Publications by authors named "Alfi Khatib"

60 Publications

Characterization of -Glucosidase Inhibitors from Jack Leaves Extract Using LC-MS-Based Multivariate Data Analysis and In-Silico Molecular Docking.

Molecules 2020 Dec 12;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, BMC, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

Jack has traditionally been used to treat diabetes. Despite its potential, the scientific proof in relation to this plant is still lacking. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the -glucosidase inhibitors in leaf extracts using a metabolomics approach and to elucidate the ligand-protein interactions through in silico techniques. The plant leaves were extracted with methanol and water at five various ratios (100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% ; water-methanol). Each extract was tested for -glucosidase inhibition, followed by analysis using liquid chromatography tandem to mass spectrometry. The data were further subjected to multivariate data analysis by means of an orthogonal partial least square in order to correlate the chemical profile and the bioactivity. The loading plots revealed that the signals correspond to the activity of -glucosidase inhibitors, which led to the identification of three putative bioactive compounds, namely 5'-hydroxymethyl-1'-(1, 2, 3, 9-tetrahydro-pyrrolo (2, 1-) quinazolin-1-yl)-heptan-1'-one (), -terpinyl--glucoside (), and machaeridiol-A (). Molecular docking of the identified inhibitors was performed using Auto Dock Vina software against the crystal structure of isomaltase (Protein Data Bank code: 3A4A). Four hydrogen bonds were detected in the docked complex, involving several residues, namely ASP352, ARG213, ARG442, GLU277, GLN279, HIE280, and GLU411. Compound , , and showed binding affinity values of -8.3, -7.6, and -10.0 kcal/mol, respectively, which indicate the good binding ability of the compounds towards the enzyme when compared to that of quercetin, a known -glucosidase inhibitor. The three identified compounds that showed potential binding affinity towards the enzymatic protein in molecular docking interactions could be the bioactive compounds associated with the traditional use of this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763559PMC
December 2020

Medicinal Potential of Isoflavonoids: Polyphenols That May Cure Diabetes.

Molecules 2020 Nov 24;25(23). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P M B: 2436 Sokoto, Nigeria.

In recent years, there is emerging evidence that isoflavonoids, either dietary or obtained from traditional medicinal plants, could play an important role as a supplementary drug in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their reported pronounced biological effects in relation to multiple metabolic factors associated with diabetes. Hence, in this regard, we have comprehensively reviewed the potential biological effects of isoflavonoids, particularly biochanin A, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and formononetin on metabolic disorders and long-term complications induced by T2DM in order to understand whether they can be future candidates as a safe antidiabetic agent. Based on in-depth in vitro and in vivo studies evaluations, isoflavonoids have been found to activate gene expression through the stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (α, γ), modulate carbohydrate metabolism, regulate hyperglycemia, induce dyslipidemia, lessen insulin resistance, and modify adipocyte differentiation and tissue metabolism. Moreover, these natural compounds have also been found to attenuate oxidative stress through the oxidative signaling process and inflammatory mechanism. Hence, isoflavonoids have been envisioned to be able to prevent and slow down the progression of long-term diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Further thoroughgoing investigations in human clinical studies are strongly recommended to obtain the optimum and specific dose and regimen required for supplementation with isoflavonoids and derivatives in diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25235491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727648PMC
November 2020

Exploring natural products-based cancer therapeutics derived from egyptian flora.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 25;269:113626. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Natural Products Laboratory, IBL, Leiden University PO Box 9505, 2300RA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Egyptian plants are a rich source of natural molecules, representing considerable biodiversity due to climate variations between the Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western regions of the country. Sinai is considered a precious nature reserves preserving flora, fauna, marine organisms, and historical habitats with ancient origins. Here, traditional medicinal approaches have been used for hundreds of years. Healthy lifestyles, low levels of stress and microbial infections, and a dependence on flora and herbal medicine might in combination explain why the burden of cancer is lower in some regions than in others.

Aim Of The Study: The primary aim of this review is to document the plants and natural products that are used as foods and medicines in Egypt, in general, and in Sinai, in particular, with a focus on those with demonstrated anticancer activities. The documented traditional uses of these plants are described, together with their chemical and pharmacological activities and the reported outcomes of clinical trials against cancer.

Materials And Methods: A literature search was performed to identify texts describing the medicinal plants that are cultivated and grown in Egypt, including information found in textbooks, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/), and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

Results And Discussion: We collected data for most of the plants cultivated or grown in Egypt that have been previously investigated for anticancer effects and reported their identified bioactive elements. Several plant species, belonging to different families and associated with 67 bioactive compounds, were investigated as potential anticancer agents (in vitro studies). The most potent cytotoxic activities were identified for the families Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Gramineae, and Liliaceae. The anticancer activities of some species, such as Punica granatum L., Nerium oleander L., Olea europea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Cassia acutifolia L., Nigella sativa L., Capsicum frutescens L., Withania somnifera L., and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, have been examined in clinical trials. Among the various Egyptian plant habitats, we found that most of these plants are grown in the North Sinai, New-Delta, and Giza Governorates.

Conclusion: In this review, we highlight the role played by Egyptian flora in current medicinal therapies and the possibility that these plants may be examined in further studies for the development of anticancer drugs. These bioactive plant extracts form the basis for the isolation of phytochemicals with demonstrated anticancer activities. Some active components derived from these plants have been applied to preclinical and clinical settings, including resveratrol, quercetin, isoquercetin, and rutin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113626DOI Listing
April 2021

The Toxic Impact of Honey Adulteration: A Review.

Foods 2020 Oct 26;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Honey is characterized as a natural and raw foodstuff that can be consumed not only as a sweetener but also as medicine due to its therapeutic impact on human health. It is prone to adulterants caused by humans that manipulate the quality of honey. Although honey consumption has remarkably increased in the last few years all around the world, the safety of honey is not assessed and monitored regularly. Since the number of consumers of honey adulteration have increased in recent years, their trust and interest in this valuable product has decreased. Honey adulterants are any substances that are added to the pure honey. In this regard, this paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of the different types of adulteration, common sugar adulterants and detection methods, and draws a clear perspective toward the impact of honey adulteration on human health. Adulteration increases the consumer's blood sugar, which can cause diabetes, abdominal weight gain, and obesity, raise the level of blood lipids and can cause high blood pressure. The most common organ affected by honey adulterants is the liver followed by the kidney, heart, and brain, as shown in several in vivo research designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9111538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692231PMC
October 2020

NMR and LCMS analytical platforms exhibited the nephroprotective effect of Clinacanthus nutans in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in the in vitro condition.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Oct 22;20(1):320. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) Lind. locally known as Belalai Gajah or Sabah snake grass is a medicinal plant belonging to Acanthaceae family. In Asia, this plant is traditionally used for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, diabetes mellitus, fever and for diuretic effect. C. nutans has been reported to possess biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-viral activities.

Methods: Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR) and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) coupled with multivariate data analysis were employed to characterize the metabolic variations of intracellular metabolites and the compositional changes of the corresponding culture media in rat renal proximal tubular cells (NRK-52E).

Results: NMR and LCMS analysis highlighted choline, creatine, phosphocholine, valine, acetic acid, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, threonine, uridine and proline as the main metabolites which differentiated the cisplatin-induced group of NRK-52E from control cells extract. The corresponding media exhibited lactic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid and glucose-1-phosphate as the varied metabolites. The altered pathways perturbed by cisplatin nephrotoxic on NRK-52E cells included changes in amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and glycolysis.

Conclusion: The C. nutans aqueous extract (1000 μg/mL) exhibited the most potential nephroprotective effect against cisplatin toxicity on NRK-52E cell lines at 89% of viability. The protective effect could be seen through the changes of the metabolites such as choline, alanine and valine in the C. nutans pre-treated samples with those of the cisplatin-induced group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03067-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579835PMC
October 2020

Screening for natural and derived bio-active compounds in preclinical and clinical studies: One of the frontlines of fighting the coronaviruses pandemic.

Phytomedicine 2020 Aug 29:153311. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, S-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, 32512 Shebin El-Kom, Egypt; H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan; International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Background: Starting December 2019, mankind faced an unprecedented enemy, the COVID-19 virus. The world convened in international efforts, experiences and technologies in order to fight the emerging pandemic. Isolation, hygiene measure, diagnosis, and treatment are the most efficient ways of prevention and intervention nowadays. The health organizations and global care systems screened the available resources and offered recommendations of approved and proposed medications. However, the search for a specific selective therapy or vaccine against COVID-19 remains a challenge.

Methods: A literature search was performed for the screening of natural and derived bio-active compounds which showed potent antiviral activity against coronaviruses using published articles, patents, clinical trials website (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) and web databases (PubMed, SCI Finder, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

Results: Through the screening for natural products with antiviral activities against different types of the human coronavirus, extracts of Lycoris radiata (L'Hér.), Gentiana scabra Bunge, Dioscorea batatas Decne., Cassia tora L., Taxillus chinensis (DC.), Cibotium barometz L. and Echinacea purpurea L. showed a promising effect against SARS-CoV. Out of the listed compound Lycorine, emetine dihydrochloride hydrate, pristimerin, harmine, conessine, berbamine, 4`-hydroxychalcone, papaverine, mycophenolic acid, mycophenolate mofetil, monensin sodium, cycloheximide, oligomycin and valinomycin show potent activity against human coronaviruses. Additionally, it is worth noting that some compounds have already moved into clinical trials for their activity against COVID-19 including fingolimod, methylprednisolone, chloroquine, tetrandrine and tocilizumab.

Conclusion: Natural compounds and their derivatives could be used for developing potent therapeutics with significant activity against SARS-COV-2, providing a promising frontline in the fighting against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455571PMC
August 2020

Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect of Jack Leaf: A Rapid Analysis Using Infrared Fingerprinting.

Molecules 2020 Sep 11;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

The plant Jack belongs to the Rubiaceae family and is known in Malaysia as "meroyan sakat/salung". A rapid analytical technique to facilitate the evaluation of the leaves' quality has not been well-established yet. This work aimed therefore to develop a validated analytical technique in order to predict the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory action (AGI) of leaves, applying a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprint and utilizing an orthogonal partial least square (OPLS). The dried leaf extracts were prepared by sonication of different ratios of methanol-water solvent (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% /) prior to the assessment of alpha-glucosidase inhibition (AGI) and the following infrared spectroscopy. The correlation between the biological activity and the spectral data was evaluated using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The 100% methanol extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase (IC 2.83 ± 0.32 μg/mL). Different bioactive functional groups, including hydroxyl (O-H), alkenyl (C=C), methylene (C-H), carbonyl (C=O), and secondary amine (N-H) groups, were detected by the multivariate analysis. These functional groups actively induced the alpha-glucosidase inhibition effect. This finding demonstrated the spectrum profile of the FTIR for the natural herb Jack, further confirming its medicinal value. The developed validated model can be used to predict the AGI of , which will be useful as a tool in the plant's quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7570612PMC
September 2020

The Inhibitory Effects of Honey Marinades on the Formation of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Grilled Beef Satay.

Molecules 2020 Aug 26;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Pharmacognosy Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia.

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic food toxicants formed in cooked meats, which may increase the risk of cancer development in humans. Therefore, in this study, the effect of stingless bee honey from different botanical origins on the formation of HCAs in grilled beef satay was investigated. HCAs concentration in grilled beef satay was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In total, six of the most toxigenic HCAs representing aminoimidazo-azaarenes (AIAs) (MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and amino carbolines (norharman, harman, and AαC) groups were identified in all the beef samples investigated. A significant reduction in HCAs was observed in grilled beef marinated in honey as compared to beef samples marinated in table sugar (control), in which the reduction of 95.14%, 88.45%, 85.65%, and 57.22% was observed in gelam, starfruit, acacia, and honey marinades, respectively. According to the partial least squares regression (PLS) model, the inhibition of HCAs in grilled beef was shown to be significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity (IC) of the honey samples. Therefore, the results of this study revealed that the addition of stingless bee honey could play an important role in reducing HCAs in grilled beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504569PMC
August 2020

Determination toxic effects of Hystrix Brachyura Bezoar extracts using cancer cell lines and embryo zebrafish (Danio rerio) models and identification of active principles through GC-MS analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Nov 26;262:113138. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Department of Biomedical Science, Kuliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Porcupine bezoar (PB) is used as folk medicine for various medical conditions including cancer treatment in Malaysia. However, its toxicity profile has never been thoroughly ascertained to confirm its safe nature as an efficacious traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer as well as other ailments.

Aim Of The Study: This study was aimed to reveal three different PBs' aqueous extracts(viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) chemical constituent's profile using GC-MS analysis, anticancer property on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cells, toxicity profile on zebrafish embryo morphology, EC, LC and teratogenicity index.

Materials And Methods: PBs' extracts characterization was performed through GC-MS analysis, in vitro anticancer effect was carried out on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cell lines and finally and toxicity properties on three different PBs aqueous extracts (viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) were determined using zebrafish embryo model.

Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed 10 similar compounds in all PBs' extracts. Dilauryl thiodipropionate was found to be a major compound in all PBs' extracts followed by tetradecanoic acid. An in vitro anticancer study revealed PB extracts exerted median inhibition concentration (IC) <50 μg/mL, on cancer cells viz. A375, HeLa and MCF7 with no significant toxicity on normal cells viz. NHDF cells. In vivo toxicity of PBs extracts found affecting tail detachment, hatching, craniofacial, brain morphology, soft tissues, edema, spinal, somites, notochord and cardiovascular system (brachycardia, disruption of blood circulation) deformities. The LC and EC demonstrated PB extracts effect as dose and time dependent with median concentration <150.0 μg/mL. Additionally, teratogenicity index (TI) viz. >1.0 revealed teratogenic property for PB extracts.

Conclusions: The findings revealed that all three PBs aqueous extracts possessed anticancer activity and exhibited significant toxicological effects on zebrafish embryos with high teratogenicity index. Hence, its use as an anticancer agent requires further investigation and medical attentions to determine its safe dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113138DOI Listing
November 2020

Antimicrobial Properties of 's Bee Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 07 11;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

Bee venom (BV) is a rich source of secondary metabolites from honeybees ( L.). It contains a variety of bioactive ingredients including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and volatile metabolites. The compounds contribute to the venom's observed biological functions as per its anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The antimicrobial action of BV has been shown in vitro and in vivo experiments against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The synergistic therapeutic interactions of BV with antibiotics has been reported. The synergistic effect contributes to a decrease in the loading and maintenance dosage, a decrease in the side effects of chemotherapy, and a decrease in drug resistance. To our knowledge, there have been no reviews on the impact of BV and its antimicrobial constituents thus far. The purpose of this review is to address the antimicrobial properties of BV and its compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12070451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404974PMC
July 2020

GC-MS metabolomics revealed protocatechuic acid as a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound from black rice brans.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 Jun 7;29(6):825-835. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB University), PO BOX 220, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor, 16002 Indonesia.

GC-MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC 8.53 ± 0.26 µM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl-2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1-10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 µg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis-mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00725-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256145PMC
June 2020

Toxicity study on leaf hexane fraction using embryos.

Toxicol Rep 2019 25;6:1148-1154. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Al-Rayan Research and Innovation Center, Al-Rayan Colleges, Medina, 42541, Saudi Arabia.

, an herbal shrub belonging to the Acanthaceae family, is traditionally used as a functional food to treat various ailments in Malaysia and Indonesia. Although the polar fraction of this plant shows non-toxic effect, the toxicity of the non-polar extract is not reported so far. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effect and determine the lethal concentration of this non-polar fraction using zebrafish embryos. The hexane fraction was partitioned from the crude extract of obtained using 80% methanolic solution. After spawning of the adult male and female zebrafish, the eggs were collected, transferred into a 96-well plate and incubated with the hexane fraction at concentrations of 15.63 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml, 62.5 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml in 2% DMSO. The survival and sublethal endpoint were assessed, the mortality and hatchability rates were calculated based on microscopic observation, while the heartbeat rate was measured using DanioScope software. The median lethal concentration (LC) of the hexane fraction, which was determined using probit analysis, was calculated to be 75.49 μg/mL, which is harmful. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol and stigmasterol in the -hexane fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.10.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978205PMC
October 2019

A Comparative Characterization of Physicochemical and Antioxidants Properties of Processed Honey from Different Origins and Classification by Chemometrics Analysis.

Molecules 2019 Oct 29;24(21). Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Pharmacognosy Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia.

Stingless bee honey produced by from different botanical origins was characterised and discriminated. Three types of stingless bee honey collected from acacia, gelam, and starfruit nectars were analyzed and compared with honey. The results showed that stingless bee honey samples from the three different botanical origins were significantly different in terms of their moisture content, pH, free acidity, total soluble solids, colour characteristics, sugar content, amino acid content and antioxidant properties. Stingless bee honey was significantly different from honey in terms of physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The amino acid content was further used in the chemometrics analysis to evaluate the role of amino acid in discriminating honey according to botanical origin. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that the stingless bee honey was completely distinguishable from honey. Notably, a clear distinction between the stingless bee honey types was also observed. The specific amino acids involved in the distinction of honey were cysteine for acacia and gelam, phenylalanine and 3-hydroxyproline for starfruit, and proline for honey. The results showed that all honey samples were successfully classified based on amino acid content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864699PMC
October 2019

Variation in the metabolites and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Cosmos caudatus at different growth stages.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Sep 5;19(1):245. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

Methods: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

Results: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL). Through an H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

Conclusion: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727405PMC
September 2019

(Pers.): Food and Medicinal Plant with Potential In Vitro and In Vivo Anti-Cancer Activities.

Molecules 2019 Jul 8;24(13). Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32512, Egypt.

Background/aim: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of () flowers.

Methods: The phytochemical and biological criteria of were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

Results: extracts, specially CHCl and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CHCl extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, H-NMR and C-NMR. extracts, specially MeOH and CHCl extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24132495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651078PMC
July 2019

Plants mentioned in the Islamic Scriptures (Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith): Traditional uses and medicinal importance in contemporary times.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Oct 4;243:112007. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Natural Products Laboratory, IBL, Leiden University, PO Box 9505, 2300RA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Over the past thousand years, Islamic physicians have collected cultural, philosophical, sociological and historical backgrounds for understanding diseases and medications. The Prophet Mohammed (Peace Be Upon Him (PBUH) said: "There is no disease that Allah has created, except that Allah also has created its cure." Therefore, Islamic scholars are encouraged to explore and use both traditional and modern forms of medicine.

Aim Of The Study: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.

Materials And Methods: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).

Results And Discussion: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.

Conclusion: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112007DOI Listing
October 2019

The promise of zebrafish as a model of metabolic syndrome.

Exp Anim 2019 Nov 21;68(4):407-416. Epub 2019 May 21.

Pharmacognosy Group, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1538/expanim.18-0168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842808PMC
November 2019

Identification of α-glucosidase inhibitors from leaf extract using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and protein-ligand interaction with molecular docking.

J Pharm Anal 2019 Apr 15;9(2):91-99. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

The present study used and techniques, as well as the metabolomics approach to characterise α-glucosidase inhibitors from different fractions of is a medicinal plant belonging to the Acanthaceae family, and is traditionally used to treat diabetes in Malaysia. Hexane, hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate: methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol fractions were obtained via partitioning of the 80% methanolic crude extract. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was analyzed using all the fractions collected, followed by profiling of the metabolites using liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. The partial least square (PLS) statistical model was developed using the SIMCA P14.0 software and the following four inhibitors were obtained: 4,6,8-Megastigmatrien-3-one; N-Isobutyl-2-nonen-6,8-diynamide; 1',2'-bis(acetyloxy)-3',4'-didehydro-2'-hydro-β, ψ-carotene; and 22-acetate-3-hydroxy-21-(6-methyl-2,4-octadienoate)-olean-12-en-28-oic acid. The study performed via molecular docking with the crystal structure of yeast isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A) involved a hydrogen bond and some hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and protein. The residues that interacted include ASN259, HID295, LYS156, ARG335, and GLY209 with a hydrogen bond, while TRP15, TYR158, VAL232, HIE280, ALA292, PRO312, LEU313, VAL313, PHE314, ARG315, TYR316, VAL319, and TRP343 with other forms of bonding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2018.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460329PMC
April 2019

Optimization of Hyperglycemic Induction in Zebrafish and Evaluation of Its Blood Glucose Level and Metabolite Fingerprint Treated with Jack Leaf Extract.

Molecules 2019 Apr 17;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Pharmacognosy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Biomedical Centre, Uppsala University, Box 574, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515116PMC
April 2019

Anticancer activity of grassy Hystrix brachyura bezoar and its mechanisms of action: An in vitro and in vivo based study.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jun 10;114:108841. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical Science, Kuliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a calcified undigested material generally found in porcupine's (Hystrix brachyura) gastrointestinal tract. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. However, limited scientific studies have been performed to verify its anticancer potential to substantiate its traditional claims in the treatment of cancers. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of two grassy PB aqueous extract (PB-A and PB-B) using A375 cancer cell line and zebrafish model, respectively. This paper presents the first report on in vitro A375 cell viability assay, apoptosis assay, cell cycle arrest assay, migration assay, invasion assay, qPCR experimental assay and in vivo anti-angiogenesis assay using the grassy PBs. Experimental findings revealed IC value are 26.59 ± 1.37 μg/mL and 30.12 ± 3.25 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B respectively. PBs showed anti-proliferative activity with no significant cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). PBs were also found to induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase. Additionally, the findings indicated its ability to debilitate migration and invasion of A375 cells. Further evaluation using embryo zebrafish model revealed LC = 450.0 ± 2.50 μg/mL and 58.7 ± 5.0 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B which also exerted anti-angiogenesis effect in zebrafish. Moreover, stearic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and pregnenolone were identified as possible metabolites that might contribute to the anticancer effect of the both PBs. Overall, this study demonstrated that PB-A and PB-B possess potential in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects which are elicited through selective cytotoxic effect, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion and anti-angiogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence that the porcupine bezoar do possess anti-cancer efficacy and further justifies its traditional utility. However, more experiments with higher vertebrae models are still warranted to validate its traditional claims as an anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108841DOI Listing
June 2019

GC-MS analysis of metabolites from soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of flesh and its alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

Nat Prod Res 2020 May 25;34(9):1341-1344. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2018.1560295DOI Listing
May 2020

Saffron ( L.): As an Antidepressant.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2018 Oct-Dec;10(4):173-180

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia.

Saffron, (Iridaceae), is a perennial herb, which earned its popularity as both medicine and spice. It is an inhabitant of different mountainous regions of Asia Minor to Greece, Western Asia, Egypt, and India. The benefits of saffron as an antidepressant are well-documented. Almost 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds are obtained from the chemical analysis of this plant. Fewer than 50 constituents elucidated and identified so far showed phytochemical characteristics. The major bioactive compounds identified are safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin, which are responsible for its aroma as well as its bitter taste. This review is an attempt to encompass the methods of analysis and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of saffron followed by its efficacious and safe potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266642PMC
December 2018

Antioxidant Activities of L. Fruit and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) of the Active Fractions.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Nov 1;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia.

The fruit of L. (Fabaceae) is one of the edible wild fruits native to Southeast Asia. The mesocarp is consumed as sweets while the exocarp and seed are regarded as waste. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the fruit by using four assays, which measure its capabilities in reducing phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents, neocuproine, 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation. The active fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the seed methanol fraction (SMF) exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with significantly higher ( < 0.05) gallic acid equivalence (GAE), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC 31.71; 0.88 µg/mL) than the other fractions. The exocarp dichloromethane fraction (EDF) was the discriminating fraction by having remarkable linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition (IC 121.43; 2.97 µg/mL). A total of thirty-eight metabolites were detected in derivatized EDF and SMF with distinctive classes of phenolics and amino acids, respectively. Bioautography-guided fractionation of EDF afforded five antioxidant-enriched subfractions with four other detected phenolics. The results revealed the antioxidant properties of fruit, which has potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7110154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262551PMC
November 2018

Antiradical and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity Evaluations of L. Leaves and Tentative Identification of Bioactive Constituents through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and Molecular Docking Approach.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2018 Oct 8;7(10). Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Pahang DM, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia.

The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) ( < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) ( < 0.05). Afzelechin 3--alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox7100137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6210320PMC
October 2018

Characterization of α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Lindau Leaves by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics and Molecular Docking Simulation.

Molecules 2018 Sep 19;23(9). Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.

Background: () is an herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

Methods: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

Conclusion: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225325PMC
September 2018

Classification of Raw Stingless Bee Honeys by Bee Species Origins Using the NMR- and LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Approach.

Molecules 2018 Aug 28;23(9). Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of , , and . d-Fructofuranose ( honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose ( honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine ( honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225217PMC
August 2018

Inhibitory effect of mixture herbs/spices on formation of heterocyclic amines and mutagenic activity of grilled beef.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018 Oct 23;35(10):1911-1927. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

e National Food Institute , Technical University of Denmark , Denmark.

Natural antioxidants in spices and herbs have attracted considerable attention as potential inhibitors against the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in heat-processed meat. In this study, the inhibitory activity of four spices/herbs and their mixtures on HCAs formation in grilled beef were examined. A simplex centroid mixture design with four components comprising turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass in 19 different proportions were applied on beef samples before grilling at 240 ºC for 10 min. The HCAs were extracted from the samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) method and analysed using Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. All spices/herbs in single or mixture forms were found to reduce total HCA concentrations in marinated grilled beef ranging from 21.2% for beef marinated with curry leaf to 94.7% for the combination of turmeric and lemon grass (50:50 w/w). At the optimum marinade formula (turmeric: lemon grass 52.4%: 47.6%), concentration of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), Harman, Norharman and AαC were 2.2, 1.4, 0.5, 2.8 and 1.2 ng/g, respectively. The results of the mutagenic activity demonstrated that this optimised marinade formula significantly (p < 0.05) diminished mutagenicity of marinated grilled beef in bacterial Ames test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1488085DOI Listing
October 2018

Correlation of FT-IR Fingerprint and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Salak () Fruit Extracts Utilizing Orthogonal Partial Least Square.

Molecules 2018 06 13;23(6). Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Indera Mahkota, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia.

Salak fruit (), commonly known as snake fruit, is used indigenously as food and for medicinal applications in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of salak fruit extracts in correlation to its Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprint, utilizing orthogonal partial least square. This calibration model was applied to develop a rapid analytical method tool for quality control of this fruit. A total of 36 extracts prepared with different solvent ratios of ethanol⁻water (100, 80, 60, 40.20, 0% /) and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities determined. The FT-IR spectra of ethanol⁻water extracts measured in the region of 400 and 4000 cm at a resolution of 4 cm. Multivariate analysis with a combination of orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) algorithm was used to correlate the bioactivity of the samples with the FT-IR spectral data. The OPLS biplot model identified several functional groups (C⁻H, C=O, C⁻N, N⁻H, C⁻O, and C=C) which actively induced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6100117PMC
June 2018

Metabolomic analysis and biochemical changes in the urine and serum of streptozotocin-induced normal- and obese-diabetic rats.

J Physiol Biochem 2018 Aug 15;74(3):403-416. Epub 2018 May 15.

Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that can affect metabolism of glucose and other metabolites. In this study, the normal- and obese-diabetic rats were compared to understand the diabetes disorders of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. This was done by evaluating their urine metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR)-based metabolomics and comparing with controls at different time points, considering the induction periods of obesity and diabetes. The biochemical parameters of the serum were also investigated. The obese-diabetic model was developed by feeding the rats a high-fat diet and inducing diabetic conditions with a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (25 mg/kg bw). However, the normal rats were induced by a high dose of STZ (55 mg/kg bw). A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model showed the biomarkers of both DM types compared to control. The synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, tricarboxylic (TCA) cycles, and amino acid pathways were the ones most involved in the variation with the highest impact. The diabetic groups also exhibited a noticeable increase in the plasma glucose level and lipid profile disorders compared to the control. There was also an increase in the plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and a decline in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) of diabetic rats. The normal-diabetic rats exhibited the highest effect of all parameters compared to the obese-diabetic rats in the advancement of the DM period. This finding can build a platform to understand the metabolic and biochemical complications of both types of DM and can generate ideas for finding targeted drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-018-0631-3DOI Listing
August 2018

Effects of different types of soy sauce on the formation of heterocyclic amines in roasted chicken.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018 May 26;35(5):870-881. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

d Kulliyyah of Pharmacy , International Islamic University Malaysia , Kuantan , Malaysia.

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different types of soy sauce and marinating time on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in roasted chicken. Chicken breast samples were marinated with sweet, salty, light and dark soy sauce at 0, 3, 6 and 12 h (control treatment was the chicken without marinade). The concentrations of free amino acids, sugars and creatinine were determined before roasting while HCA concentrations were determined after roasting. All types of soy sauce significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the concentration of HCAs in roasted chicken with increasing marinating time. The highest increment of total concentration of HCAs was found in samples marinated with light soy sauce (887%) followed by dark (375%), salty (193%) and sweet (169%) at 12 h. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine) showed a substantial reduction in samples only momentarily marinated with sweet, salty and dark soy sauce (0 h). Free amino acids were found to be more strongly correlated with the formation of HCAs than reducing sugars or creatinine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2018.1440639DOI Listing
May 2018