Publications by authors named "Alexey A Tishkin"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Performance and automation of ancient DNA capture with RNA hyRAD probes.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Centre d'Anthropobiologie et de Génomique de Toulouse (CAGT), Université Paul Sabatier, Faculté de Médecine Purpan, Toulouse, France.

DNA hybridization-capture techniques allow researchers to focus their sequencing efforts on preselected genomic regions. This feature is especially useful when analysing ancient DNA (aDNA) extracts, which are often dominated by exogenous environmental sources. Here, we assessed, for the first time, the performance of hyRAD as an inexpensive and design-free alternative to commercial capture protocols to obtain authentic aDNA data from osseous remains. HyRAD relies on double enzymatic restriction of fresh DNA extracts to produce RNA probes that cover only a fraction of the genome and can serve as baits for capturing homologous fragments from aDNA libraries. We found that this approach could retrieve sequence data from horse remains coming from a range of preservation environments, including beyond radiocarbon range, yielding up to 146.5-fold on-target enrichment for aDNA extracts showing extremely low endogenous content (<1%). Performance was, however, more limited for those samples already characterized by good DNA preservation (>20%-30%), while the fraction of endogenous reads mapping on- and off-target was relatively insensitive to the original endogenous DNA content. Procedures based on two instead of a single round of capture increased on-target coverage up to 3.6-fold. Additionally, we used methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes to produce probes targeting hypomethylated regions, which improved data quality by reducing post-mortem DNA damage and mapping within multicopy regions. Finally, we developed a fully automated hyRAD protocol utilizing inexpensive robotic platforms to facilitate capture processing. Overall, our work establishes hyRAD as a cost-effective strategy to recover a set of shared orthologous variants across multiple ancient samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13518DOI Listing
September 2021

Traces of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Mongolian Horse Mitochondrial Lineages in Modern Populations.

Genes (Basel) 2021 03 12;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of the Diversity and Evolution of Genomes, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

The Mongolian horse is one of the most ancient and relatively unmanaged horse breeds. The population history of the Mongolian horse remains poorly understood due to a lack of information on ancient and modern DNA. Here, we report nearly complete mitochondrial genome data obtained from five ancient Mongolian horse samples of the Khereksur and Deer Stone culture (late 2nd to 1st third of the 1st millennium BC) and one ancient horse specimen from the Xiongnu culture (1st century BC to 1st century AD) using target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing methods. Phylogenetic analysis involving ancient, historical, and modern mitogenomes of horses from Mongolia and other regions showed the presence of three mitochondrial haplogroups in the ancient Mongolian horse populations studied here and similar haplotype composition of ancient and modern horse populations of Mongolia. Our results revealed genetic continuity between the Mongolian horse populations of the Khereksur and Deer Stone culture and those of the Xiongnu culture owing to the presence of related mitotypes. Besides, we report close phylogenetic relationships between haplotypes of the Khereksur and Deer Stone horses and the horses of indigenous breeds of the Middle East (Caspian and Iranian), China (Naqu, Yunnan, and Jinjiang), and Italy (Giara) as well as genetic similarity between the Xiongnu Mongolian horses and those of the most ancient breeds of the Middle East (Arabian) and Central Asia (Akhal-Teke). Despite all the migrations of the Mongolian peoples over the past 3000 years, mitochondrial haplogroup composition of Mongolian horse populations remains almost unchanged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000342PMC
March 2021

Genomic insights into the formation of human populations in East Asia.

Nature 2021 03 22;591(7850):413-419. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people. Here we report genome-wide data from 166 East Asian individuals dating to between 6000 BC and AD 1000 and 46 present-day groups. Hunter-gatherers from Japan, the Amur River Basin, and people of Neolithic and Iron Age Taiwan and the Tibetan Plateau are linked by a deeply splitting lineage that probably reflects a coastal migration during the Late Pleistocene epoch. We also follow expansions during the subsequent Holocene epoch from four regions. First, hunter-gatherers from Mongolia and the Amur River Basin have ancestry shared by individuals who speak Mongolic and Tungusic languages, but do not carry ancestry characteristic of farmers from the West Liao River region (around 3000 BC), which contradicts theories that the expansion of these farmers spread the Mongolic and Tungusic proto-languages. Second, farmers from the Yellow River Basin (around 3000 BC) probably spread Sino-Tibetan languages, as their ancestry dispersed both to Tibet-where it forms approximately 84% of the gene pool in some groups-and to the Central Plain, where it has contributed around 59-84% to modern Han Chinese groups. Third, people from Taiwan from around 1300 BC to AD 800 derived approximately 75% of their ancestry from a lineage that is widespread in modern individuals who speak Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic languages, and that we hypothesize derives from farmers of the Yangtze River Valley. Ancient people from Taiwan also derived about 25% of their ancestry from a northern lineage that is related to, but different from, farmers of the Yellow River Basin, which suggests an additional north-to-south expansion. Fourth, ancestry from Yamnaya Steppe pastoralists arrived in western Mongolia after around 3000 BC but was displaced by previously established lineages even while it persisted in western China, as would be expected if this ancestry was associated with the spread of proto-Tocharian Indo-European languages. Two later gene flows affected western Mongolia: migrants after around 2000 BC with Yamnaya and European farmer ancestry, and episodic influences of later groups with ancestry from Turan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03336-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993749PMC
March 2021

Comparing the Use of Magnetic Beads with Ultrafiltration for Ancient Dental Calculus Proteomics.

J Proteome Res 2021 03 17;20(3):1689-1704. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Natural Sciences, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, United Kingdom.

Over the past two decades, proteomic analysis has greatly developed in application to the field of biomolecular archaeology, coinciding with advancements in LC-MS/MS instrumentation sensitivity and improvements in sample preparation methods. Recently, human dental calculus has received much attention for its well-preserved proteomes locked in mineralized dental plaque which stores information on human diets and the oral microbiome otherwise invisible to other biomolecular approaches. Maximizing proteome recovery in ancient dental calculus, available only in minute quantities and irreplaceable after destructive analysis, is of paramount importance. Here, we compare the more traditional ultrafiltration-based and acetone precipitation approaches with the newer paramagnetic bead approach in order to test the influence of demineralization acid on recovered proteome complexity obtained from specimens as well as the sequence coverages matched for significant proteins. We found that a protocol utilizing EDTA combined with paramagnetic beads increased proteome complexity, in some cases doubling the number of unique peptides and number of proteins matched, compared to protocols involving the use of HCl and either acetone precipitation or ultrafiltration. Although the increase in the number of proteins was almost exclusively of bacterial origin, a development that has implications for the study of diseases within these ancient populations, an increase in the peptide number for the dairy proteins β-lactoglobulin and casein was also observed reflecting an increase in sequence coverage for these dietary proteins of interest. We also consider structural explanations for the discrepancies observed between these two key dietary proteins preserved in archaeological dental calculus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00862DOI Listing
March 2021

High mitochondrial diversity of domesticated goats persisted among Bronze and Iron Age pastoralists in the Inner Asian Mountain Corridor.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(5):e0233333. Epub 2020 May 21.

Graduate School "Human Development in Landscapes", Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.

Goats were initially managed in the Near East approximately 10,000 years ago and spread across Eurasia as economically productive and environmentally resilient herd animals. While the geographic origins of domesticated goats (Capra hircus) in the Near East have been long-established in the zooarchaeological record and, more recently, further revealed in ancient genomes, the precise pathways by which goats spread across Asia during the early Bronze Age (ca. 3000 to 2500 cal BC) and later remain unclear. We analyzed sequences of hypervariable region 1 and cytochrome b gene in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of goats from archaeological sites along two proposed transmission pathways as well as geographically intermediary sites. Unexpectedly high genetic diversity was present in the Inner Asian Mountain Corridor (IAMC), indicated by mtDNA haplotypes representing common A lineages and rarer C and D lineages. High mtDNA diversity was also present in central Kazakhstan, while only mtDNA haplotypes of lineage A were observed from sites in the Northern Eurasian Steppe (NES). These findings suggest that herding communities living in montane ecosystems were drawing from genetically diverse goat populations, likely sourced from communities in the Iranian Plateau, that were sustained by repeated interaction and exchange. Notably, the mitochondrial genetic diversity associated with goats of the IAMC also extended into the semi-arid region of central Kazakhstan, while NES communities had goats reflecting an isolated founder population, possibly sourced via eastern Europe or the Caucasus region.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233333PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241827PMC
August 2020

The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia.

Science 2019 09;365(6457)

Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.

By sequencing 523 ancient humans, we show that the primary source of ancestry in modern South Asians is a prehistoric genetic gradient between people related to early hunter-gatherers of Iran and Southeast Asia. After the Indus Valley Civilization's decline, its people mixed with individuals in the southeast to form one of the two main ancestral populations of South Asia, whose direct descendants live in southern India. Simultaneously, they mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who, starting around 4000 years ago, spread via Central Asia to form the other main ancestral population. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the distinctive features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat7487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822619PMC
September 2019

Liquid permeation and chemical stability of anodic alumina membranes.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2017 6;8:561-570. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 Leninskie hills 1-3, Russia; Department of Materials Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 Leninskie hills, Russia.

A study on the chemical stability of anodic alumina membranes and their performance in long-term water and organic solvent permeation experiments is reported. Anodic alumina possesses high stability for both protonic and aprotonic organic solvents. However, serious degradation of the membrane occurs in pure water, leading to a drastic decrease of permeance (over 20% of the initial value after the passing of 0.250 m/m of pure water). The drying of the membrane induces further permeance drop-off. The rate of membrane degradation strongly depends on the pH of the penetrant solution and increases in basic media. According to Al NMR and thermogravimetry results, the degradation of the membranes is associated with the dissolution of water-soluble [AlO(OH)(HO)] polyhydroxocomplexes and their further redeposition in the form of [Al(OH)], resulting in channels blocking. This process intensifies in basic pH due to the high positive charge of the anodic alumina surface. An approach for improving anodic aluminum oxide stability towards dissolution in water by carbon CVD coating of the membrane walls is suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.8.60DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5355881PMC
March 2017
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