Publications by authors named "Alexei Morgounov"

3 Publications

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Plant-parasitic nematode associated with wheat in central, eastern, and south-eastern Kazakhstan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

CIMMYT Turkey, CIMMYT Uluslararası Buğday ve Mısır Geliştirme Merkezi, Şehit Cem Ersever Caddesi No : 9/11, Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Kampüsü içi, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey, 06170;

Kazakhstan is one of the biggest wheat producers, however, its wheat production is far below the average international wheat production standard due to biotic and abiotic stressors. Plant-parasitic nematodes are devastating for cereal production systems worldwide. A comprehensive survey was conducted in 2019 to identify plant-parasitic nematodes associated with wheat in different locations of central, eastern, and south-eastern Kazakhstan. The results revealed 33 root-lesion and 27 cyst nematode populations from the 77 localities sampled. These two genera occurred in separate or in mixed populations. The root-lesion populations were identified as Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei while all cyst nematodes were identified as Heterodera filipjevi. The identification of nematodes was firstly performed based on morphological and morphometric features and confirmed by BLAST and phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer and the D2-D3 expansion located in the 28S gene of ribosomal DNA for CCN and RLN populations, respectively. Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei populations from Kazakhstan showed a high similarity with the American, European, and Asian populations. Heterodera filipjevi populations formed a well-supported cluster with the corresponding populations from different countries and showed a slightly intraspecific polymorphism. Kazakhstan populations of H. filipjevi may have multiple introductions in Kazakhstan due to the divergence among them. The results of this study are of great importance for breeding programs and will enable awareness to extension advisors to develop measures to control these nematodes in cereal cropping areas in Kazakhstan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2424-SRDOI Listing
March 2021

First Report of Fusarium culmorum and Microdochium bolleyi Causing Root Rot on Triticale in Kazakhstan.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

CIMMYT Turkey, CIMMYT Uluslararası Buğday ve Mısır Geliştirme Merkezi, Şehit Cem Ersever Caddesi No : 9/11, Tarla Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Kampüsü içi, Ankara, Ankara, Turkey, 06170;

Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack) is obtained from wheat × rye crossing. It is positioned between wheat and rye in terms of resistance to soilborne pathogens including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Fusarium culmorum, F. avenaceum, and Bipolaris sorokiniana (Arseniuk and Góral 2015). In 2019, seven triticale fields were surveyed in Almaty Province, Kazakhstan to examine soil-borne fungal pathogens. A total of 28 symptomatic plants with stunting, rot or discolored root were collected to identify causal agents. The overall disease incidence was approximately 8 to 10% in the fields. Fungi were isolated from 3-5 mm pieces excised from symptomatic tissues. The pieces were exposed to surface disinfection in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, blotted dry, and plated on 1/5 strength potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with 0.01% streptomycin. Plates were left in the dark at 23°C for 7 days. A total of 34 fungal colonies were isolated of which nineteen isolates, originally from six fields showed the cultural characteristics of B. sorokiniana. This species was previously reported to cause common root rot on triticale in Kazakhstan (Özer et al. 2020). Ten isolates from four fields produced pale orange and cottony mycelium with red pigmentation on the agar, which is typical of Fusarium-like growth. The remaining isolates (n=5) from two fields produced salmon-colored and scarce aerial mycelium with no soluble pigmentation, similar to Microdochium spp. Fusarium isolates produced thick-walled and curved macroconidia with 3-4 septa (n=50, 25.7 to 37.6 × 4.1 to 7.3 μm in size) and notched basal cell on PDA, but microconidia were absent, which matches the description of F. culmorum (Wm.G. Sm.) Sacc. (Leslie and Summerell 2006). Microdochium isolates produced swollen, brown, and thick-walled chlamydospores and hyaline, one-celled, and thin-walled conidia (n=50, 5.4 to 9.3 × 1.5 to 3.0 μm in size) formed on ampullate and cylindrical conidiogenous cells on oatmeal agar (OA). These morphological features are consistent with previous observations for Microdochium bolleyi (R. Sprague) de Hoog & Herm.-Nijh. (Hong et al. 2008). To confirm morphological preliminary identifications, the portion of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) gene was amplified with EF1/EF2 primers (O'Donnell et al. 1998) for representative Fusarium isolates (n=4) for each field. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA was amplified with ITS1/ITS4 primers (White et al. 1990) for representative Microdochium isolates (n=2) for each field. BLASTn queries against NCBI GenBank revealed that the EF1-α sequences of Fusarium isolates (MW311081-MW311084) shared 100% identity with F. culmorum strain CBS 110262 (KT008433). The ITS sequences of M. bolleyi isolates (MW301448-MW301449) matched that of M. bolleyi strain CBS 137.64 (AM502264) with 100% sequence similarity. Pathogenicity test was conducted on pregerminated seeds of triticale cv. Balausa. A plastic pot (17 cm height, 9 cm in diam) was filled with a sterile mixture of vermiculite, peat, and soil (1:1:1, v/v/v). Mycelial plugs (1 cm in diam) were cut from the margin of a growing culture of representative isolates (Kaz_Fus123 and Kaz_Mb01) and placed onto the mixture in the pot. A sterile agar plug was employed as a control treatment. One pregerminated seed was put on the plug and covered with the mixture. The pots were transferred to a growth chamber set at 23 ± 2°C and a photoperiod of 14 hours. The experiment was performed twice using 5 replication pots per isolate. Four weeks after inoculation, discoloration of the crown was observed on all the inoculated roots, whereas no symptoms were observed on the control plants. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by reisolating and identifying the pathogen based on the morphology described above. This is the first report of M. bolleyi and F. culmorum causing root rot on triticale in Kazakhstan. Although B. sorokiniana is the most primary pathogen that may limit yield in the production of triticale in Kazakhstan, F. culmorum and M. bolleyi have been found to be less frequent and less aggressive pathogens, respectively. Further studies are needed to better understand the potential distribution and impact of these pathogens on triticale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-20-2659-PDNDOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study in Wheat Identifies Resistance to the Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera filipjevi.

Phytopathology 2016 10 23;106(10):1128-1138. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

First, fifth, sixth, and ninth authors: Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Molecular Phytomedicine, Karlrobert-Kreiten Strasse 13, D-53115 Bonn, Germany; second, fourth, and seventh authors: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), P.K. 39 06511, Emek, Ankara, Turkey; third and eighth authors: Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Plant Breeding, Katzenburgweg; and fifth author: Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Agricultural genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI), 9 Gama Street, Giza 12619, Egypt.

The cyst nematode Heterodera filipjevi is a plant parasite causing substantial yield loss in wheat. Resistant cultivars are the preferred method of controlling cyst nematodes. Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between phenotypic variation and genetic polymorphisms; in this way favorable traits such as resistance to pathogens can be located. Therefore, a genome-wide association study of 161 winter wheat accessions was performed with a 90K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Population structure analysis grouped into two major subgroups and first principal component accounted 6.16% for phenotypic diversity. The genome-wide linkage disequilibrium across wheat was 3 cM. Eleven quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1AL, 2AS, 2BL, 3AL, 3BL, 4AS, 4AL, 5BL, and 7BL were identified using a mixed linear model false discovery rate of P < 0.01 that explained 43% of total genetic variation. This is the first report of QTLs conferring resistance to H. filipjevi in wheat. Eight QTLs on chromosomes 1AL, 2AS, 2BL, 3AL, 4AL, and 5BL were linked to putative genes known to be involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Two other QTLs on 3BL and one QTL on 7BL linked to putative genes known to be involved in abiotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-02-16-0054-FIDOI Listing
October 2016