions: Comorbidities of several psychological disorders using an online assessment tool within a Web-based population were similar to those found in face-to-face clinics using traditional assessment tools. Results provided support for the transdiagnostic approaches and confirmed the positive relationship between comorbidity and suicidal ideation, the negative relationship between comorbidity and social support, and the negative relationship comorbidity and quality of life.

Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392551PMC
February 2015

Multiple comorbidities of 21 psychological disorders and relationships with psychosocial variables: a study of the online assessment and diagnostic system within a web-based population.

J Med Internet Res 2015 Feb 26;17(2):e55. Epub 2015 Feb 26.

School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.

Background: While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables.

Objective: We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life.

Methods: An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age.

Results: A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders.

Conclusions: Comorbidities of several psychological disorders using an online assessment tool within a Web-based population were similar to those found in face-to-face clinics using traditional assessment tools. Results provided support for the transdiagnostic approaches and confirmed the positive relationship between comorbidity and suicidal ideation, the negative relationship between comorbidity and social support, and the negative relationship comorbidity and quality of life.

Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.4143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392551PMC
February 2015

Posttreatment attrition and its predictors, attrition bias, and treatment efficacy of the anxiety online programs.

J Med Internet Res 2014 Oct 14;16(10):e232. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.

Background: Although relatively new, the field of e-mental health is becoming more popular with more attention given to researching its various aspects. However, there are many areas that still need further research, especially identifying attrition predictors at various phases of assessment and treatment delivery.

Objective: The present study identified the predictors of posttreatment assessment completers based on 24 pre- and posttreatment demographic and personal variables and 1 treatment variable, their impact on attrition bias, and the efficacy of the 5 fully automated self-help anxiety treatment programs for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Methods: A complex algorithm was used to diagnose participants' mental disorders based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision; DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program. A total of 3199 individuals did not formally drop out of the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out. However, only 347 participants who completed their treatment cycle also completed the posttreatment assessment measures. Based on these measures, predictors of attrition were identified and attrition bias was examined. The efficacy of the 5 treatment programs was assessed based on anxiety-specific severity scores and 5 additional treatment outcome measures.

Results: On average, completers of posttreatment assessment measures were more likely to be seeking self-help online programs; have heard about the program from traditional media or from family and friends; were receiving mental health assistance; were more likely to learn best by reading, hearing and doing; had a lower pretreatment Kessler-6 total score; and were older in age. Predicted probabilities resulting from these attrition variables displayed no significant attrition bias using Heckman's method and thus allowing for the use of completer analysis. Six treatment outcome measures (Kessler-6 total score, number of diagnosed disorders, self-confidence in managing mental health issues, quality of life, and the corresponding pre- and posttreatment severity for each program-specific anxiety disorder and for major depressive episode) were used to assess the efficacy of the 5 anxiety treatment programs. Repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate time effect for all treatment outcome measures for each treatment program. Follow-up repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant improvements on all 6 treatment outcome measures for GAD and PTSD, 5 treatment outcome measures were significant for SAD and PD/A, and 4 treatment outcome measures were significant for OCD.

Conclusions: Results identified predictors of posttreatment assessment completers and provided further support for the efficacy of self-help online treatment programs for the 5 anxiety disorders.

Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.3513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211028PMC
October 2014

Pretreatment attrition and formal withdrawal during treatment and their predictors: an exploratory study of the anxiety online data.

J Med Internet Res 2014 Jun 17;16(6):e152. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

School of Health Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia.

Background: Although in its infancy, the field of e-mental health interventions has been gaining popularity and afforded considerable research attention. However, there are many gaps in the research. One such gap is in the area of attrition predictors at various stages of assessment and treatment delivery.

Objective: This exploratory study applied univariate and multivariate analysis to a large dataset provided by the Anxiety Online (now called Mental Health Online) system to identify predictors of attrition in treatment commencers and in those who formally withdrew during treatment based on 24 pretreatment demographic and personal variables and one clinical measure.

Methods: Participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary diagnoses in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Those who received a primary or secondary diagnosis of 1 of 5 anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder) were offered an online 12-week disorder-specific treatment program.

Results: Of 9394 potential participants, a total of 3880 clients enrolled and 5514 did not enroll in one of the treatment programs following the completion of pretreatment assessment measures (pretreatment attrition rate: 58.70%). A total of 3199 individuals did not formally withdraw from the 12-week treatment cycle, whereas 142 individuals formally dropped out (formal withdrawal during treatment dropout rate of 4.25%). The treatment commencers differed significantly (P<.001-.03) from the noncommencers on several variables (reason for registering, mental health concerns, postsecondary education, where first heard about Anxiety Online, Kessler-6 score, stage of change, quality of life, relationship status, preferred method of learning, and smoking status). Those who formally withdrew during treatment differed significantly (P=.002-.03) from those who did not formally withdraw in that they were less likely to express concerns about anxiety, stress, and depression; to rate their quality of life as very poor, poor, or good; to report adequate level of social support; and to report readiness to make or were in the process of making changes.

Conclusions: This exploratory study identified predictors of pretreatment attrition and formal withdrawal during treatment dropouts for the Anxiety Online program.

Trial Registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN121611000704998; http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=336143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/618r3wvOG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4090382PMC
June 2014
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