Publications by authors named "Alexandria M Ayala"

2 Publications

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Hyper-Crosslinked Carbohydrate Polymer for Repair of Critical-Sized Bone Defects.

Biores Open Access 2019 1;8(1):111-120. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California.

This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel hyper-crosslinked carbohydrate polymer (HCCP) for the repair of critical-sized bone defects in comparison to two alternative treatments: autologous bone and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) with hyaluronic acid (PLGA/HA). Bilateral critical-sized defects were created in the lateral femoral condyles of skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, and they were subsequently implanted with HCCP, PLGA/HA, or autologous bone in a randomized manner. Clinical and behavioral observations were made daily, and radiological and histopathological evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 16 weeks postimplantation. Defects implanted with HCCP showed progressive bone regeneration and bridging of the defect without adverse histological events. No signs of infection or inflammation associated with the implant material were observed in all animals that received HCCP implantation. A radiographic assessment performed at 16 weeks post-implantation showed significantly higher bone density and volume in defects implanted with HCCP compared to PLGA/HA. No statistically significant difference was observed in bone density and volume between HCCP and autologous bone. These findings demonstrate that HCCP is biocompatible, osteoconductive, and capable of promoting bone regeneration ; therefore, it is suitable for both tissue engineering and the repair of critical-sized bone defects.
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July 2019

Blood and Blood Product Conservation: Results of Strategies to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Open Heart Surgery Patients at a Tertiary Hospital.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2017 12;49(4):273-282

Sutter Health Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Oakland, California.

Blood product usage is a quality outcome for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. To address an increase in blood product usage since the discontinuation of aprotinin, blood conservation strategies were initiated at a tertiary hospital in Oakland, CA. Improving transfusion rates for open heart surgery patients requiring Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) involved multiple departments in coordination. Specific changes to conserve blood product usage included advanced CPB technology upgrades, and precise individualized heparin dose response titration assay for heparin and protamine management. Retrospective analysis of blood product usage pre-implementation, post-CPB changes and post-Hemostasis Management System (HMS) implementation was done to determine the effectiveness of the blood conservation strategies. Statistically significant decrease in packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelet usage over the stepped implementation of both technologies was observed. New oxygenator and centrifugal pump technologies reduced active circuitry volume and caused less damage to blood cells. Individualizing heparin and protamine dosing to a patient using the HMS led to transfusion reductions as well. Overall trends toward reductions in hospital length of stay and intensive care unit stay, and as a result, blood product cost and total hospitalization cost are positive over the period of implementation of both CPB circuit changes and HMS implementation. Although they are multifactorial in nature, these trends provide positive enforcement to the changes implemented.
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December 2017