Publications by authors named "Alexandre Roux"

82 Publications

King Charles VIII of France's Death. From an unsubstantiated traumatic brain injury to more realistic hypotheses.

World Neurosurg 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU Paris - Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; Université de Paris, France; INSERM UMR 1266, IMA-BRAIN, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurosciences of Paris, Paris, France.

On April 7, 1498, Charles VIII, King of France, attended a game of palm in the ditches of the Château d'Amboise. The 27-year-old King suddenly collapsed and became comatose. He laid down, almost on his own, on a straw mat that was hastily arranged and passed away 9 hours later. His contemporaries perceived his death as a perfect reminder of fatality: a King could die alone in a miserable gallery. All who looked into this curious death dwelled on the frontal blow to head that the king had undergone right before his demise and have not considered alternative scenarios. This study, still with limited available evidence, aims at re-examining the historical account of his death in light of modern medical knowledge. It is virtually impossible that a minor bump with low kinetic energy could kill a 27-year-old man. Many historical accounts on Charles VIII's life and death, including Italian ambassadors' letters, led us to reconsider the commonly held version and drove us to propose an alternative hypothesis. We conclude that Charles VIII suffered from an acute consciousness disorder with language impairment that could be related to an epileptic condition secondary to neurosyphilis. We discuss whether a more accurate diagnosis for cause of death could be obtained on the basis of the pathological analysis of the King's remains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.09.056DOI Listing
September 2021

Supratentorial non-RELA, ZFTA-fused ependymomas: a comprehensive phenotype genotype correlation highlighting the number of zinc fingers in ZFTA-NCOA1/2 fusions.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 08 13;9(1):135. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

The cIMPACT-NOW Update 7 has replaced the WHO nosology of "ependymoma, RELA fusion positive" by "Supratentorial-ependymoma, C11orf95-fusion positive". This modification reinforces the idea that supratentorial-ependymomas exhibiting fusion that implicates the C11orf95 (now called ZFTA) gene with or without the RELA gene, represent the same histomolecular entity. A hot off the press molecular study has identified distinct clusters of the DNA methylation class of ZFTA fusion-positive tumors. Interestingly, clusters 2 and 4 comprised tumors of different morphologies, with various ZFTA fusions without involvement of RELA. In this paper, we present a detailed series of thirteen cases of non-RELA ZFTA-fused supratentorial tumors with extensive clinical, radiological, histopathological, immunohistochemical, genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation profiling) characterization. Contrary to the age of onset and MRI aspects similar to RELA fusion-positive EPN, we noted significant histopathological heterogeneity (pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like, astroblastoma-like, ependymoma-like, and even sarcoma-like patterns) in this cohort. Immunophenotypically, these NFκB immunonegative tumors expressed GFAP variably, but EMA constantly and L1CAM frequently. Different gene partners were fused with ZFTA: NCOA1/2, MAML2 and for the first time MN1. These tumors had epigenetic homologies within the DNA methylation class of ependymomas-RELA and were classified as satellite clusters 2 and 4. Cluster 2 (n = 9) corresponded to tumors with classic ependymal histological features (n = 4) but also had astroblastic features (n = 5). Various types of ZFTA fusions were associated with cluster 2, but as in the original report, ZFTA:MAML2 fusion was frequent. Cluster 4 was enriched with sarcoma-like tumors. Moreover, we reported a novel anatomy of three ZFTA:NCOA1/2 fusions with only 1 ZFTA zinc finger domain in the putative fusion protein, whereas all previously reported non-RELA ZFTA fusions have 4 ZFTA zinc fingers. All three cases presented a sarcoma-like morphology. This genotype/phenotype association requires further studies for confirmation. Our series is the first to extensively characterize this new subset of supratentorial ZFTA-fused ependymomas and highlights the usefulness of ZFTA FISH analysis to confirm the existence of a rearrangement without RELA abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-021-01238-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362233PMC
August 2021

Surgery of Insular Diffuse Gliomas-Part 1: Transcortical Awake Resection Is Safe and Independently Improves Overall Survival.

Neurosurgery 2021 Sep;89(4):565-578

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU Paris-Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Insular diffuse glioma resection is at risk of vascular injury and of postoperative new neurocognitive deficits.

Objective: To assess safety and efficacy of surgical management of insular diffuse gliomas.

Methods: Observational, retrospective, single-institution cohort analysis (2005-2019) of 149 adult patients surgically treated for an insular diffuse glioma: transcortical awake resection with intraoperative functional mapping (awake resection subgroup, n = 61), transcortical asleep resection without functional mapping (asleep resection subgroup, n = 50), and stereotactic biopsy (biopsy subgroup, n = 38). All cases were histopathologically assessed according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification and cIMPACT-NOW update 3.

Results: Following awake resection, 3/61 patients had permanent motor deficit, seizure control rates improved (89% vs 69% preoperatively, P = .034), and neurocognitive performance improved from 5% to 24% in tested domains, despite adjuvant oncological treatments. Resection rates were higher in the awake resection subgroup (median 94%) than in the asleep resection subgroup (median 46%; P < .001). There was more gross total resection (25% vs 12%) and less partial resection (34% vs 80%) in the awake resection subgroup than in the asleep resection subgroup (P < .001). Karnofsky Performance Status score <70 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.74, P = .031), awake resection (aHR 0.21, P = .031), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant grade 2 astrocytoma (aHR 5.17, P = .003), IDH-mutant grade 3 astrocytoma (aHR 6.11, P < .001), IDH-mutant grade 4 astrocytoma (aHR 13.36, P = .008), and IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (aHR 21.84, P < .001) were independent predictors of overall survival.

Conclusion: Awake surgery preserving the brain connectivity is safe, allows larger resections for insular diffuse gliomas than asleep resection, and positively impacts overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab254DOI Listing
September 2021

Surgery of Insular Diffuse Gliomas-Part 2: Probabilistic Cortico-Subcortical Atlas of Critical Eloquent Brain Structures and Probabilistic Resection Map During Transcortical Awake Resection.

Neurosurgery 2021 Sep;89(4):579-590

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU Paris - Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Insular diffuse glioma surgery is challenging, and tools to help surgical planning could improve the benefit-to-risk ratio.

Objective: To provide a probabilistic resection map and frequency atlases of critical eloquent regions of insular diffuse gliomas based on our surgical experience.

Methods: We computed cortico-subcortical "eloquent" anatomic sites identified intraoperatively by direct electrical stimulations during transcortical awake resection of insular diffuse gliomas in adults.

Results: From 61 insular diffuse gliomas (39 left, 22 right; all left hemispheric dominance for language), we provided a frequency atlas of eloquence of the opercula (left/right; pars orbitalis: 0%/5.0%; pars triangularis: l5.6%/4.5%; pars opercularis: 37.8%/27.3%; precentral gyrus: 97.3%/95.4%; postcentral and supramarginal gyri: 75.0%/57.1%; temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus: 13.3%/0%), which tailored the transcortical approach (frontal operculum to reach the antero-superior insula, temporal operculum to reach the inferior insula, parietal operculum to reach the posterior insula). We provided a frequency atlas of eloquence identifying the subcortical functional boundaries (36.1% pyramidal pathways, 50.8% inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, 13.1% arcuate and superior longitudinal fasciculi complex, 3.3% somatosensory pathways, 8.2% caudate and lentiform nuclei). Vascular boundaries and increasing errors during testing limited the resection in 8.2% and 11.5% of cases, respectively. We provided a probabilistic 3-dimensional atlas of resectability.

Conclusion: Functional mapping under awake conditions has to be performed intraoperatively in each patient to guide surgical approach and resection of insular diffuse gliomas in right and left hemispheres. Frequency atlases of opercula eloquence and of subcortical eloquent anatomic boundaries, and probabilistic 3-dimensional atlas of resectability could guide neurosurgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab255DOI Listing
September 2021

Age influences the distribution of diffuse gliomas.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 08 9;13(15):19083-19084. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris - Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386541PMC
August 2021

Toward a transitional care from childhood and adolescence to adulthood in surgical neurooncology? A lesson from the Necker-Enfants Malades and the Sainte-Anne Hospitals collaboration.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jul 30:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

1Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris-Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris.

Objective: Transitional care in surgical neurooncology is poorly studied. However, this period is pivotal, since it allows the patient to be empowered in his or her disease management. Here, the authors describe the experience of the Necker-Enfants Malades and the Sainte-Anne Hospital collaboration.

Methods: The mixed transitional consultations started in September 2019 in a dedicated space for transitional care, named the "La Suite" department, located in the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France. The authors organized planned consultations to schedule the clinical and radiological follow-up in the adult neurosurgical department but also emergency consultations to manage tumor recurrence in young adult patients. Transitional care was performed jointly by pediatric and adult neurosurgeons who have developed clinical and research skills in the field of surgical neurooncology. Neuropathological analysis was performed by a neuropathologist who is specialized in pediatric and adult neurooncology.

Results: Fourteen patients benefited from a mixed transitional consultation. All of them accepted to start their management in an adult neurosurgical environment. Eleven patients (78.6%) for whom the disease was controlled benefited from a planned consultation. Three patients (21.4%) required rapid neurosurgical management for a tumor recurrence (n = 2) or for a new primary CNS tumor (n = 1) and benefited from an emergency consultation.

Conclusions: For adult patients harboring a brain tumor during childhood or adolescence, the authors suggest that neurosurgeons specialized in adult surgical neurooncology with a full knowledge in pediatric neurooncology will combine the required skills to optimize care management for these patients within a dedicated multidisciplinary organization framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.PEDS2141DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of a Machine Learning Classifier Based on Radiomic Features Extracted From Post-Contrast 3D T1-Weighted MR Images to Distinguish Glioblastoma From Solitary Brain Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:638262. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Radiothérapie Moléculaire et Innovation Thérapeutique, INSERM UMR1030, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Objectives: To differentiate Glioblastomas (GBM) and Brain Metastases (BM) using a radiomic features-based Machine Learning (ML) classifier trained from post-contrast three-dimensional T1-weighted (post-contrast 3DT1) MR imaging, and compare its performance in medical diagnosis human experts, on a testing cohort.

Methods: We enrolled 143 patients (71 GBM and 72 BM) in a retrospective bicentric study from January 2010 to May 2019 to train the classifier. Post-contrast 3DT1 MR images were performed on a 3-Tesla MR unit and 100 radiomic features were extracted. Selection and optimization of the Machine Learning (ML) classifier was performed using a nested cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, balanced accuracy, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated as performance metrics. The model final performance was cross-validated, then evaluated on a test set of 37 patients, and compared to human blind reading using a McNemar's test.

Results: The ML classifier had a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity of 85% [77; 94], a specificity of 87% [78; 97], a balanced accuracy of 86% [80; 92], and an AUC of 92% [87; 97] with cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, balanced accuracy and AUC were equal to 75, 86, 80 and 85% on the test set. Sphericity 3D radiomic index highlighted the highest coefficient in the logistic regression model. There were no statistical significant differences observed between the performance of the classifier and the experts' blinded examination.

Conclusions: The proposed diagnostic support system based on radiomic features extracted from post-contrast 3DT1 MR images helps in differentiating solitary BM from GBM with high diagnosis performance and generalizability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.638262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315001PMC
July 2021

An integrative histopathological and epigenetic characterization of primary intracranial mesenchymal tumors, FET:CREB-fused broadening the spectrum of tumor entities in comparison with their soft tissue counterparts.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 27:e13010. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neuropathology, GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

FET:CREB fusions have been described in a variety of tumors from various phenotypes. Recently, these fusion transcripts were reported in intracranial tumors, variably named intracranial mesenchymal myxoid tumors or angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas. Controversy remains concerning the terminology for these tumors. Here, we report 11 cases of central nervous system mesenchymal tumors with proven FET:CREB fusion. Most DNA methylation profiles were not classifiable using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor or Sarcoma Classifier (v11b4/v12.2). However, by using unsupervised t-SNE and hierarchical clustering analyses, six of the cases constituted a distinct cluster. The remaining four tumors showed no obvious relation to any of the other referenced classes but were close to the clusters of extra-CNS angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (n = 1), clear cell sarcomas (n = 1), or solitary fibrous tumors (n = 2). Our findings confirm that intracranial FET:CREB-fused tumors do not represent a single molecular tumor entity, although most samples clustered close to each other, indicating the existence of a distinct epigenetic group that could potentially be partially masked by the low number of cases included. Further analyses are needed to characterize intracranial FET:CREB fused-defined tumors in more detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.13010DOI Listing
July 2021

Feasibility, Safety and Impact on Overall Survival of Awake Resection for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial -Wildtype Glioblastomas in Adults.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU Site Sainte-Anne, F-75014 Paris, France.

Background: Although awake resection using intraoperative cortico-subcortical functional brain mapping is the benchmark technique for diffuse gliomas within eloquent brain areas, it is still rarely proposed for IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. We have assessed the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of awake resection for IDH-wildtype glioblastomas.

Methods: Observational single-institution cohort (2012-2018) of 453 adult patients harboring supratentorial IDH-wildtype glioblastomas who benefited from awake resection, from asleep resection, or from a biopsy. Case matching (1:1) criteria between the awake group and asleep group: gender, age, RTOG-RPA class, tumor side, location and volume and neurosurgeon experience.

Results: In patients in the awake resection subgroup ( = 42), supratotal resections were more frequent (21.4% vs. 3.1%, < 0.0001) while partial resections were less frequent (21.4% vs. 40.1%, < 0.0001) compared to the asleep ( = 222) resection subgroup. In multivariable analyses, postoperative standard radiochemistry (aHR = 0.04, < 0.0001), supratotal resection (aHR = 0.27, = 0.0021), total resection (aHR = 0.43, < 0.0001), KPS score > 70 (HR = 0.66, = 0.0013), promoter methylation (HR = 0.55, = 0.0031), and awake surgery (HR = 0.54, = 0.0156) were independent predictors of overall survival. After case matching, a longer overall survival was found for awake resection (HR = 0.47, = 0.0103).

Conclusions: Awake resection is safe, allows larger resections than asleep surgery, and positively impacts overall survival of IDH-wildtype glioblastoma in selected adult patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13122911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230499PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of preoperative ultrasonographic parameters to predict renal recovery in long-term survivors after treatment of feline ureteral obstructions: 2012-2019.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Jun 14:1098612X211023645. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Lamb Statistical Consulting, West Saint Paul, MN, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether preoperative ultrasound imaging characteristic(s) in cats suffering from unilateral benign ureteral obstructions are predictive of outcome after successful renal decompression with a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of 37 cats with unilateral, benign ureteral obstruction. Preoperative imaging characteristics (including renal pelvis diameter, parenchymal thickness [transverse plane], renal length and pelvic size:overall renal size) and biochemical data were evaluated for all cats diagnosed with a unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with a SUB device. Any patient with bilateral obstructions or documented bacteriuria/infection in the data collection period was excluded. All patients were followed between 3 and 6 months postoperatively to obtain postoperative biochemical data. Long-term outcome was defined as serum creatinine concentration at 3-6 months postoperatively.

Results: No preoperative imaging characteristics or biochemical findings were found to be significantly associated with long-term serum creatinine concentrations. The length of the kidney was found to be associated with change in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with decompression but not with long-term renal values.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, long-term renal function based on preoperative ultrasound imaging findings could not be predicted in cats with unilateral ureteral obstruction, regardless of the severity of the biochemical parameters, renal pelvic dilation (large or small pelvis), kidney size or thickness of renal parenchyma assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X211023645DOI Listing
June 2021

Does general comorbidity impact the postoperative outcomes after surgery for large and giant petroclival meningiomas?

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Service de Neurochirurgie, CHU Nord, APHM-AMU, Marseille, France.

We assessed the role of the general condition of the patient in addition to usual anatomical reasoning to improve the prediction of personalized surgical risk for patients harboring a large and giant petroclival meningiomas. Single-center, retrospective observational study including adult patients surgically treated for a large and giant petroclival meningioma between January 2002 and October 2019 in a French tertiary neurosurgical skull-base center by one Neurosurgeon. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) histopathologically proven meningioma; (2) larger than 3 cm in diameter; (3) located within the upper two-thirds of the clivus, the inferior petrosal sinus, or the petrous apex around the trigeminal incisura, medial to the trigeminal nerve. Clinical and radiological characteristics were gathered preoperatively including ASA score, the modified frailty index, and the Charlson comorbidity index. Post-operative severe neurological and non-neurological complications were collected. A total of 102 patients harboring a large and giant petroclival meningioma were included. The rate of postoperative death was 3.0% related to a congestive heart failure (n = 1), a surgical site hematoma (n = 1), and an ischemic stroke (n = 1). A severe neurological impairment was found in 12.8% and a severe non-neurological morbidity was found in 4.0%. The overall rate of severe morbidity and mortality was 15.7% after large and giant petroclival meningioma surgery. The presence of brainstem peri-tumoral edema (adjusted OR, 4.83 [95% CI 1.84-7.52], p = 0.028) was independently associated with a history of postoperative severe neurological morbidity. Male gender (adjusted OR, 7.42 [95% CI 1.05-49.77], p = 0.044), major cardiovascular morbidity (adjusted OR, 9.5 [95% CI 1.05-86.72], p = 0.045), and an ASA score ≥ 2 (adjusted OR, 11.09 [95% CI 1.46-92.98], p = 0.038) were independently associated with a history of postoperative severe non-neurological morbidity. A modified frailty index ≥ 1 (adjusted OR, 3.13 [95% CI 1.07-9.93], p = 0.047) and a low neurosurgical experience (adjusted OR, 5.38 [95% CI 1.38-20.97], p = 0.007) were independently associated with a history of postoperative overall morbidity and mortality. Pre-operative cranial nerve deficits (adjusted OR, 4.77 [95% CI 1.02-23.31], p = 0.024) and gross total resection (adjusted OR, 10.72 [95% CI 1.72-66.90], p = 0.022) were independently associated with postoperative new cranial nerve deficits. This study suggests to add scores assessing the patient general condition in daily practice to improve the selection of patients eligible for surgery. Collaborative international multicenter studies will be necessary to confirm these results and allow their implementation in clinical routine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01580-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Combining Electrostimulation With Fiber Tracking to Stratify the Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:683348. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, Montpellier University Medical Center, Montpellier, France.

The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) is one of the longest association fiber tracts of the brain. According to the most recent anatomical studies, it may be formed by several layers, suggesting a role in multiple cognitive functions. However, to date, no attempt has been made to dissociate the functional contribution of the IFOF subpathways. In this study, real-time, cortico-subcortical mapping with direct electrostimulation was performed in 111 patients operated on in wide-awake surgery for a right low-grade glioma. Patients performed two behavioral tasks during stimulation, tapping, respectively, mentalizing and visual semantic cognition-two functions supposed to be partly mediated by the IFOF. Responsive white matter sites were first subjected to a clustering analysis to assess potential topological differences in network organization. Then they were used as seeds to generate streamline tractograms based on the HC1021 diffusion dataset (template-based approach). The tractograms obtained for each function were overlapped and contrasted to determine whether some fiber pathways were more frequently involved in one or the other function. The obtained results not only provided strong evidence for a role of the right IFOF in both functions, but also revealed that the tract is dissociable into two functional strata according to a ventral (semantic) and dorsal (mentalizing) compartmentalization. Besides, they showed a high degree of anatomo-functionnal variability across patients in the functional implication of the IFOF, possibly related to symmetrical/hemispheric differences in network organization. Collectively, these findings support the view that the right IFOF is a functionally multi-layered structure, with nevertheless interindividual variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.683348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172990PMC
May 2021

Is function-based resection using intraoperative awake brain mapping feasible and safe for solitary brain metastases within eloquent areas?

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris, Hôpital Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, F-75014, Paris, France.

To assess feasibility and safety of function-based resection under awake conditions for solitary brain metastasis patients. Retrospective, observational, single-institution case-control study (2014-2019). Inclusion criteria are adult patients, solitary brain metastasis, supratentorial location within eloquent areas, and function-based awake resection. Case matching (1:1) criteria between metastasis group and control group (high-grade gliomas) are sex, tumor location, tumor volume, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status score, age, and educational level. Twenty patients were included. Intraoperatively, all patients were cooperative; no obstacles precluded the procedure from being performed. A positive functional mapping was achieved at both cortical and subcortical levels, allowing for a function-based resection in all patients. The case-matched analysis showed that intraoperative and postoperative events were similar, except for a shorter duration of the surgery (p<0.001) and of the awake phase (p<0.001) in the metastasis group. A total resection was performed in 18 cases (90%, including 10 supramarginal resections), and a partial resection was performed in two cases (10%). At three months postoperative months, none of the patients had worsening of their neurological condition or uncontrolled seizures, three patients had an improvement in their seizure control, and seven patients had a Karnofsky Performance Status score increase ≥10 points. Function-based resection under awake conditions preserving the brain connectivity is feasible and safe in the specific population of solitary brain metastasis patients and allows for high resection rates within eloquent brain areas while preserving the overall and neurological condition of the patients. Awake craniotomy should be considered to optimize outcomes in brain metastases in eloquent areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01504-6DOI Listing
March 2021

[Analysis of interference criteria for the validation of a method file: HPS staining after fixation with zinc-formalin in comparison to fixation with the classical 4% buffered formalin solution].

Ann Pathol 2021 Jun 23;41(3):310-316. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Service de neuropathologie, GHU de Paris-psychiatrie et neurosciences, centre hospitalier Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, 75014 Paris, France.

Introduction: The department of neuropathology of Sainte-Anne Hospital uses zinc-formalin as the fixative agent for its samples. No publication referenced in Pubmed has proven the validity of this fixative agent. In the context of the accreditation of our standard staining (HPS for Hemalun-Phloxin-Saffron), we started a file for the validation of this method in which the fixative agent constitutes an « interfering » substance which can modify the quality of the technique. The aim of this study was to prove that the use of zinc-formalin as a fixative agent is as suitable as the fixation with 4 % buffered formalin.

Materials And Methods: A cohort of samples fixed by zinc-formalin and by 4 % buffered formalin was performed on fresh samples, then cut and stained by HPS. The slides were interpreted by three pathologists (one of them was outside our centre)  ``blind '' to the fixative agent and they evaluated four criteria (general quality of the staining, components of the extracellular matrix, cytoplasmic details, and nuclear details) and scored them (from 0 to 3) according to the Association française en assurance qualité (AFAQAP) recommendations.

Results: The cohort included 43 samples. The results of the analysis showed that for samples fixed by zinc-formalin, three of the four criteria obtained significantly a better score than the samples fixed by classical formalin.

Discussion And Conclusions: Our results show that the zinc-formalin fixative does not constitute an  ``interfering '' agent for the quality of the HPS staining for neuropathological samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annpat.2020.10.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Evolution of the neurosurgical management of progestin-associated meningiomas: a 23-year single-center experience.

J Neurooncol 2021 Apr 15;152(2):279-288. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU site Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.

Purpose: The improving knowledge of interactions between meningiomas and progestin refines the management of this specific condition. We assessed the changes over time of the management of progestin-associated meningiomas.

Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive adult patients who had at least one meningioma in the context of progestin intake (October 1995-October 2018) in a tertiary adult Neurosurgical Center.

Results: 71 adult women with 125 progestin-associated meningiomas were included. The number of progestin-associated meningioma patients increased over time (0.5/year before 2008, 22.0/year after 2017). Progestin treatment was an approved indication in 27.0%. A mean of 1.7 ± 1.2 meningiomas were discovered per patient (median 1, range 1-6). Surgery was performed on 36 (28.8%) meningiomas and the histopathologic grading was WHO grade 1 in 61.1% and grade 2 in 38.9%. The conservative management of meningiomas increased over time (33.3% before 2008, 64.3% after 2017) and progestin treatment withdrawal increased over time (16.7% before 2008, 95.2% after 2017). Treatment withdrawal varied depending on the progestin derivative used (88.9% with cyproterone acetate, 84.6% with chlormadinone acetate, 28.6% with nomegestrol acetate, 66.7% with progestin derivative combination). The main reason for therapeutic management of meningiomas was the presence of clinical signs. Among the 54 meningiomas managed conservatively for which the progestin had been discontinued, MRI follow-up demonstrated a regression in 29.6%, a stability in 68.5%, and an ongoing growth in 1.9% of cases.

Conclusions: Conservative management, including progestin treatment discontinuation, has grown over time with promising results in terms of efficacy and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-021-03696-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Robot-Assisted Stereotactic Biopsies in 377 Consecutive Adult Patients with Supratentorial Diffuse Gliomas: Diagnostic Yield, Safety, and Postoperative Outcomes.

World Neurosurg 2021 04 4;148:e301-e313. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU site Sainte-Anne, Paris, France; Université de Paris, Paris, France; Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), INSERM, IMA-BRAIN, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple biopsy samples are warranted for the histomolecular diagnosis of diffuse gliomas in the current molecular era, which possibly increases morbidity.

Objective: We assessed diagnostic yield, safety, and risk factors of postoperative morbidity after robot-assisted serial stereotactic biopsy sampling along 1 biopsy trajectory for diffuse gliomas.

Methods: Observational retrospective analysis of consecutive magnetic resonance imaging-based robot-assisted stereotactic biopsies performed at a single institution to assess the diagnosis of nonresectable newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse gliomas in adults (2006-2016).

Results: In 377 patients, 4.2 ± 1.9 biopsy samples were obtained at 2.6 ± 1.2 biopsy sites. The histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 98.7% of cases. Preoperative neurologic deficit (P = 0.030), biopsy site hemorrhage ≥20 mm (P = 0.004), and increased mass effect on postoperative imaging (P = 0.014) were predictors of a new postoperative neurologic deficit (7.7%). Postoperative neurologic deficit (P < 0.001) and increased mass effect on postoperative imaging (P = 0.014) were predictors of a Karnofsky Performance Status decrease ≥20 points postoperatively (4.0%). Increased intracranial pressure preoperatively (P = 0.048) and volume of the contrast-enhanced area ≥13 cm (P = 0.048) were predictors of an increased mass effect on postoperative imaging (4.4%). Preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status <70 (P = 0.045) and increased mass effect on postoperative imaging (P < 0.001) were predictors of mortality 1 month postoperatively (2.9%). Preoperative neurologic deficit (P = 0.005), preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status <70 (P < 0.001), subventricular zone contact (P = 0.004), contrast enhancement (P = 0.018), and steroid use (P = 0.003), were predictors of the inability to discharge to home postoperatively (37.0%).

Conclusions: Robot-assisted stereotactic biopsy sampling results in high diagnostic accuracy with low complication rates. Multiple biopsy sites and samples do not increase postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.127DOI Listing
April 2021

Meningioangiomatosis: Multimodal Analysis and Insights From a Systematic Review.

Neurology 2021 02 22;96(6):274-286. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (A.R., M.Z., M.E.H.S., G.Z.-B., E.D., E.P, J.P.), GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences Sainte-Anne Hospital; Paris Descartes University (A.R., M.Z., A.T.-E., G.Z.-B., E.D., J.-F.M., E.P., F.C., P.V., C.O., E.L.-Z., J.P.), Sorbonne Paris Cité; Inserm (A.R., M.Z., G.Z.-B., E.D., J.-F.M., E.P., P.V., C.O., J.P.), U894, IMA-Brain, Centre de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences; Délégation à la Recherche Clinique et à l'Innovation (R.L.M.), GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France; University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (M.E.H.S.), Dallas, TX; Department of Neurology (F.A.N.), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Department of Neurology (F.A.N.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA; Department of Neuropathology (A.T.-E., F.C., P.V., E.L.-Z.), GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences Sainte-Anne Hospital; Department of Neurophysiology (G.H.), Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, APHP, Sorbonne Université; Infantile Epilepsy and Brain Plasticity (G.H.), INSERM U1129 Paris Descartes University, PRES Sorbonne; Neuroglial Interactions in Cerebral Physiopathology (G.H.), Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology, Collège de France, CNRS UMR 7241, INSERM U1050, Labex Memolife, PSL Research University; Department of Neuroradiology (F.M., C.O.), GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences Sainte-Anne Hospital; and Department of Neurosurgery (M.B.), Necker Enfants-Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

Background: Meningioangiomatosis is a poorly studied, rare, benign, and epileptogenic brain lesion.

Objective: To demonstrate that surgical resection and a short-time interval to surgery improves epileptic seizure control, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of meningioangiomatosis cases.

Methods: Using PRISMA-IPD guidelines, the authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of histopathologically-proven meningioangiomatosis cases. Literature search in French and English languages (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Science Citation Index) including all studies (January 1981 to June 2020) dealing with histopathologically-proven meningioangiomatosis, without age restriction. We assessed clinical, imaging, histomolecular, management, and outcome findings of patients with meningioangiomatosis.

Results: Two-hundred and seven cases of meningioangiomatosis from 78 studies were included. Most meningioangiomatosis was sporadic, preferentially concerned male patients, younger than 20 years old, and allowed a functionally independent status. Epileptic seizure was the main symptom, with 81.4% of patients having uncontrolled seizures at the time of surgery. Meningioangiomatosis mainly had frontal (32.3%) or temporal (30.7%) locations. Imaging presentation was heterogeneous, and the diagnosis was often missed preoperatively. The histopathologic pattern was similar whatever the clinical presentation, and immunohistochemistry had limited diagnostic value. On molecular analysis, allelic loss at 22q12 was more frequent in samples of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma (37.5%) than in isolated meningioangiomatosis (23.1%). Time interval from diagnosis to surgery ( = 0.011) and lack of surgical resection of the meningioangiomatosis ( = 0.009) were independent predictors of postoperative seizure control.

Conclusions: Owing to low scientific evidence, a multicentric prospective study should help refining the management of meningioangiomatosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011372DOI Listing
February 2021

Postoperative intracerebral haematomas following stereotactic biopsies: Poor planning or poor execution?

Int J Med Robot 2021 Apr 8;17(2):e2211. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris - Psychiatrie et Neurosciences - Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris, France.

Background: Postoperative intracerebral haematomas represent a serious complication following stereotactic biopsy. We investigated the possible underlying causes - poor planning or poor execution - of postoperative intracerebral haematomas following stereotactic biopsies.

Methods: We performed a technical investigation using a retrospective single-centre consecutive series of robot-assisted stereotactic biopsies for a supratentorial diffuse glioma in adults. Each actual biopsy trajectory was reviewed to search for a conflict with an anatomical structure at risk.

Results: From 379 patients, 12 (3.2%) presented with a postoperative intracerebral haematoma ≥20 mm on postoperative CT-scan (3 requiring surgical evacuation); 11 of them had available intraoperative imaging (bi-planar stereoscopic teleangiography x-rays at each biopsy site). The actual biopsy trajectory was similar to the planned biopsy trajectory in these 11 cases. In 72.7% (8/11) of these cases, the actual biopsy trajectory was found to contact a structure at risk (blood vessel and cerebral sulcus) and identified as the intracerebral haematoma origin.

Conclusions: Robot-assisted stereotactic biopsy is an accurate procedure. Postoperative intracerebral haematomas mainly derive from human-related errors during trajectory planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcs.2211DOI Listing
April 2021

Computed tomography with Hounsfield unit assessment is useful in the diagnosis of liver lobe torsion in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Mar 19;62(2):210-217. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Clinical signs of liver lobe torsion in rabbits are often nonspecific and mimic those that are also generally detected with gastrointestinal stasis. Nonspecific clinical signs may result in pursuit of full-body imaging such as computed tomography (CT). The aim of this multicenter, retrospective, case series study was to describe CT findings of liver lobe torsion in a group of rabbits. Computed tomography studies of six rabbits with confirmed liver lobe torsion by surgery or necropsy were evaluated. The caudate liver lobe was affected in six out of six rabbits and was enlarged, rounded, hypoattenuating, heterogeneous, and minimally to noncontrast enhancing, with scant regional peritoneal effusion. Precontrast, mean Hounsfield units (HU) of the torsed liver lobe (39.3 HU [range, 24.4-48.1 HU]) were lower than mean HU of normal liver (55.1 HU [range, 49.6-60.8 HU]), with a mean torsed:normal HU ratio of 0.71 (range, 0.49-0.91). Postcontrast, mean HU of the torsed liver lobe (38.4 HU [range, 19.7-48.9 HU]) were also lower than mean HU of normal liver (108.4 HU [range, 84.5-142.0 HU]), with a lower postcontrast mean torsed:normal HU ratio of 0.35 (range, 0.14-0.48) compared to precontrast. Mean HU of torsed liver lobes had little difference pre- and postcontrast (postcontrast HU 1.0 times the average precontrast HU [range, 0.81-1.1]), and contrast enhancement of the torsed liver lobes was on average 50% lower than in normal liver. Liver lobe torsion should be considered in rabbits with an enlarged, hypoattenuating, heterogeneous, minimally to noncontrast enhancing liver lobe, particularly the caudate lobe, and scant regional peritoneal effusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12939DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic relevance of adding MRI data to WHO 2016 and cIMPACT-NOW updates for diffuse astrocytic tumors in adults. Working toward the extended use of MRI data in integrated glioma diagnosis.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 15;31(4):e12929. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Université de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Assess the contribution of preoperative MRI data in improving grading of adult astrocytomas reclassified according to the WHO 2016 and cIMPACT-NOW update 3. Retrospective unicentric cohort study of 679 adult patients treated for newly diagnosed diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (January 2006-December 2016). We first systematically compared radiological (contrast enhancement present [CE+] vs. absent [CE-]) and histopathological findings (microvascular proliferation present [MPV+] vs. absent [MPV-]) to validate whether this comparing step of neoangiogenesis represents an efficient method to appreciate the representativity of the tumoral sampling. We focused on 629 cases of astrocytomas for radio-histological integrated analyses. In 598 cases (95.1%), neoangiogenesis evaluated by MRI or histology (CE+/MPV+ or CE-/MPV-) was identical. For the CE+/MPV- and CE-/MPV+ groups (23 cases), the radio-histological face-to-face evaluation allowed us to assess that for 13 cases (56.5%) the reason for this discrepancy was an undersampled tumor. We analyzed the group of CE+/MPV- (n = 8) and CE-/MPV+ (n = 2) in verified image-guided tumoral samples. Finally, we identified three new prognostic subgroups for molecular glioblastomas: (1) "non-representative sampling" (n = 9), (2) "Non neoangiogenic glioblastoma at the time of diagnosis, without contrast enhancement and microvascular proliferation" (n = 8), and (3) "contrast enhancing glioblastoma but without microvascular proliferation in a representative sample" (n = 4). Neoangiogenesis processes should be assessed to improve the prognosis accuracy of the current integrated diagnosis. We suggest adding imaging analyses during the neuropathological analysis of astrocytomas in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412115PMC
July 2021

Diagnostic Accuracy of a Reduced Immunohistochemical Panel in Medulloblastoma Molecular Subtyping, Correlated to DNA-methylation Analysis.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):558-566

Departments of Neuropathology.

Medulloblastomas (MBs) are the most frequent childhood malignant brain tumor. Four histopathologic variants and 4 genetic subgroups have been defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 Classification and constitute major risk stratification items directly affecting the patient management. Although MB subgroups have been molecularly defined, immunohistochemical surrogates are needed. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the concordance between immunohistochemistry, using 4 antibodies (YAP1, GAB1, OTX2, and β-catenin), and DNA-methylation profiling in MB subgrouping. From a series of 155 MBs, the κ coefficient of concordance was almost perfect (0.90), with only 8/152 discrepant cases (no DNA-methylation analysis was available in 3 cases). Interestingly, the discrepancies mostly concerned (7/8 cases) MBs with divergent differentiations (myogenic, melanotic, and others) with all of those classified into group 3 (n=6) and group 4 (n=1) by DNA-methylation profiling. Another discrepant case concerned a WNT-activated MB (showing only 1% of immunopositive tumor cell nuclei), highlighting the difficulties of determining an appropriate β-catenin immunostaining cutoff. The high concordance of the routine immunohistochemical panel (YAP1, GAB1, OTX2, and β-catenin) and DNA-methylation profiling confirm its utility as a reliable predictive marker of molecular subtype in MBs. We analyzed the accuracy of 10 different IHC combinations for the determination of MB subtype and found that a combination of 2 antibodies (YAP1 and OTX2) allows for the successful characterization of 144 cases of 152 cases. Finally, our series extends the molecular data of the rare morphologic variant of MBs with melanotic/myogenic differentiations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001640DOI Listing
April 2021

What Is Your Diagnosis?

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Dec;257(11):1113-1116

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.2020.257.11.1113DOI Listing
December 2020

Surgical Site Infections after glioblastoma surgery: results of a multicentric retrospective study.

Infection 2021 Apr 9;49(2):267-275. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Neurochirurgie, CHU de Limoges, Limoges, France.

Background: The effects of surgical site infections (SSI) after glioblastoma surgery on patient outcomes are understudied. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the impact of SSI on the survival of glioblastoma patients.

Methods: Data from SSI cases after glioblastoma surgeries between 2009 and 2016 were collected from 14 French neurosurgical centers. Collected data included patient demographics, previous medical history, risk factors, details of the surgical procedure, radiotherapy/chemotherapy, infection characteristics, and infection management. Similar data were collected from gender- and age-paired control individuals.

Results: We used the medical records of 77 SSI patients and 58 control individuals. 13 were excluded. Our analyses included data from 64 SSI cases and 58 non-infected glioblastoma patients. Infections occurred after surgery for primary tumors in 38 cases (group I) and after surgery for a recurrent tumor in 26 cases (group II). Median survival was 381, 633, and 547 days in patients of group I, group II, and the control group, respectively. Patients in group I had significantly shorter survival compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05). The one-year survival rate of patients who developed infections after surgery for primary tumors was 50%. Additionally, we found that SSIs led to postoperative treatment discontinuation in 30% of the patients.

Discussion: Our findings highlighted the severity of SSIs after glioblastoma surgery, as they significantly affect patient survival. The establishment of preventive measures, as well as guidelines for the management of SSIs, is of high clinical importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01534-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Disseminated pancreatic adenocarcinoma in an eclectus parrot ().

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Sep;257(6):635-641

Case Description: A 15-year-old 0.412-kg (0.906-lb) sexually intact male eclectus parrot () was evaluated because its owners found it lethargic and dyspneic at the bottom of its cage.

Clinical Findings: The parrot was thin and had generalized muscle wasting, diffuse feather loss, pale mucous membranes, and melena. The coelomic cavity was distended and soft on palpation, with coelomic effusion suspected. Results of a CBC indicated leukocytosis with left shift heterophilia, including toxic heterophils, lymphopenia, and anemia. Plasma biochemical analyses revealed severe hyperamylasemia.

Treatment And Outcome: Radiography revealed no evidence of a metallic foreign body but severe loss of coelomic detail, suggestive of a coelomic mass, coelomic effusion with coelomitis, or both. Ultrasonography and CT revealed severe accumulation of coelomic fluid; a large, heterogeneous, irregularly marginated, and moderately vascularized mass in the caudal aspect of the coelomic cavity; and multiple hepatic, coelomic, and pulmonary nodules. On the basis of a poor prognosis, the parrot was euthanized. Necropsy results confirmed exocrine pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with disseminated metastases in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, coelomic cavity, and lungs.

Clinical Relevance: In birds, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is rarely reported but should be considered a differential diagnosis for hyperamylasemia, coelomic mass, coelomic effusion, or abnormal gastrointestinal signs, alone or in combination. Ultrasonography and CT can be useful in further evaluating such patients and should be considered in the diagnostic plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.257.6.635DOI Listing
September 2020

How I do it: trans-cortical approach for insular diffuse glioma.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 12 27;162(12):3025-3030. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris - Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hôpital Sainte-Anne, 1, rue Cabanis, 75674, Paris Cedex 14, France.

Background: The function-based resection using trans-cortical approach for removing insular diffuse glioma shares a positive benefit-to-risk ratio with a low rate of permanent morbidity.

Method: The technique requires intraoperative functional brain mapping to be performed under awake condition using direct electrical stimulations at both cortical and subcortical levels to identify brain connectivity supporting neurocognition.

Conclusion: The trans-cortical approach is a safe and efficient technique to remove insular diffuse glioma. Intraoperative functional brain mapping under awake condition allows preserving brain connectivity and tailoring the resection. Great care must be taken in preventing vascular damages, and particularly the lenticulostriate arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04553-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Domain Mapping and Deep Learning from Multiple MRI Clinical Datasets for Prediction of Molecular Subtypes in Low Grade Gliomas.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 18;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institution of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, 41345 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Brain tumors, such as low grade gliomas (LGG), are molecularly classified which require the surgical collection of tissue samples. The pre-surgical or non-operative identification of LGG molecular type could improve patient counseling and treatment decisions. However, radiographic approaches to LGG molecular classification are currently lacking, as clinicians are unable to reliably predict LGG molecular type using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Machine learning approaches may improve the prediction of LGG molecular classification through MRI, however, the development of these techniques requires large annotated data sets. Merging clinical data from different hospitals to increase case numbers is needed, but the use of different scanners and settings can affect the results and simply combining them into a large dataset often have a significant negative impact on performance. This calls for efficient domain adaption methods. Despite some previous studies on domain adaptations, mapping MR images from different datasets to a common domain without affecting subtitle molecular-biomarker information has not been reported yet. In this paper, we propose an effective domain adaptation method based on Cycle Generative Adversarial Network (CycleGAN). The dataset is further enlarged by augmenting more MRIs using another GAN approach. Further, to tackle the issue of brain tumor segmentation that requires time and anatomical expertise to put exact boundary around the tumor, we have used a tight bounding box as a strategy. Finally, an efficient deep feature learning method, multi-stream convolutional autoencoder (CAE) and feature fusion, is proposed for the prediction of molecular subtypes (1p/19q-codeletion and IDH mutation). The experiments were conducted on a total of 161 patients consisting of FLAIR and T1 weighted with contrast enhanced (T1ce) MRIs from two different institutions in the USA and France. The proposed scheme is shown to achieve the test accuracy of 74 . 81 % on 1p/19q codeletion and 81 . 19 % on IDH mutation, with marked improvement over the results obtained without domain mapping. This approach is also shown to have comparable performance to several state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408150PMC
July 2020

In Reply: High Prevalence of Developmental Venous Anomaly in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas: A Pediatric Control Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 09;87(4):E527

Service de Neurochirurgie GHU Paris-Hôpital Sainte-Anne Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa292DOI Listing
September 2020

Imaging features of disseminated xanthogranulomatous inflammation in eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus).

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2020 Jul 20;61(4):409-416. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Animal Medical Center, New York, New York.

Xanthogranulomatous disease is a rare condition, which can be caused by infection, inflammation, hemorrhage, immunologic disease, or inherited lysosomal disorders. It is characterized by non-intracellular lipid and cholesterol deposits among an inflammatory infiltrate of vacuolated macrophages and giant cells. The diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous disease is challenging, with nonspecific imaging findings often misinterpreted as aggressive neoplastic processes in humans. In this retrospective case series study, we describe the diagnostic imaging characteristics of a disseminated xanthogranulomatous condition identified in five eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus). Decreased serosal detail and celomic distension were present in all three birds radiographed, with multifocal variably sized celomic mineralization (3/3 birds), and extracelomic mineralized masses (1/3 birds). Celomic effusion with foci of celomic mineralization and hepatomegaly were identified in all birds (3/3) imaged with ultrasound. Finally, a mineralized mural ventricular mass was present in one of three patients imaged with CT, multifocal celomic mineralization with moderate to severe celomic effusion in two of three patients, diffuse severe proventricular and intestinal dilation in all three patients, and atherosclerosis of the major arterial trunks in all three patients. Veterinary radiologists should be aware of this inflammatory condition in birds, especially in eclectus parrots, and should be able to recognize the imaging features of xanthogranulomatous inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12861DOI Listing
July 2020

Automated neurosurgical stereotactic planning for intraoperative use: a comprehensive review of the literature and perspectives.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Apr 20;44(2):867-888. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, GHU Paris-Sainte-Anne Hospital, 1, rue Cabanis, 75674, Paris Cedex 14, France.

The creation of intracranial stereotactic trajectories, from entry point to target point, is still mostly done manually by the neurosurgeon. The development of automated stereotactic planning tools has been described in the literature. This systematic review aims to assess the effectiveness of stereotactic planning procedure automation and develop tools for patients undergoing neurosurgical stereotactic procedures. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched from inception to September 1, 2019, at the exception of Google Scholar (from 1 January 2010 to September 1, 2019) in French and English. Eligible studies included all studies proposing automated stereotactic planning. A total of 1543 studies were screened. Forty-two studies were included in the systematic review, including 18 (42.9%) conference papers. The surgical procedures planned automatically were mainly deep brain stimulation (n = 14, 33.3%), stereoelectroencephalography (n = 12, 28.6%), and not specified (n = 10, 23.8%). The most frequently used surgical constraints to plan the trajectory were blood vessels (n = 32, 76.2%), cerebral sulci (n = 27, 64.3%), and cerebral ventricles (n = 23, 54.8%). The distance from blood vessels ranged from 1.96 to 4.78 mm for manual trajectories and from 2.47 to 7.0 mm for automated trajectories. At least one neurosurgeon was involved in 36 studies (85.7%). The automated stereotactic trajectory was preferred in 75.4% of the studied cases (range 30-92.9). Only 3 (7.1%) studies were multicentric. No study reported prospective use of the planning software. Stereotactic planning automation is a promising tool to provide valuable stereotactic trajectories for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01315-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in dogs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2020 Jul 23;61(4):394-398. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Radiology, Animal Medical Center, New York, New York.

This retrospective case series describes the radiographic features of suspected suture-associated cystic calculi in six dogs with a history of at least one or multiple prior cystotomies. One of the dogs presented twice. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi were multifocal, short, predominantly linear mineral opacities localized in the center of the urinary bladder on abdominal radiographs. One patient (n = 1) presented with multifocal round, pin point, and linear radiopaque calculi. The calculi were all calcium oxalate in composition. On gross examination, the calculi had a hollow center. Six cystotomies used monofilament absorbable suture material (polydioxanone [n = 4] or poliglecaprone 25 [n = 1]) in prior cystotomies. Suture material in two of the cases was unknown. Suspected suture-associated cystic calculi are a rare occurrence in veterinary medicine but should be considered in dogs that have a history of prior cystotomy, hollow core on gross analysis, and radiographic evidence of mineral opaque, predominantly linear, cystic calculi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12863DOI Listing
July 2020
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