Publications by authors named "Alfred Sholl-Franco"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cellular stress response in human Müller cells (MIO-M1) after bevacizumab treatment.

Exp Eye Res 2017 07 15;160:1-10. Epub 2017 Apr 15.

Program of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil.

Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent, is widely used in the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. However, due to the essential role Müller cell derived-VEGF plays in the maintenance of retinal neurons and glial cells, cell viability is likely to be affected by VEGF inhibition. We therefore evaluated the effect of bevacizumab-induced VEGF inhibition on Müller cells (MIO-M1) in vitro. MIO-M1 cells were cultured for 12 or 24 h in media containing bevacizumab at 0.25 or 0.5 mg/mL. Controls were cultured in medium only. Cell viability was determined with the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT assay. Caspase-3, beclin-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin content were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. Treatment with bevacizumab did not reduce MIO-M1 cell viability, but increased metabolic activity at 24 h (0.5 mg/mL) and induced apoptosis and autophagy, as shown by the increased caspase-3 levels at 12 h (0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL) and the increased beclin levels at 24 h (0.5 mg/mL). Caspase-3 mRNA was upregulated at 12 h and downregulated at 24 h in cells treated with bevacizumab at 0.25 mg/mL. Bevacizumab treatment was also associated with structural protein abnormalities, with decreased GFAP and vimentin content and upregulated GFAP and vimentin mRNA expression. Although bevacizumab did not significantly affect MIO-M1 cell viability, it led to metabolic and molecular changes (apoptosis, autophagy and structural abnormalities) suggestive of significant cellular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2017.04.005DOI Listing
July 2017

Adenine Nucleotides Control Proliferation In Vivo of Rat Retinal Progenitors by P2Y Receptor.

Mol Neurobiol 2017 09 24;54(7):5142-5155. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Biology, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.

Previous studies demonstrated that exogenous ATP is able to regulate proliferation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro possibly via P2Y receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor. Here, we evaluated the function of adenine nucleotides in vivo during retinal development of newborn rats. Intravitreal injection of apyrase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes nucleotides, reduced cell proliferation in retinas at postnatal day 2 (P2). This decrease was reversed when retinas were treated together with ATPγ-S or ADPβ-S, two hydrolysis-resistant analogs of ATP and ADP, respectively. During early postnatal days (P0 to P5), an increase in ectonucleotidase (E-NTPDase) activity was observed in the retina, suggesting a decrease in the availability of adenine nucleotides, coinciding with the end of proliferation. Interestingly, intravitreal injection of the E-NTPDase inhibitor ARL67156 increased proliferation by around 60 % at P5 rats. Furthermore, immunolabeling against P2Y receptor was observed overall in retina layers from P2 rats, including proliferating Ki-67-positive cells in the neuroblastic layer (NBL), suggesting that this receptor could be responsible for the action of adenine nucleotides upon proliferation of RPCs. Accordingly, intravitreal injection of MRS2179, a selective antagonist of P2Y receptors, reduced cell proliferation by approximately 20 % in P2 rats. Moreover, treatment with MRS 2179 caused an increase in p57 and cyclin D1 expression, a reduction in cyclin E and Rb phosphorylated expression and in BrdU-positive cell number. These data suggest that the adenine nucleotides modulate the proliferation of rat RPCs via activation of P2Y receptors regulating transition from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-0059-0DOI Listing
September 2017

Bevacizumab reduces neurocan content and gene expression in newborn rat retina in vitro.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Jul 24;55(8):5109-15. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Laboratory of investigation in Ophthalmology (LIM-33), University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: Extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular membrane proteoglycans (PGs) play important roles in neural differentiation and cell adhesion. Vascular endothelial growth factor, an important signal protein in vascular and retinal neural cell development, is retained in the ECM due to its high affinity for PG. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, has been extensively used for treating retinal diseases in adult and newborn patients, although its effect on the developing retina remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bevacizumab on neurocan, phosphacan, and syndecan-3 PG levels in newborn rat retina.

Methods: Retinal explants of sixty 2-day-old Lister hooded rats were obtained after eye enucleation and maintained in culture media with or without bevacizumab for 48 hours. Immunohistochemical staining was assessed against neurocan, phosphacan, and syndecan-3. Proteoglycan content was quantified based on the intensity of immunohistochemical labeling. Gene expressions were quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results from the treatment and control groups were compared.

Results: No significant difference in the staining intensity and mRNA expression of phosphacan and syndecan-3 was observed between the groups. However, a significant decrease in neurocan content and mRNA expression was observed in bevacizumab-treated retinal explants compared with controls.

Conclusions: Bevacizumab did not affect phosphacan and syndecan-3 levels but decreased neurocan content and gene expression. Therefore, it may interfere with early postnatal retinal cell differentiation. Although further studies are necessary to confirm our findings, we suggest anti-VEGF agents be used with caution in developing retinal tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-14466DOI Listing
July 2014

Polylaminin recognition by retinal cells.

J Neurosci Res 2014 Jan 4;92(1):24-34. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Polylaminin (polyLM) is a flat biomimetic polymer of laminin capable of promoting axonal growth both in vitro and in vivo. It is assembled in a cell-free system when laminin 111 is incubated in acidic pH, whereas incubation in neutral buffer leads to the formation of bulky and irregular polymers (LM). In the present work, we compared the behaviors of cells isolated from the P1 rat retina on polyLM and LM. PolyLM induced cellular spreading and the outgrowth of neurites in contact with the substrate, whereas LM led to the formation of large clusters of cells, with neurites growing only inward. After 24 hr in culture, the number of cells on polyLM increased threefold, and this increase was inhibited by 60% in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89 and by 41% in the presence of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine chloride, whereas both inhibitors abolished neuritogenesis. Neither the cell number nor the outgrowth of neurites was affected by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 on polyLM. On the other hand, PD98059 was able to reduce the cell number on LM, whereas the other inhibitors were not. Immunostaining of P1 retina with an antilaminin antibody revealed that the protein was expressed not only at its inner surface but also within the neuroblast layer in close contact with individual cells. Our results indicate that, when provided in its active polymerized form, laminin can influence both neuritogenesis and proliferation of retinal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.23298DOI Listing
January 2014

In vitro effects of bevacizumab treatment on newborn rat retinal cell proliferation, death, and differentiation.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Nov 29;53(12):7904-11. Epub 2012 Nov 29.

Programa de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important signal protein in vertebrate nervous development, promoting neurogenesis, neuronal patterning, and glial cell growth. Bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF agent, has been extensively used for controlling pathological retinal neovascularization in adult and newborn patients, although its effect on the developing retina remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bevacizumab on cell death, proliferation, and differentiation in newborn rat retina.

Methods: Retinal explants of sixty 2-day-old Lister hooded rats were obtained after eye enucleation and maintained in culture media with or without bevacizumab for 2 days. Immunohistochemical staining was assessed against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, to detect cell proliferation); caspase-3 and beclin-1 (to investigate cell death); and vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, markers of glial cells). Gene expressions were quantified by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results from treatment and control groups were compared.

Results: No significant difference in the staining intensity (on immunohistochemistry) of PCNA, caspase-3, beclin-1, and GFAP, or in the levels of PCNA, caspase-3, beclin-1, and vimentin mRNA was observed between the groups. However, a significant increase in vimentin levels and a significant decrease in GFAP mRNA expression were observed in bevacizumab-treated retinal explants compared with controls.

Conclusions: Bevacizumab did not affect cell death or proliferation in early developing rat retina but appeared to interfere with glial cell maturation by increasing vimentin levels and downregulating GFAP gene expression. Thus, we suggest anti-VEGF agents be used with caution in developing retinal tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.12-10283DOI Listing
November 2012

Protein kinases JAK and ERK mediate protective effect of interleukin-2 upon ganglion cells of the developing rat retina.

J Neuroimmunol 2011 Apr 22;233(1-2):120-6. Epub 2011 Jan 22.

Programa de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, 21941-902Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine firstly related to T cells differentiation, exerts pleiotrophic functions in several areas of the central nervous system. Previously we had described the neurotrophic roles of this interleukin upon retinal neurons. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the signaling pathways involved in the neuroprotective effect of IL-2 on axotomized RGC. Herein we demonstrated that at postnatal day 2 IL-2 receptor α subunit (IL-2Rα) is expressed in inner plexiform layer, retinal ganglion cells layer and retinal nerve fibers layer. Moreover, using a model of organotypic retinal explants and rhodamine dextran retrograde labeling for specifically quantify RGC, we showed that IL-2 increased the survival of axotomized RGC after 2 (85.43±5.43%) and 5 (50.23%±5.32) days in vitro. Western blot analysis demonstrated that IL-2 treatment increased the phosphorilation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and AKT (~two fold). However, its neuroprotective effect upon RGC was dependent of Janus kinase (JAK) and ERK1/2 activity but not of AKT activity. Taken together our results showed that the IL-2 neuroprotective action upon RGC in vitro is mediated by JAK and ERK1/2 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.12.008DOI Listing
April 2011

Rod photoreceptor cell death is induced by okadaic acid through activation of PKC and L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and prevented by IGF-1.

Neurochem Int 2010 Sep 11;57(2):128-35. Epub 2010 May 11.

Programa de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Retinal dystrophies involve extensive photoreceptor apoptosis. Neuroprotective effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 have been demonstrated in various tissues, including the retina. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) the action of IGF-1 upon selective photoreceptor death induced by okadaic acid (OA); and (ii) signaling pathways related to both OA-induced cell death and IGF-1 neuroprotective effect. Retinal explants were incubated with 5nM OA, a protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A inhibitor, which induces cell death detected by the identification of pyknotic morphology of photoreceptors immunostained for rhodopsin. OA increased both the number of pyknotic Rho 4D2(+) profiles, and Ca(2+) influx, measured through the incorporation of (45)CaCl(2), in a dose- and time-dependent way, while treatment with 10ng/mL IGF-1 abrogated both effects. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C, modulated OA effects, indicating the involvement of PKC. Furthermore, either 10microM chelerythrine chloride, an inhibitor of PKC, or 10microM nifedipine, a L-voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel blocker, inhibited both Ca(2+) influx and cell death induced by OA. The data show that okadaic acid induces rod photoreceptor cell death in retinal tissue through activation of PKC and ensuing Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels, which is counteracted by a neuroprotective effect of IGF-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2010.04.021DOI Listing
September 2010

Expression of GAP-43 during development and after monocular enucleation in the rat superior colliculus.

Neurosci Lett 2010 Jun 18;477(1):23-7. Epub 2010 Apr 18.

Programa de Neurociências, Departamento de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ, Brazil.

The retinotectal projection of rodents presents a precise retinotopic organization that develops, from diffuse connections, from the day of birth to post-natal day 10. Previous data had demonstrated that these projections undergo reorganization after retinal lesions, nerve crush and monocular enucleation. The axonal growth seems to be directly related to growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) expression, a protein predominantly located in growth cones, which is regulated throughout development. GAP-43 is presented both under non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated (pGAP-43) forms. The phosphorylated form, has been associated to axon growth via polymerization of F-actin, and synaptic enhancement through neurotransmitter release facilitation. Herein we investigated the spatio-temporal expression of GAP-43 in the rat superior colliculus during normal development and after monocular enucleation in different stages of development. Lister Hooded rats ranging from post-natal day 0 to 70 were used for ontogeny studies. Another group of animals were submitted to monocular enucleation at post-natal day 10 (PND10) or PND21. After different survival-times, the animals were sacrificed and the brains processed for either immunohistochemistry or western blotting analysis. Our data show that GAP-43 is expressed in retinotectal axons in early stages of development but remains present in adulthood. Moreover, monocular enucleation leads to an increase in pGAP-43 expression in the deafferented colliculus. Taken together these results suggest a role for pGAP-43 in retinotectal morphological plasticity observed both during normal development and after monocular enucleation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.04.027DOI Listing
June 2010

ATP controls cell cycle and induces proliferation in the mouse developing retina.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2010 Feb 30;28(1):63-73. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900, Brazil.

Previous data suggest that nucleotides are important mitogens in the developing chick retina. Here, we extended the study on the mitogenic effect of ATP to newborn mouse retinal explants. Our results showed that P2Y(1) receptors were widely distributed in C57bl/6 mice retina and that the majority of PCNA positive cells co-localized with P2Y(1) receptor. To evaluate proliferation, retinal explants obtained from newborn mice were incubated with 0.5 microCi [(3)H]-thymidine or 3 microM BrDU 1h before the end of culture. Our data showed that ATP induced a dose-dependent increase in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, an effect that was mimicked by ADP but not by UTP and was blocked by the P2 antagonist PPADS in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation induced by ATP was only observed in explants cultured for 3 days or less and was mimicked by the ectoapyrase inhibitor ARL 67156. It corresponded to an increase in the number of BrdU(+) cells in the neuroblastic layer (NL) of the tissue, suggesting that ATP, through activation of P2Y(1) receptors, induced proliferation of late developing progenitors in retinal explants of newborn mice. The increase in the number of BrdU(+) cells was observed across the whole NL when explants were incubated with ATP for 24h and no increase in the number of p-histone H3 labeled cells could be noticed at this time point. In longer incubations of 48h with ATP or 24h with ATP followed by a period of 24h in fresh medium, an increase in the number of BrdU(+) cells promoted by ATP was observed only in the middle and outer, but not in the inner NL. In these conditions, an increase in the number of p-histone H3 labeled cells was detected in the outer NL, suggesting that ATP induced cells to enter S and progress to G2 phase of the cell cycle in the first 24h period of incubation. ATP also induced an increase and a decrease in the expression of cyclin D1 and p27(kip1), respectively, in retinal progenitors of the NL. While the increase in the expression of cyclin D1 was observed when retinal explants were incubated for 3h or longer periods of time, the decrease in the expression of p27(kip1) was noticed only after 6h incubation with ATP. Both effects were blocked by the P2 receptor antagonist PPADS. These data suggest that ATP induces cell proliferation in retinal explants by inducing late developing progenitors to progress from G1 to S phase of cell cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2009.09.004DOI Listing
February 2010

Interleukin-4 as a neuromodulatory cytokine: roles and signaling in the nervous system.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009 Feb;1153:65-75

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Although interleukin (IL)-4 is described as a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine, in recent years its role as a neuromodulatory cytokine has been extensively discussed. This review highlights the pivotal contributions of IL-4 during the development and normal physiology of neural cells as well as IL-4 connections with the pathophysiology of degenerative or inflammatory processes observed in the central and peripheral nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2008.03962.xDOI Listing
February 2009

Interleukin-4 blocks thapsigargin-induced cell death in rat rod photoreceptors: involvement of cAMP/PKA pathway.

J Neurosci Res 2009 Jul;87(9):2167-74

Programa de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Although the photoreceptors cell death is the main cause of some retinopathies diseases, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. The neuroprotective effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) have been shown in several tissues, including retina. We demonstrate that treatment of rat retinal explants with IL-4 completely inhibited the thapsigargin-induced rod photoreceptor cell death after 24 hr in culture. We also showed that IL-4 receptor alpha subunit (IL-4Ralpha) is abundantly present in retina. Colocalization of IL-4Ralpha and rhodopsin indicate a direct effect of this cytokine in rod photoreceptor cells. Moreover, IL-4 increased the intracellular levels of cAMP in 7.4-fold, indicating that the neuroprotective effect of this cytokine was completely blocked by RpcAMP, an inhibitor of protein kinase (PKA). Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the neuroprotective effect of IL-4 through cAMP/PKA pathway in thapsigargin-induced photoreceptor cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22026DOI Listing
July 2009

Interleukin-4 blocks proliferation of retinal progenitor cells and increases rod photoreceptor differentiation through distinct signaling pathways.

J Neuroimmunol 2008 May 18;196(1-2):82-93. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

Programa de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bl G, Cidade Universitária, 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been related to the differentiation of the rodent retina in vitro, but constitutive presence of either IL-4 or of IL-4 receptor in the retina has not been reported. In this work we examined the expression of IL-4 and its specific receptor alpha subunit (IL-4Ralpha). IL-4Ralpha is expressed both in neural retina and non-neural ocular tissue, while IL-4 was found mainly in non-neural tissue. We characterized a novel trophic effect of IL-4 upon the retina. We showed that IL-4 can inhibit the proliferation of retinal cells (approximately 40%) through the cAMP-PKA pathway and associated with a reduction of cyclin D1 and increase of p27(kip1). IL-4 also promotes the differentiation of rod photoreceptors. Activation of tyrosine kinases, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated kinases of the Erk family were required for IL-4-induced rod photoreceptor differentiation, independent of the release of other trophic factors in culture. Taken together, our results show, for the first time, that IL-4 directly modulates proliferation of retinal cells and rod photoreceptor differentiation, through distinct signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.03.003DOI Listing
May 2008

Signal transduction pathways associated with ATP-induced proliferation of cell progenitors in the intact embryonic retina.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2007 Dec 29;25(8):499-508. Epub 2007 Sep 29.

Departament of Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology Program, Institute of Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói, Brazil.

ATP and ADP induce retinal cell proliferation through activation of PKC and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Here, we characterized the effect of purinergic agonists on the turnover of phosphoinositides and activation of ERKs during development of the chick embryo retina. When intact retinas were incubated with ATP, ADP or UTP, a dose-dependent accumulation of [(3)H]-phosphoinositides was observed (% of control, EC(50): 548+/-20.5%, 0.18 mM; 314+/-53.8%, 0.51 mM; 704+/-139.9%, 0.018 mM, respectively). Only the response promoted by ADP was completely inhibited by the P2 receptor antagonists, PPADS and suramin. All the responses decreased with the progression of retinal development. Western blot assays revealed that ATP, ADP and UTP stimulated the phosphorylation of ERKs in the chick embryo retina very early during development (% of control: 174+/-16; 199+/-16.4 and 206+/-37, respectively). The responses to ADP and UTP were transient and dose-dependent, showing EC(50) values of 0.12 mM and 0.009 mM. The response to ADP was inhibited by the antagonists PPADS and suramin and by U73122 and chelerythrine chloride, which block PLC and PKC, respectively. Conversely, chelerythrine chloride did not block the response induced by UTP. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ATP and ADP induced the phosphorylation of ERKs in cells of the neuroblastic layer of retinas from embryos at E8. Our data showed that ATP, ADP and UTP stimulate the turnover of InsPs and promoted the activation of ERKs in the chick embryo retina. ADP, through activation of P2Y(1) receptors, activated ERK pathway through PLC and PKC and UTP, via P2Y(4)-like receptors, induced the phosphorylation of ERKs through a pathway that did not involve PKC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2007.09.007DOI Listing
December 2007

IL-4 increases GABAergic phenotype in rat retinal cell cultures: involvement of muscarinic receptors and protein kinase C.

J Neuroimmunol 2002 Dec;133(1-2):20-9

Departamento de Neurobiologia, Programa de Neuroimunologia, Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Estudos Gerais, Universidade Federal Fluminense, CP# 100180, RJ 24001-970, RJ, Niterói, Brazil.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. During injuries, infections and neurodegenerative diseases, high levels of this molecule are expressed in the brain. In the present work, we investigated the effect of IL-4 on GABAergic differentiation of retinal cells kept in vitro. We analyzed either the uptake of [3H]-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67) following IL-4 treatment. We have also investigated the pharmacological modulation of the [3H]-GABA uptake by cholinergic activation. Our results demonstrate that IL-4 increases the uptake of [3H]-GABA after 48 h in culture in a dose-dependent manner (0.5-100 U/ml). The maximal effect was obtained with 5 U/ml (75% increase). This effect was blocked by 1 mM of nipecotic acid, demonstrating the involvement of the GAT-1 subtype of GABA transporter. The IL-4 effect depends on M1 muscarinic activity, an increase in intracellular calcium levels, tyrosine kinase activity and protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Treatment with IL-4 for 48 h induced an increase of 90% in the number of GAD- and GABA-immunoreactive cells when compared with control cultures. Our results indicate that IL-4 modulates the GABAergic phenotype of retinal cells in culture. This result can suggest an important role for this cytokine either during the normal development of retinal circuitry or during neuroprotection after injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-5728(02)00327-2DOI Listing
December 2002

PMA decreases the proliferation of retinal cells in vitro: the involvement of acetylcholine and BDNF.

Neurochem Int 2003 Jan;42(1):73-80

Programa de Neuroimunologia, Departamento de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biologia, Centro de Estudos Gerais, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24001-970, Brazil.

Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in several cell events including proliferation, survival and differentiation. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of PKC activation on retinal cells proliferation. We demonstrated that PKC activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a tumor promoter phorbol ester, is able to decrease retinal cells proliferation. This effect was mediated by M1 receptors and dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) increase, tyrosine kinase activity, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, polypeptide secretion and activation of TrkB receptors. The effect of PMA was not via activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Carbamylcholine and brain derived neurotrophic factor were both able to decrease retinal cells proliferation to the same level as PMA did. Our results suggest that PKC activation leads to a decrease in retinal cells proliferation through the release of acetylcholine and brain derived neurotrophic factor in the culture, and activation of M1 and TrkB receptors, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0197-0186(02)00059-1DOI Listing
January 2003

Sciatic conditioned medium increases survival, proliferation and differentiation of retinal cells in culture.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2002 Feb;20(1):11-20

Departamento de Neurobiologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, CP 100180, 24001-970 Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Many evidences clearly demonstrate that Schwann cells provide trophic support for neurons. Different cytokines, including neurotrophins (NTs), are produced and released by Schwann cells. These trophic molecules play an important role on neuronal survival either during the development or during adult life. Cytokines have also a pivotal role on neuronal regeneration after lesions occurring during pathological conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of sciatic conditioned medium (SCM) on rat retinal cells maintained in culture. Our results show that treatment with SCM obtained after 14 days in vitro (SCM 14 day) induced a three-fold increase in protein content of the culture after 48 h in vitro and this value remained equally high up to 72 h. This effect was totally blocked either by addition of 30 microM BAPTA-AM, an intracellular calcium chelator, 15 microM fluorodeoxyuridine, an inhibitor of cell division, or 10 microM genistein (geni) plus 1.25 microM chelerythrine chloride (CC), the two last ones inhibitors of tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C, respectively. SCM induced an increase in [(3)H]-choline uptake and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation of retinal cells. SCM also stimulated an increase in cytoplasmic processes outgrowth of retinal cells and survival of retinal ganglion cells. Our results clearly suggest that soluble molecules released by sciatic nerve fragments are able to increase the proliferation and survival of retinal cells in culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0736-5748(02)00005-9DOI Listing
February 2002