Publications by authors named "Alfonso Vera"

3 Publications

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Organic amendments exacerbate the effects of silver nanoparticles on microbial biomass and community composition of a semiarid soil.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 15;744:140919. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

CEBAS-CSIC. Department of Soil and Water Conservation. Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Increased utilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can result in an accumulation of these particles in the environment. The potential detrimental effects of AgNPs in soil may be associated with the low fertility of soils in semiarid regions that are usually subjected to restoration through the application of organic amendments. Microbial communities are responsible for fundamental processes related to soil fertility, yet the potential impacts of low and realistic AgNPs concentrations on soil microorganisms are still unknown. We studied the effects of realistic citrate-stabilized AgNPs concentrations (0.015 and 1.5 μg kg) at two exposure times (7 and 30 days) on a sandy clay loam Mediterranean soil unamended (SU) and amended with compost (SA). We assessed soil microbial biomass (microbial fatty acids), soil enzyme activities (urease, β-glucosidase, and alkaline phosphatase), and composition of the microbial community (bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS2 sequencing) in a microcosm experiment. In the SA, the two concentrations of AgNPs significantly decreased the bacterial biomass after 7 days of incubation. At 30 days of incubation, only a significant decrease in the Gram+ was observed at the highest AgNPs concentration. In contrast, in the SU, there was a significant increase in bacterial biomass after 30 days of incubation at the lowest AgNPs concentration. Overall, we found that fungal biomass was more resistant to AgNPs than bacterial biomass, in both SA and SU. Further, the AgNPs changed the composition of the soil bacterial community in SA, the relative abundance of some bacterial taxa in SA and SU, and fungal richness in SU at 30 days of incubation. However, AgNPs did not affect the activity of extracellular enzymes. This study demonstrates that the exposure time and organic amendments modulate the effects of realistic concentrations of AgNPs in the biomass and composition of the microbial community of a Mediterranean soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140919DOI Listing
November 2020

Environmentally relevant concentrations of silver nanoparticles diminish soil microbial biomass but do not alter enzyme activities or microbial diversity.

J Hazard Mater 2020 06 4;391:122224. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

CEBAS-CSIC. Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain.

The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their well-known antimicrobial activity, has led to their accumulation in soil ecosystems. However, the impact of environmental realistic concentrations of AgNPs on the soil microbial community has been scarcely studied. In this work, we have assessed the impact of AgNPs, that mimic real concentrations in nature, on tropical soils cultivated with Coffea arabica under conventional and organic management systems. We evaluated the biomass, extracellular enzyme activities, and diversity of the soil microbial community, in a microcosm experiment as a function of time. After seven days of incubation, we found an increase in microbial biomass in an AgNPs-concentration-independent manner. In contrast, after 60-day-incubation, there was a decrease in Gram+ and actinobacterial biomass, in both soils and all AgNPs concentrations. Soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities were not affected overall by AgNPs. Regarding the microbial community composition, only some differences in the relative abundance at phylum and genus level in the fungal community were observed. Our results suggest that environmental concentrations of AgNPs affected microbial biomass but had little impact on microbial diversity and may have little effects on the soil biogeochemical cycles mediated by extracellular enzyme activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122224DOI Listing
June 2020

Global ecological predictors of the soil priming effect.

Nat Commun 2019 08 2;10(1):3481. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Departamento de Biología y Geología, Física y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipán Sin Número, 28933, Móstoles, Spain.

Identifying the global drivers of soil priming is essential to understanding C cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. We conducted a survey of soils across 86 globally-distributed locations, spanning a wide range of climates, biotic communities, and soil conditions, and evaluated the apparent soil priming effect using C-glucose labeling. Here we show that the magnitude of the positive apparent priming effect (increase in CO release through accelerated microbial biomass turnover) was negatively associated with SOC content and microbial respiration rates. Our statistical modeling suggests that apparent priming effects tend to be negative in more mesic sites associated with higher SOC contents. In contrast, a single-input of labile C causes positive apparent priming effects in more arid locations with low SOC contents. Our results provide solid evidence that SOC content plays a critical role in regulating apparent priming effects, with important implications for the improvement of C cycling models under global change scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11472-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677791PMC
August 2019
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