Publications by authors named "Alexei Wong"

80 Publications

Elevated Plasma Concentrations of Vitamin D-Binding Protein Are Associated with Lower High-Density Lipoprotein and Higher Fat Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Women.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 16;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417613151, Iran.

(1) Observational studies have established that vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations are the major factors affecting the bioavailability of 25(OH)D. It has also been shown that poor 25(OH)D bioavailability elevates the risk of obesity and its related cardio-metabolic disorders. However, the relationship between 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations with cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese cohorts has not been established. Consequently, we evaluated the association between DBP and 25(OH)D concentrations with lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and body composition in overweight and obese women. (2) In this cross-sectional study of 236 overweight and obese women, DBP and 25(OH)D concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body composition was assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lipid profile and BP were assessed by an auto-analyzer and digital BP monitor, respectively. The associations were examined by multivariate logistic regression. (3) : The indicated showed an inverse relationship between DBP and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ( = 0.010) concentrations (where individuals with higher DBP had lower HDL) which, after adjusting for possible cofounders, remained significant ( = 0.006). Moreover, DBP concentration was positively associated with fat mass index (FMI) after adjustment ( = 0.022). No significant relationships were observed among 25(OH)D and target variables. (4) : In conclusion, lower concentrations of HDL and higher values of FMI are associated with higher concentrations of DBP in overweight and obese women. These findings present novel awareness regarding the association of DBP with some metabolic and body composition variables in overweight and obese women. However, a two-way causal relationship between DBP and target variables should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472481PMC
September 2021

The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training on Inflammatory Markers, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Overweight/Obese Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Tehran, Tehran 1961733114, Iran.

: Chronic inflammation associated with breast cancer (BC) poses a major challenge in care management and may be ameliorated by physical activity. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 12-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on inflammatory markers, body composition, and physical fitness in BC survivors (BCS). : Forty BCS (age = 57 ± 1 years; body mass [BM] = 74.8 ± 1.5 kg; VO = 20.8 ± 2.1 mL·kg·min) were randomly assigned to three groups: HIIT ( = 15), MICT ( = 15), or control (CON; = 15). The intervention groups (HIIT and MICT) performed their respective exercise protocols on a cycle ergometer 3 days/week for 12 weeks while the CON group maintained their current lifestyle. Baseline and post-intervention assessments included body composition (BM, fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM)), physical fitness (VO, lower body strength (LBS), upper body strength (UBS)), and serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), leptin, and adiponectin. : Both intervention groups significantly ( < 0.05) decreased BM (HIIT = -1.8 kg, MICT = -0.91 kg), FM (HIIT = -0.81 kg, MICT = -0.18 kg), TNF-α (HIIT = -1.84 pg/mL, MICT = -0.99 pg/mL), IL-6 (HIIT = -0.71 pg/mL, MICT = -0.36 pg/mL), leptin (HIIT = -0.35 pg/mL, MICT = -0.16 pg/mL) and increased VO (HIIT = 0.95 mL·kg·min, MICT = 0.67 mL·kg·min), LBS (HIIT = 2.84 kg, MICT = 1.53 kg), UBS (HIIT = 0.53 kg, MICT = 0.53 kg), IL-10 (HIIT = 0.63 pg/mL, MICT = 0.38 pg/mL), and adiponectin (HIIT = 0.23 ng/mL, MICT = 0.1 ng/mL) compared to baseline. The changes in BM, FM, TNF-α, leptin, and LBS were significantly greater in HIIT compared to all other groups. : Our findings indicate that compared to the often-recommended MICT, HIIT may be a more beneficial exercise therapy for the improvement of inflammation, body composition and LBS in BCS; and consequently, merits long-term study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430701PMC
August 2021

Folic acid supplementation and blood pressure: a GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of 41,633 participants.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 3:1-16. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Hypertension is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The extant literature regarding the effects of folic acid supplementation on blood pressure (BP) is inconsistent. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to summarize the effects of folic acid supplementation on BP. A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane library, from database inception to August 2021. Data were pooled using the random-effects method and were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The pooled results of 22 studies, including 41,633 participants, showed that folic acid supplementation significantly decreased systolic BP (SBP) (WMD: -1.10 mmHg; 95% CI: -1.93 to -0.28;  = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the results remained significant when baseline SBP was ≥120 mmHg, intervention duration was ≤6 weeks, intervention dose was ≥5 mg/d, in patients with CVD, males and females, and overweight participants, respectively. Furthermore, the changes observed in diastolic BP (DBP) (WMD: -0.24 mmHg; 95% CI: -0.37 to -0.10;  < 0.001) were also statistically significant. However, subgroup analysis showed that the results remained significant in subject with elevated DBP, long term duration of intervention (>6 weeks), low dose of folic acid (<5 mg/day), CVD patients, both sexes and male, and participants with normal BMI. Dose-response analysis showed that folic acid supplementation changed SBP and DBP significantly based on dose and duration. However, meta-regression analysis did not reveal any significant association between dose and duration of intervention with changes in SBP. The present study demonstrates the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation on BP by decreasing both SBP and DBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1968787DOI Listing
September 2021

Response to: resistance exercise in lean older adults: mind the gap in energy intake.

Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 16:1-2. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452100310XDOI Listing
August 2021

Folic Acid Supplementation Improves Glycemic Control for Diabetes Prevention and Management: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 9;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174673461, Iran.

Background: There is a growing interest in the considerable benefits of dietary supplementations, such as folic acid, on the glycemic profile. We aimed to investigate the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers in adults.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers published up to March 2021 were detected by searching online databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science, using a combination of related keywords. Mean change and standard deviation (SD) of the outcome measures were used to estimate the mean difference between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Meta-regression and non-linear dose-response analysis were conducted to evaluate the association between pooled effect size and folic acid dosage (mg/day) and duration of the intervention (week). From 1814 detected studies, twenty-four studies reported fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as an outcome measure.

Results: Results revealed significant reductions in FBG (weighted mean difference (WMD): -2.17 mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.65, = 0.005), fasting insulin (WMD: -1.63 pmol/L, 95% CI: -2.53, -0.73, < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -0.40, 95% CI: -0.70, -0.09, = 0.011) following folic acid supplementation. No significant effect was detected for HbA1C (WMD: -0.27%, 95% CI: -0.73, 0.18, = 0.246). The dose-response analysis showed that folic acid supplementation significantly changed HOMA-IR (r = -1.30, p-nonlinearity = 0.045) in non-linear fashion. However, meta-regression analysis did not indicate a linear relationship between dose, duration, and absolute changes in FBG, HOMA-IR, and fasting insulin concentrations.

Conclusions: Folic acid supplementation significantly reduces some markers of glycemic control in adults. These reductions were small, which may limit clinical applications for adults with type II diabetes. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308657PMC
July 2021

Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Inflammatory Markers: A Grade-Assessed Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Nutrients 2021 Jul 6;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.

It has been theorized that folic acid supplementation improves inflammation. However, its proven effects on inflammatory markers are unclear as clinical studies on this topic have produced inconsistent results. To bridge this knowledge gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed to evaluate the effects of folic acid supplementation on serum concentrations of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). To identify eligible RCTs, a systematic search up to April 2021 was completed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. A fix or random-effects model was utilized to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Twelve RCTs were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum concentrations of CRP (WMD: -0.59 mg/L, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.33, < 0.001) were significantly reduced following folic acid supplementation compared to placebo, but did not affect serum concentrations of IL-6 (WMD: -0.12, 95% CI -0.95 to 0.72 pg/mL, = 0.780) or TNF-α (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.49 pg/mL, = 0.594). The dose-response analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between an elevated dosage of folic acid supplementation and lower CRP concentrations ( = 0.002). We found that folic acid supplementation may improve inflammation by attenuating serum concentrations of CRP but without significant effects on IL-6 and TNF-α. Future RCTs including a larger number of participants and more diverse populations are needed to confirm and expand our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308638PMC
July 2021

What is the influence of cinnamon supplementation on liver enzymes? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2021 Oct 1;35(10):5634-5646. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Existing evidence has uncovered the potential health benefits of cinnamon intake; however, its effect on liver function is unclear. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effect of cinnamon supplementation on liver enzymes. Relevant articles were identified through a systematic search in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase up to September 2020. All trials assessing the effect of oral cinnamon supplementation on serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in adults were included. The pooled effect sizes were obtained using the random-effects model and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of seven original trials (nine treatment arms) involving a total of 256 subjects were included in the final analysis. The pooled analysis indicated that cinnamon supplementation had no significant effect on serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP. However, there was a significant reduction in ALT levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (MD: -4.01 U/L; 95% CI: -6.86, -1.15) and in trials with low-dose supplementation (<1,500 mg/d), follow-up duration longer than 12 weeks, and in the elderly patients (aged>50 years). The beneficial effects of cinnamon intake were also shown in AST levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and trials with long-term follow-up (>12 weeks). Longer-term, oral cinnamon supplementation may improve serum levels of liver enzymes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further high-quality studies are needed, especially in populations with abnormal liver enzyme levels, to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of cinnamon on liver function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7200DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of 6 Months of Soy-Enriched High Protein Compared to Eucaloric Low Protein Snack Replacement on Appetite, Dietary Intake, and Body Composition in Normal-Weight Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, WittyFit, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

(1) Background: The favorable effects of high protein snacks on body composition and appetite status in lean and athletic populations have been illustrated previously. However, the effects of soy-enriched high protein snacks have not been investigated in women with normal-weight obesity (NWO). Consequently, we aimed at comparing the effects of six months of soy-enriched high protein snack replacement on appetite, body composition, and dietary intake in women with NWO. (2) Methods: One hundred seven (107) women with NWO [(age: 24 ± 3 yrs, BMI: 22.7 ± 2.3 kg/m, body fat percentage (BFP): 38 ± 3.2%)] who were assigned to one of two groups; high protein snack (HP, = 52) containing 50 g soybean or isocaloric low-protein snack (protein: 18.2 g, carbohydrate: 15 g, fat: 10 g, energy: 210 kcal) or isocaloric low protein snack (LP, = 55) containing 3.5 servings of fruit (protein: <2 g, carbohydrate: ≈50 g, fat: <1 g, energy: ≈210 kcal) as part of their daily meals (as a snack at 10 a.m.), successfully completed the study interventions. Body mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), BFP, skeletal muscle mass, dietary intake, and appetite levels were evaluated prior to and after the six-month intervention. (3) Results: Appetite (HP = -12 mm and LP = -0.6 mm), energy intake (HP = -166.2 kcal/day and LP = 91.3 kcal), carbohydrate intake (HP = -58.4 g/day and LP = 6.4 g/day), WC (HP = -4.3 cm and LP = -0.9 cm), and BFP (HP = -3.7% and LP = -0.9%) were significantly ( < 0.05) reduced, while skeletal muscle mass (HP = 1.2 kg and LP = 0.3 kg) significantly increased in the HP compared to the LP group, respectively. (4) Conclusions: Six months of a soy-enriched high protein snack replacement decreased appetite and improved body composition in women with NWO. Our findings suggest that soy-enriched high protein snacks are an efficacious strategy for body composition improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308358PMC
June 2021

The Effects of Nano-Curcumin Supplementation on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: A GRADE-Assessed Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 24;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Cancer Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran.

Background: Previous studies have indicated that curcumin supplementation may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health; however, current evidence regarding the effects of its nanorange formulations, popularly known as "nano-curcumin", remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of nano-curcumin supplementation on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ISI web of science were systematically searched up to May 2021 using relevant keywords. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of nano-curcumin supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models, and subgroup analysis was performed to explore variations by dose and baseline risk profiles.

Results: According to the results of this study, nano-curcumin supplementation was associated with improvements in the glycemic profile by decreasing fasting blood glucose (FBG) (WMD: -18.14 mg/dL; 95% CI: -29.31 to -6.97; = 0.001), insulin (WMD: -1.21 mg/dL; 95% CI: -1.43 to -1.00; < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -0.28 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.33 to -0.23; < 0.001). Interestingly, nano-curcumin supplementation resulted in increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (WMD: 5.77 mg/dL; 95% CI: 2.90 to 8.64; < 0.001). In terms of other lipid profile markers (triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), subgroup analyses showed that nano-curcumin supplementation had more favorable effects on lipid profiles in individuals with dyslipidemia at baseline. Nano-curcumin supplementation also showed favorable anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -1.29 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.15 to -0.44; = 0.003) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (WMD: -2.78 mg/dL; 95% CI: -3.76 to -1.79; < 0.001). Moreover, our results showed the hypotensive effect of nano-curcumin, evidenced by a decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP).

Conclusions: In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that nano-curcumin supplementation may decline cardiovascular disease risk by improving glycemic and lipid profiles, inflammation, and SBP. Future large-scale investigations with longer durations are needed to expand on our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10071015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300831PMC
June 2021

Effects of L-citrulline supplementation on nitric oxide and antioxidant markers after high-intensity interval exercise in young men: a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 17:1-23. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

L-citrulline (L-Cit) is a nonessential amino acid that stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production and improves exercise performance by reducing muscle damage indices; however, the direct benefits of L-Cit on antioxidant markers are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine antioxidant responses to high-intensity interval exercise following acute L-Cit supplementation. Nine young men (21 ± 1 years) participated in a double-blind crossover study in which they received 12 g of L-Cit and placebo (PL) an hour prior to high-intensity interval exercise on two occasions, separated by a seven-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before (PRE), immediately after (IP), 10 (10P), and 30 min after exercise (30P) from the cubital vein using standard procedures. Serum concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and NO metabolites (NOx) were measured. The exercise protocol significantly elevated SOD (p = 0.01) and GPx (p = 0.048) from PRE to 10P in the L-Cit group with greater changes than the PL group. CAT concentrations increased IP (p = 0.014) and remained elevated at 10P (p = 0.03) and 30P (p = 0.015) in both the L-Cit and PL conditions. NOx concentrations increased IP (p = 0.05) in the L-Cit group with greater changes than PL group in PRE to IP, PRE to 10P, and PRE to 30P (p < 0.05). Our data indicate that L-Cit supplementation (single 12 g dose pre-exercise) induces improvements in antioxidant markers following a session of high-intensity interval exercise in young men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002178DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Icelandic yogurt consumption and resistance training in healthy untrained older males.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 14:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

Due to the important roles of resistance training and protein consumption in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia, we assessed the efficacy of post-exercise Icelandic yogurt consumption on lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males. Thirty healthy untrained older males (age = 68 ± 4 years) were randomly assigned to Icelandic yogurt (IR; n 15, 18 g of protein) or an iso-energetic placebo (PR; n 15, 0 g protein) immediately following resistance training (3×/week) for 8 weeks. Before and after training, lean mass, strength and skeletal muscle regulatory factors (insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), Activin A, myostatin (MST) and follistatin (FST)) were assessed. There were group × time interactions (P < 0·05) for body mass (IR: Δ 1, PR: Δ 0·7 kg), BMI (IR: Δ 0·3, PR: Δ 0·2 kg/m2), lean mass (IR: Δ 1·3, PR: Δ 0·6 kg), bench press (IR: Δ 4, PR: 2·3 kg), leg press (IR: Δ 4·2, PR: Δ 2·5 kg), IGF-1 (IR: Δ 0·5, Δ PR: 0·1 ng/ml), TGF-β (IR: Δ - 0·2, PR: Δ - 0·1 ng/ml), GDF15 (IR: Δ - 10·3, PR: Δ - 4·8 pg/ml), Activin A (IR: Δ - 9·8, PR: Δ - 2·9 pg/ml), MST (IR: Δ - 0·1, PR: Δ - 0·04 ng/ml) and FST (IR: Δ 0·09, PR: Δ 0·03 ng/ml), with Icelandic yogurt consumption resulting in greater changes compared with placebo. The addition of Icelandic yogurt consumption to a resistance training programme improved lean mass, strength and altered skeletal muscle regulatory factors in healthy untrained older males compared with placebo. Therefore, Icelandic yogurt as a nutrient-dense source and cost-effective supplement enhances muscular gains mediated by resistance training and consequently may be used as a strategy for the prevention of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521002166DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 28;10(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran.

(1) Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress markers. (2) Methods: Online database including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane were searched up to January 2021, to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which examined the effect of folic acid supplementation on markers of oxidative stress. Meta-analyses were carried out using a random-effects model. I index was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of RCTs. (3) Results: Among the initial 2322 studies that were identified from electronic databases search, 13 studies involving 1013 participants were eligible. Pooled effect size from 13 studies indicated that folic acid supplementation elicits a significant rise in serum concentrations of glutathione (GSH) (WMD: 219.01 umol/L, 95% CI 59.30 to 378.71, = 0.007) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (WMD: 91.70 umol/L, 95% CI 40.52 to 142.88, < 0.001) but has no effect on serum concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) (WMD: 2.61 umol/L, 95% CI -3.48 to 8.72, = 0.400). In addition, folic acid supplementation significantly reduced serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -0.13 umol/L, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.02, = 0.020). (4) Conclusions: This meta-analysis study suggests that folic acid supplementation may significantly improve markers within the antioxidative defense system by increasing serum concentrations of GSH and TAC and decreasing serum concentrations of MDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230016PMC
May 2021

Beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation on lipid markers in adults: A GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of data from 21,787 participants in 34 randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 18:1-19. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Folic acid supplementation has received considerable attention in the literature, yet there is a large discrepancy in its effects on lipid markers in adults. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis of 38 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the effects of folic acid supplementation on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations in a cohort of 21,787 participants. A systematic search current as of March 2021 was performed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase using relevant keywords to identify eligible studies. A fix or random-effects model was used to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirty-four RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum TG (WMD: -9.78 mg/dL; 95% CI: -15.5 to -4.00;  = 0.001, I=0.0%,  = 0.965) and TC (WMD: -3.96 mg/dL; 95% CI: -6.71 to -1.21;  = 0.005, I=46.9%,  = 0.001) concentrations were significantly reduced following folic acid supplementation compared to placebo. However, folic acid supplementation did not affect serum concentrations of LDL (WMD: -0.97 mg/dL; 95% CI: -6.82 to 4.89;  = 0.746, I=60.6%,  < 0.001) or HDL cholesterol (WMD: 0.44 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.53 to 1.41;  = 0.378, I= 0.0%,  = 0.831). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between the dose of folic acid supplementation and serum concentrations of HDL cholesterols (r = 2.22,  = 0.047). Folic acid supplementation reduced serum concentrations of TG and TC without affecting LDL or HDL cholesterols. Future large RCTs on various populations are needed to show further beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation on lipid profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1928598DOI Listing
May 2021

Plant-based diets and risk of disease mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 6:1-13. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

We aimed to examine the association between adherence to plant-based diets (PBDs) and the risk of mortality among the general population. Relevant investigations were identified through PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge. Data were pooled using a random-effects or a fixed-effects model. Twelve prospective cohort studies with 42,697 deaths among 508,861 participants were included. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the highest compared to the lowest category of adherence to the PBDs were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82, 0.99; I = 91%, n = 12) for all-cause and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.86; I = 36%, n = 8) for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Among PBDs subtypes, there was an inverse association between healthy plant-based 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; I = 0%, n = 2), Pesco-vegetarian 0.81 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.92; I = 0%, n = 2), and Pro-vegetarian 0.74 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.88; I = 61.2%, n = 2) diets and the risk of all-cause mortality. A vegetarian diet was also associated with lower risk of mortality due to cardiovascular 0.92 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.99; I = 0%, n = 5) and CHD 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.85; I = 35%, n = 7). Our findings show the potential protective role of PBDs against chronic disease mortality. As there were certain limitations in some of the studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis, further research is necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1918628DOI Listing
May 2021

Strategic Ingestion of High-Protein Dairy Milk during a Resistance Training Program Increases Lean Mass, Strength, and Power in Trained Young Males.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 15;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, CNRS, LaPSCo, Université Clermont Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: We evaluated the effects of high-protein dairy milk ingestion on changes in body composition, strength, power, and skeletal muscle regulatory markers following 6 weeks of resistance training in trained young males.

Methods: Thirty resistance-trained young males (age: 27 ± 3 years; training experience: 15 ± 2 months) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: high-protein dairy milk (both whey and casein) + resistance training (MR; = 15) or isoenergetic carbohydrate (maltodextrin 9%) + resistance training (PR; = 15). Milk and placebo were ingested immediately post-exercise (250 mL; 30 g protein) and 30 min before sleep (250 mL; 30 g protein). Before and after 6 weeks of linear periodized resistance training (4 times/week), body composition (bioelectrical impedance), strength, power, and serum levels of skeletal muscle regulatory markers (insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, follistatin, myostatin, and follistatin-myostatin ratio) were assessed.

Results: The MR group experienced a significantly higher ( < 0.05) increase in lean mass, strength, and power (upper- and lower-body) than the PR group. Further, IGF-1, growth hormone, testosterone, follistatin, and follistatin-myostatin ratio were significantly increased, while cortisol and myostatin significantly decreased in the MR group than the PR group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The strategic ingestion of high-protein dairy milk (post-exercise and pre-sleep) during 6 weeks of resistance training augmented lean mass, strength, power, and altered serum concentrations of skeletal muscle regulatory markers in trained young males compared to placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999866PMC
March 2021

Effects of betaine supplementation on cardiovascular markers: A systematic review and Meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 25:1-18. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, Texas, USA.

Controversy regarding the effects of betaine supplementation on cardiovascular markers has persisted for decades. This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the effects of betaine supplementation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Studies examining betaine supplementation on CVD markers published up to February 2021 were identified through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, and SCOPUS. Betaine supplementation had a significant effect on concentrations of betaine (MD: 82.14 μmol/L, 95% CI: 67.09 to 97.20), total cholesterol (TC) (MD: 14.12 mg/dl, 95% CI%: 9.23 to 19.02), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (MD: 10.26 mg/dl, 95% CI: 6.14 to 14.38)], homocysteine (WMD: -1.30 micromol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to -0.98), dimethylglycine (DMG) (MD: 21.33 micromol/L, 95% CI: 13.87 to 28.80), and methionine (MD: 2.06 micromol/L, 95% CI: 0.23 to 3.88). Moreover, our analysis indicated that betaine supplementation did not affect serum concentrations of triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood glucose (FBG), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)], and blood pressure. Our subgroup analysis suggested that a maximum dose of 4 g/d might have homocysteine-lowering effects without any adverse effect on lipid profiles reported with doses of ≥4 g/d. In conclusion, the present systematic review and meta-analysis supports the advantage of a lower dose of betaine supplementation (<4 g/d) on homocysteine concentrations without the lipid-augmenting effect observed with a higher dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1902938DOI Listing
March 2021

Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss in competitive wrestlers.

Br J Nutr 2021 Mar 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

We aimed to assess the effects of spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss on serum concentrations of follistatin (FST), myostatin (MST), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and body composition in competitive wrestlers. Forty competitive wrestlers (age: 22 (sem 2) years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: gradual weight loss + spirulina (SP; n 20) or gradual weight loss + placebo (PL; n 20). Subjects in both groups lost weight according to a designed diet over 12 d and were required to reduce baseline body mass (BM) by 4%. Subjects in the SP group received two tablets of spirulina, while subjects in the PL received two tablets of placebo before each meal. Concentrations of mentioned serum markers and body composition were measured before and after the interventions. BM (SP = -3·1 kg and PL = -2·9 kg), body fat percentage (BFP) (SP = -2·1 % and PL = -0·6 %), fat mass (FM) (SP = -2·2 kg and PL = -0·9 kg) and skeletal muscle mass (SP = -1·4 kg and PL = -1·5 kg) significantly decreased in both groups (P < 0·05). The changes in BFP and FM were significantly greater in SP compared with the PL group (P < 0·001). Additionally, MST (SP = -0·1 ng/ml), AST (SP = -2·1 u/l) and ALT (SP = -2·7 u/l) concentrations significantly diminished in SP group (P = 0·005), while FST (PL = -0·1 ng/ml) and IGF-1 (PL = -2·6 ng/ml) concentrations significantly decreased in PL group (P < 0·05). Spirulina supplementation during gradual weight loss is beneficial in reducing BFP, FM, MST and liver enzymes while maintaining IGF-1 and FST concentrations in competitive wrestlers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452100091XDOI Listing
March 2021

The effects of exercise training on serum concentrations of chemerin in individuals with overweight and obesity: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression of 43 clinical trials.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 12:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, TX, USA.

Context: Elevated serum concentrations of chemerin is a significant factor in the development of metabolic disorders in individuals with overweight and obesity.

Objective: This systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression evaluated the effects of exercise training on serum concentrations of chemerin in individuals with overweight and/or obesity.

Methods: Studies published up to January 2021 were identified through four databases. Forty-three studies including 1271 participants were included and analysed using a random-effects model to calculate weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Results indicated that exercise training significantly decreased serum concentrations of chemerin in individuals with overweight and/or obesity. Subgroup analysis showed that all types of exercise (aerobic, resistance, and combined training) interventions but not high-intensity interval training decreased serum concentrations of chemerin. Subgroup analysis based on baseline body mass index (BMI), gender, and intervention duration showed significant declines in serum concentrations of chemerin. Meta-regression analysis indicated a linear relationship between changes in body fat percentage (BFP) with serum concentrations of chemerin.

Conclusion: Exercise training may decrease serum concentrations of chemerin in individuals with overweight and/or obesity. The chemerin-lowering effects of exercise might be related to declines in BFP. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1892148DOI Listing
March 2021

The effect of exercise training on serum concentrations of chemerin in patients with metabolic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 2:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, TX, USA.

Context: Elevated serum concentrations of chemerin is a significant factor in the development of metabolic disorders.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the influence of exercise training on serum concentrations of chemerin in patients with metabolic diseases.

Methods: Thirteen studies including 463 participants were included and analysed using a random-effects model to calculate weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Results indicated that exercise training significantly decreased serum concentrations of chemerin in patients with metabolic diseases when compared with controls. Subgroup analysis showed that exercise training resulted in decreases in serum concentrations of chemerin in men, however, this was not significant in women. Moreover, subgroup analyses based on the type of exercise did not reveal differential effects on serum concentrations of chemerin.

Conclusion: Exercise training may produce improvements in serum concentrations of chemerin in patients with metabolic diseases. Further longer-term studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1892149DOI Listing
March 2021

The effects of (dill) supplementation on lipid profile and glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

There is an increased interest in the potential health benefits of nutraceutical therapies, such as (dill). Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation on lipid profiles and glycemic indices in adults. A systematic search was performed for literature published through November 2020 via PubMed/Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Embase to find randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of oral supplementation with on lipid profile and measures of glycemic control in adults. The random-effects model was applied to establish the weighted mean difference (WMD) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Seven RCTs with a total number of 330 subjects were included in the final analysis. Pooled results indicated that supplementation significantly decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) concentration (WMD: -15.64 mg/dL; 95% CI: -24.55 to -6.73;  = 0.001), serum insulin (WMD: -2.28 μU/ml; 95% CI: -3.62 to -0.93;  = 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -1.06; 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20;  = 0.01). However, there was no significant effect on serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and fasting blood glucose (FBS). Subgroup analysis suggested that using in higher doses and long-term duration had beneficial effects on lipid profiles. Dose-response analysis also showed a significant reduction in FBS at doses of 1500 mg/d. The present meta-analysis indicated that could exert favorable effects on insulin resistance and serum LDL. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1889459DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of resistance training combined with a ketogenic diet on body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 24:1-16. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, Texas, USA.

We evaluated the effects of ketogenic diets (KDs) on body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) compared to non-KDs in individuals performing resistance training (RT). Online electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, SCOPUS, and Ovid were searched to identify initial studies until February 2021. Data were pooled using both fixed and random-effects methods and were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Out of 1372 studies, 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled 244 volunteers were included. The pooled results demonstrated that KDs significantly decreased BM [(WMD = -3.67 kg; 95% CI: -4.44, -2.90,  < 0.001)], FM [(WMD = -2.21 kg; 95% CI: -3.09, -1.34,  < 0.001)], FFM [(WMD = -1.26 kg; 95% CI: -1.82, -0.70,  < 0.001)], BMI [(WMD = -1.37 kg.m; 95% CI: -2.14, -0.59,  = 0.022)], and BFP [(WMD = -2.27%; 95% CI: -3.63, -0.90,  = 0.001)] compared to non-KDs. We observed beneficial effects of KDs compared to non-KDs on BM and body fat (both FM and BFP) in individuals performing RT. However, adherence to KDs may have a negative effect on FFM, which is not ameliorated by the addition of RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1890689DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of saffron (Crocus Sativus Linn) supplementation and resistance training on markers implicated in depression and happiness levels in untrained young males.

Physiol Behav 2021 05 6;233:113352. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, United States. Electronic address:

Background: We aimed to assess the effects of six weeks of resistance training (RT) combined with saffron supplementation on markers implicated in depression as well as happiness levels in untrained young males.

Materials And Methods: Untrained young male participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: RT + saffron supplement (RS; n = 14) or RT + placebo (RP; n = 14). For 6 weeks, participants in the RS group took one 150 mg pill of pure saffron immediately after each RT session and at the same time on non-training days. Those assigned to the RP group took a dextrose pill. Concentrations of Anandamide (AEA), 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), serotonin, dopamine, β-endorphin (beta-endorphin), tryptophan, happiness levels (via questionnaire), and body composition were assessed before and after the 6 weeks of whole-body supervised RT (4x/week, 3 sets using 60-70% of 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]).

Results: AEA (0.5 ng/ml), 2-AG (0.04 ng/ml), dopamine (0.7 ng/ml), and β-endorphin (9.4 pg/ml) concentrations significantly increased in the RS group (P<0.05) while no changes were detected in the RP group. Serotonin (RS = 1.7 ng/mL and RP = 1 ng/mL) concentrations and happiness levels significantly increased in both groups with greater changes in RS group while tryptophan concentrations remained unchanged (P> 0.05). In addition, both groups significantly increased muscular endurance with greater changes in RS group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Six weeks of RT combined with saffron supplementation improved AEA, 2-AG, dopamine, β-endorphin, and serotonin concentrations. Moreover, the addition of saffron supplement to chronic RT results in greater improvements in happiness levels than RT alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2021.113352DOI Listing
May 2021

The effects of gradual vs. rapid weight loss on serum concentrations of myokines and body composition in overweight and obese females.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Jan 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, United States.

Research has shown the modulations of Follistatin (FST) and Myostatin (MST) following weight loss. We evaluated the effects of gradual weight loss (GWL) and rapid weight loss (RWL) on serum MST, FST, and body composition in overweight and obese females. Thirty-six overweight and obese females successfully completed the study interventions: GWL ( = 18) or RWL ( = 18). Serum MST and FST concentrations, as well as anthropometric measurements, were collected at baseline and at the conclusion of each weight loss intervention. MST concentration significantly ( < .05) decreased in the GWL; while FST concentration, body fat percentage and skeletal muscle mass significantly declined in both conditions. The loss in skeletal muscle mass was significantly greater in RWL relative to GWL. GWL was more effective than RWL in preserving skeletal muscle mass in overweight and obese females. Moreover, GWL leads to declines in MST concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2021.1874020DOI Listing
January 2021

Impaired pulse pressure amplification, augmentation index, and arterial stiffness are associated with reduced limb lean mass in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

Exp Gerontol 2021 03 9;145:111194. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The age-related muscle mass loss has been associated with increased arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, baPWV) and wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx). In healthy individuals, pulse pressure (PP) is lower in the aorta compared to the brachial artery (PP amplification, PPA). Postmenopausal women experience elevated aortic stiffness leading to increased AIx and aortic PP causing reduced PPA, an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality. It is unknown whether appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI), arm (ArmLM) or leg lean mass (LegLM) are negatively associated with PPA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between vascular function (PPA, AIx, and baPWV) and lean mass (ASMI, ArmLM, and LegLM) in postmenopausal women.

Methods: The study was performed in 93 postmenopausal women (48-71 years; BMI: 30 ± 7 kg/m). PPA (brachial/aortic PP), aortic AIx, and baPWV were measured. ArmLM and LegLM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. ASMI was calculated as (ArmLM+LegLM)/Ht. Associations between vascular and lean mass measures were analyzed by multiple linear regression.

Results: PPA was associated with ASMI (β = 0.29, p = .016) and LegLM (β = 0.25, p = .028) after adjustment for age, height, systolic pressure, strength, and heart rate. AIx was associated with ASMI (β = -0.27, p = .011), ArmLM (β = -0.25, p = .023), and LegLM (β = -0.22, p = .026), while baPWV was associated with reduced ASMI (β = -0.23, p = .043) and ArmLM (β = -0.23, p = .045), but not with LegLM (β = -0.19, p = .074) after full adjustment.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that impaired pulsatile hemodynamics (PPA and AIx) are negatively associated with ASMI and LegLM, while arterial stiffness is negatively associated with ASMI and ArmLM. Thus, vascular dysfunction may be implicated in muscle mass loss in overweight and obese postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111194DOI Listing
March 2021

Whole Egg Vs. Egg White Ingestion During 12 weeks of Resistance Training in Trained Young Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Feb;35(2):411-419

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, Texas.

Abstract: Bagheri, R, Moghadam, BH, Ashtary-Larky, D, Forbes, SC, Candow, DG, Galpin, AJ, Eskandari, M, Kreider, RB, and Wong, A. Whole egg vs. egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training in trained young males: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 35(2): 411-419, 2021-The primary purpose was to compare the effects of whole egg ingestion and egg white ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on muscle cross-sectional area, body composition, muscular strength, and anaerobic power in resistance-trained young males. A secondary purpose was to examine systemic hormonal responses. Thirty resistance-trained young males were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Whole eggs + RT (WER; n = 15) or egg whites + RT (ERT; n = 15). Whole eggs + RT ingested 3 whole eggs immediately following RT, whereas ERT ingested an isonitrogenous quantity consisting of 6 egg whites immediately following RT. Before and after 12 weeks of whole-body undulating periodized RT (3 sessions per week), knee extensor muscle mass and cross-sectional area (computed tomography), lean body mass and body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular strength (knee extension, handgrip strength), Wingate (cycle ergometer), and serum concentrations of hormones were assessed. There was a significant group × time interaction for body fat percentage, serum testosterone, knee extension, and handgrip strength with greater improvements observed in WER. There was a significant main effect of time (p < 0.05) for knee extensor muscle mass, cross-sectional area, lean body mass, anaerobic power, and all other blood hormones. There was a trend (p = 0.06) in the WER group for having a greater change in lean body mass compared with that of ERT. Postexercise whole egg ingestion increases knee extension and handgrip strength, testosterone, and reduces body fat percentage compared with postexercise egg white ingestion, despite no group differences in muscle mass, in resistance-trained young males. Whole eggs consumption may be preferable during RT programs geared toward the improvement of muscular strength and body fat percentage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003922DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation and resistance training in postmenopausal women.

Exp Gerontol 2021 02 3;144:111185. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The age-related loss in muscular function is typically accelerated after menopause. Resistance training (RT) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength in postmenopausal women. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation acutely increases myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and decreases muscle soreness following RT. However, the combined effects of BCAA supplementation and RT on muscle mass, strength, and regulatory factors on postmenopausal cohorts are currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effects of BCAA supplementation and RT on muscle mass, strength, and regulatory factors in postmenopausal women.

Methods: Thirty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: RT and placebo (PLA; n = 10), RT and BCAA (BCAA; 9 g/day; n = 10), or control (CON; n = 10). Muscle mass, strength, and serum concentrations of muscle regulatory factors (myostatin, follistatin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) were assessed before and following 8 weeks of whole-body supervised RT (3×/week, 3-4 sets using 60-75% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]).

Results: There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in muscle mass and strength in both the PLA and BCAA conditions. Additionally, myostatin significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, while IGF-1 (P < 0.05) increased following PLA and BCAA. However, follistatin significantly increased in the BCAA condition. There were no differences between RT conditions over time. Furthermore, there were no changes in any variable after CON.

Conclusions: Short-term (8 weeks) RT is an effective intervention for improving muscle mass, strength, and muscle regulatory factors in postmenopausal women. The addition of BCAA supplementation to RT failed to augment these physiological changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2020.111185DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of green tea supplementation on serum concentrations of adiponectin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2020 Nov 20:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Nutritional Health Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Context: A decrease in adiponectin concentration is associated with obesity-related diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea supplementation on serum concentrations of adiponectin in patients with T2DM.

Methods: A systematic search was performed on the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Scopus to find articles related to the effects of the green tea supplementation on adiponectin concentrations in T2DM patients, up to June 2019. Meta-analyses were performed using both the random and fixed effects model where appropriate.

Results: The initial search yielded 1010 publications. Data were pooled from five trials including 333 patients with T2DM. A meta-analysis of five RCTs demonstrated that green tea supplementation significantly increased adiponectin concentrations compared to control groups.

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis revealed that green tea supplementation increased adiponectin concentrations in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2020.1846202DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Interval Jump Rope Exercise Combined with Dark Chocolate Supplementation on Inflammatory Adipokine, Cytokine Concentrations, and Body Composition in Obese Adolescent Boys.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 30;12(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207, USA.

We examined the effects of six weeks of dark chocolate supplementation combined with interval jump rope exercise (JRE) on inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and body composition in obese adolescent boys. Forty-eight obese adolescent boys (age  = 15.4  ±  1.1 years and body mass index  =  32.2  ±  2.4 kg/m) were randomly assigned into one of four groups: JRE + white chocolate (JW; = 13), JRE + dark chocolate supplementation (JD; = 13), dark chocolate supplementation (DS; = 12), or control (C; = 12). Participants in JW and JD groups performed JRE for three times per week for six weeks. Participants in the DS and JD groups consumed 30 g of dark chocolate containing 83% of cocoa. Body composition, pro-inflammatory cytokines ((hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6), adipokines (leptin, resistin, RBP-4, chemerin, MCP-1), and anti-inflammatory adipokines (irisin, adiponectin)) were evaluated prior to and after the intervention trials. All three intervention trials significantly ( < 0.05) decreased body mass, waist-hip ratio, fat mass, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, and increased irisin and adiponectin concentrations. The improvements in these parameters were greater in the JD group, and additionally, chemerin concentrations decreased only in the JD group. JD enhanced adiponectin concentrations and decreased IL-6 concentrations compared to C. Moreover, JD significantly reduced chemerin concentrations, an effect not observed in any of the other interventions. We demonstrated that dark chocolate supplementation potentiated JRE-induced decreases in body mass, WHR, FM, hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin, resistin, RBP-4, and MCP-1, chemerin as well as increases irisin and adiponectin concentrations in obese adolescent boys. Therefore, JRE combined with dark chocolate supplementation could be a beneficial in reducing obesity-induced inflammation in adolescent boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600985PMC
September 2020
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