Publications by authors named "Alexandre R Caetano"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Low levels of sulfur and cobalt during the pre- and periconceptional periods affect the oocyte yield of donors and the DNA methylome of preimplantation bovine embryos.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 May 4:1-13. Epub 2021 May 4.

Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.

Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. The oocyte yield was lower in heifers from the low S/Co group than that in the control heifers. Embryos from the low-S/Co group exhibited 2320 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome compared with the control embryos. We also characterized candidate DMRs linked to the DNMT1 and DNMT3B genes in the blood and sperm cells of the adult progeny. A DMR located in DNMT1 that was identified in embryos remained differentially methylated in the sperm of the progeny from the low-S/Co group. Therefore, we associated changes in specific compounds in the maternal diet with DNA methylation modifications in the progeny. Our results help to elucidate the impact of maternal nutrition on epigenetic reprogramming in livestock, opening new avenues of research to study the effect of disturbed epigenetic patterns in early life on health and fertility in adulthood. Considering that cattle are physiologically similar to humans with respect to gestational length, our study may serve as a model for studies related to the developmental origin of health and disease in humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174421000222DOI Listing
May 2021

Paternal Origins and Migratory Episodes of Domestic Sheep.

Curr Biol 2020 10 20;30(20):4085-4095.e6. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Virology, State Veterinary Institute Jihlava, Rantirovska 93, 58601, Jihlava, Czech Republic.

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.077DOI Listing
October 2020

Phylogeography of feral Monteiro pig in the Brazilian Pantanal Ecosystem.

Genetica 2020 Aug 7;148(3-4):183-193. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Embrapa Recursos Genéticos E Biotecnologia, Final W5 Norte, Brasília, DF, 70770-917, Brazil.

The Monteiro is a feral pig found in the Brazilian Pantanal ecosystem. The goal of this research is to generate data and knolewdge related to animal populations wich can be used for management and development of an in vitro conservation program for animal resourses at Pantanal ecosystem. The present study evaluated animals sampled from 10 distinct locations within the region, using 19 microsatellite markers (N = 189) and the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (N = 392). Low genetic differences were found between populations with the microsatellite data. The F range was between 0.009 and 0.063 (p-value < 0.05). The Mantel test corroborated with previous results, as low correlations between genetic and geographic distances were observed (r = 0.2309, p = 0.06). Bayesian analysis for genetic structure identification placed the Monteiro pigs into three main clusters (MOB, Pop 1 and all others Pantanal populations). Most of the Monteiro pigs share a single European haplotype as seen by mtDNA analyses. This haplotype is not exclusive, as it is shared with other swine populations (commercial and other locally adapted breeds). Monteiro populations from different geographic locations within Pantanal are not isolated and can be considered as a large unique population. Since animals roam freely to seek food and water, or even due to seasonal flooding of their habitat, the Monteiro populations presented absence of major genetic structure and evidence of high gene flow. These results can be used to create a management plan and in situ and ex situ conservation program for conservation and use of the Monteiro breed in the Pantanal ecosystem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10709-020-00099-yDOI Listing
August 2020

Tag SNP selection for prediction of tick resistance in Brazilian Braford and Hereford cattle breeds using Bayesian methods.

Genet Sel Evol 2017 06 15;49(1):49. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Embrapa Pecuária Sul, Caixa Postal 242 - BR 153 - Km 633, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, 96.401-970, Brazil.

Background: Cattle resistance to ticks is known to be under genetic control with a complex biological mechanism within and among breeds. Our aim was to identify genomic segments and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with tick-resistance in Hereford and Braford cattle. The predictive performance of a very low-density tag SNP panel was estimated and compared with results obtained with a 50 K SNP dataset.

Results: BayesB (π = 0.99) was initially applied in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this complex trait by using deregressed estimated breeding values for tick counts and 41,045 SNP genotypes from 3455 animals raised in southern Brazil. To estimate the combined effect of a genomic region that is potentially associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL), 2519 non-overlapping 1-Mb windows that varied in SNP number were defined, with the top 48 windows including 914 SNPs and explaining more than 20% of the estimated genetic variance for tick resistance. Subsequently, the most informative SNPs were selected based on Bayesian parameters (model frequency and t-like statistics), linkage disequilibrium and minor allele frequency to propose a very low-density 58-SNP panel. Some of these tag SNPs mapped close to or within genes and pseudogenes that are functionally related to tick resistance. Prediction ability of this SNP panel was investigated by cross-validation using K-means and random clustering and a BayesA model to predict direct genomic values. Accuracies from these cross-validations were 0.27 ± 0.09 and 0.30 ± 0.09 for the K-means and random clustering groups, respectively, compared to respective values of 0.37 ± 0.08 and 0.43 ± 0.08 when using all 41,045 SNPs and BayesB with π = 0.99, or of 0.28 ± 0.07 and 0.40 ± 0.08 with π = 0.999.

Conclusions: Bayesian GWAS model parameters can be used to select tag SNPs for a very low-density panel, which will include SNPs that are potentially linked to functional genes. It can be useful for cost-effective genomic selection tools, when one or a few key complex traits are of interest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-017-0325-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5471684PMC
June 2017

Genetic diversity analysis of two commercial breeds of pigs using genomic and pedigree data.

Genet Sel Evol 2016 Mar 30;48:24. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Embrapa Swine and Poultry National Research Center, Animal Breeding and Genetics, Concordia, SC, Brazil.

Background: Genetic improvement in livestock populations can be achieved without significantly affecting genetic diversity if mating systems and selection decisions take genetic relationships among individuals into consideration. The objective of this study was to examine the genetic diversity of two commercial breeds of pigs. Genotypes from 1168 Landrace (LA) and 1094 Large White (LW) animals from a commercial breeding program in Brazil were obtained using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Inbreeding estimates based on pedigree (F x) and genomic information using runs of homozygosity (F ROH) and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) by SNP inbreeding coefficient (F SNP) were obtained. Linkage disequilibrium (LD), correlation of linkage phase (r) and effective population size (N e ) were also estimated.

Results: Estimates of inbreeding obtained with pedigree information were lower than those obtained with genomic data in both breeds. We observed that the extent of LD was slightly larger at shorter distances between SNPs in the LW population than in the LA population, which indicates that the LW population was derived from a smaller N e . Estimates of N e based on genomic data were equal to 53 and 40 for the current populations of LA and LW, respectively. The correlation of linkage phase between the two breeds was equal to 0.77 at distances up to 50 kb, which suggests that genome-wide association and selection should be performed within breed. Although selection intensities have been stronger in the LA breed than in the LW breed, levels of genomic and pedigree inbreeding were lower for the LA than for the LW breed.

Conclusions: The use of genomic data to evaluate population diversity in livestock animals can provide new and more precise insights about the effects of intense selection for production traits. Resulting information and knowledge can be used to effectively increase response to selection by appropriately managing the rate of inbreeding, minimizing negative effects of inbreeding depression and therefore maintaining desirable levels of genetic diversity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12711-016-0203-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4812646PMC
March 2016

Linkage disequilibrium, persistence of phase and effective population size estimates in Hereford and Braford cattle.

BMC Genet 2016 Feb 1;17:32. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia, Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Background: The existence of moderate to high levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genetic markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting traits of interest is fundamental for the success of genome-wide association (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) studies. Knowledge about the extent and the pattern of LD in livestock populations is essential to determine the density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) required for accurate GWAS and GS. Moreover, observed LD is related to historical effective population sizes (Ne), and can provide insights into the genetic diversity history of populations. Estimates of the consistency of linkage phase across breeds (R H,B ) can be used to determine if there is sufficient relationship to use pooled reference populations in multi-breed GS programs. The objective of this study was to estimate LD levels, persistence of phase and effective population size in Hereford and Braford cattle populations sampled in Brazil.

Results: Mean LD estimates, measured using the squared correlation of alleles at two loci (r (2)), obtained between adjacent SNP across all chromosomes were 0.21 ± 0.27 for Herefords (391 samples with 41,241 SNP) and 0.16 ± 0.22 for Brafords (2044 samples and 41,207 SNP). Estimated r(2) was > 0.2 and 0.3, respectively, for 34 and 25% of adjacent markers in Herefords, and 26 and 17% in Brafords. Estimated N e for Brafords and Herefords at the current generation was 220 and 153 individuals, respectively. The two breeds demonstrated moderate to strong persistence of phase at all distances (R H,B  = 0.53 to 0.97). The largest phase correlations were found in the 0 to 50 Kb bins (R H,B = 0.92 to 0.97). Estimated LD decreased rapidly with increasing distance between SNP, however, useful linkage for GWAS and GS (r(2) > 0.2) was found spanning to ~50 Kb.

Conclusions: Panels containing about 50,000 and 150,000 SNP markers are necessary to detect minimal levels of LD between adjacent markers that would be useful for GWAS and GS studies to Hereford and Braford breeds, respectively. Markers are expected to be linked to the same QTL alleles in distances < 50 Kb in both populations due to observed high persistence of phase levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12863-016-0339-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736111PMC
February 2016

New labelling technology for molecular probes applied to the ligation detection reaction-universal array system.

Mol Biotechnol 2011 Jan;47(1):1-8

Parco Tecnologico Padano, Lodi, Italy.

The ligation detection reaction (LDR) associated with universal arrays (UA) uses a fluorescently labelled probe (DP) and a Zip Code-extended probe to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA target sequences. When used for genotyping, the LDR-UA technique uses two DPs, each specific to an allele and labelled with a different fluorophore. The fluorescent signals are processed to calculate the genotype. The uneven decay of fluorophores due to ageing and freezing/thawing cycles and the consequent unequal fluoresce level can lead to erroneous genotype calls. To circumvent this problem, an indirect labelling strategy was developed based on the substitution of the fluorophore with allele-specific 22 bp universal labelling sequences (ULS). Labelling is achieved with fluorescently labelled oligos complementary to the ULS (cULS). The strategy improved the uniformity in probe labelling, and generated results comparable to those using direct-labelled probes, as shown by genotyping 22 polymorphic sites in 70 samples with both strategies. This method can be easily implemented in the routine screening with LDR-UA or other techniques. Moreover, the approach results in a significant cost reduction over traditional direct labelling, and offers the possibility to interchange fluorophores and to increase the fluorescent signal by using multiple-labelled cULS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-010-9305-2DOI Listing
January 2011

Resolving the evolution of extant and extinct ruminants with high-throughput phylogenomics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Nov 21;106(44):18644-9. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Divisions of Animal Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

The Pecorans (higher ruminants) are believed to have rapidly speciated in the Mid-Eocene, resulting in five distinct extant families: Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae. Due to the rapid radiation, the Pecoran phylogeny has proven difficult to resolve, and 11 of the 15 possible rooted phylogenies describing ancestral relationships among the Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae have each been argued as representations of the true phylogeny. Here we demonstrate that a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platform designed for one species can be used to genotype ancient DNA from an extinct species and DNA from species diverged up to 29 million years ago and that the produced genotypes can be used to resolve the phylogeny for this rapidly radiated infraorder. We used a high-throughput assay with 54,693 SNP loci developed for Bos taurus taurus to rapidly genotype 678 individuals representing 61 Pecoran species. We produced a highly resolved phylogeny for this diverse group based upon 40,843 genome-wide SNP, which is five times as many informative characters as have previously been analyzed. We also establish a method to amplify and screen genomic information from extinct species, and place Bison priscus within the Bovidae. The quality of genotype calls and the placement of samples within a well-supported phylogeny may provide an important test for validating the fidelity and integrity of ancient samples. Finally, we constructed a phylogenomic network to accurately describe the relationships between 48 cattle breeds and facilitate inferences concerning the history of domestication and breed formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0904691106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2765454PMC
November 2009

Embryo mitochondrial DNA depletion is reversed during early embryogenesis in cattle.

Biol Reprod 2010 Jan 19;82(1):76-85. Epub 2009 Aug 19.

Departamento de Ciências Básicas, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil.

The extensive replication of mitochondria during oogenesis and the wide variability in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers present in fully grown oocytes indicate that mtDNA amount may play an important role during early embryogenesis. Using bovine oocytes derived from follicles of different sizes to study the influence of mtDNA content on development, we showed that oocytes obtained from small follicles, known to be less competent in developing into blastocysts, contain less mtDNA than those originating from larger follicles. However, because of the high variability in copy number, a more accurate approach was examined in which parthenogenetic one-cell embryos were biopsied to measure their mtDNA content and then cultured to assess development capacity. Contrasting with previous findings, mtDNA copy number in biopsies was not different between competent and incompetent embryos, indicating that mtDNA content is not related to early developmental competence. To further examine the importance of mtDNA on development, one-cell embryos were partially depleted of their mtDNA (64% +/- 4.1% less) by centrifugation followed by the removal of the mitochondrial-enriched cytoplasmic fraction. Surprisingly, depleted embryos developed normally into blastocysts, which contained mtDNA copy numbers similar to nonmanipulated controls. Development in depleted embryos was accompanied by an increase in the expression of genes (TFAM and NRF1) controlling mtDNA replication and transcription, indicating an intrinsic ability to restore the content of mtDNA at the blastocyst stage. Therefore, we concluded that competent bovine embryos are able to regulate their mtDNA content at the blastocyst stage regardless of the copy numbers accumulated during oogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.077776DOI Listing
January 2010

Genome-wide survey of SNP variation uncovers the genetic structure of cattle breeds.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):528-32

The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 497 cattle from 19 geographically and biologically diverse breeds. These data show that cattle have undergone a rapid recent decrease in effective population size from a very large ancestral population, possibly due to bottlenecks associated with domestication, selection, and breed formation. Domestication and artificial selection appear to have left detectable signatures of selection within the cattle genome, yet the current levels of diversity within breeds are at least as great as exists within humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1167936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735092PMC
April 2009

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009

A first generation whole genome RH map of the river buffalo with comparison to domestic cattle.

BMC Genomics 2008 Dec 24;9:631. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

Department of Biologia, UNESP - São Paulo State University, IBILCE, SP, Brazil.

Background: The recently constructed river buffalo whole-genome radiation hybrid panel (BBURH5000) has already been used to generate preliminary radiation hybrid (RH) maps for several chromosomes, and buffalo-bovine comparative chromosome maps have been constructed. Here, we present the first-generation whole genome RH map (WG-RH) of the river buffalo generated from cattle-derived markers. The RH maps aligned to bovine genome sequence assembly Btau_4.0, providing valuable comparative mapping information for both species.

Results: A total of 3990 markers were typed on the BBURH5000 panel, of which 3072 were cattle derived SNPs. The remaining 918 were classified as cattle sequence tagged site (STS), including coding genes, ESTs, and microsatellites. Average retention frequency per chromosome was 27.3% calculated with 3093 scorable markers distributed in 43 linkage groups covering all autosomes (24) and the X chromosomes at a LOD >or= 8. The estimated total length of the WG-RH map is 36,933 cR5000. Fewer than 15% of the markers (472) could not be placed within any linkage group at a LOD score >or= 8. Linkage group order for each chromosome was determined by incorporation of markers previously assigned by FISH and by alignment with the bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0).

Conclusion: We obtained radiation hybrid chromosome maps for the entire river buffalo genome based on cattle-derived markers. The alignments of our RH maps to the current bovine genome sequence assembly (Btau_4.0) indicate regions of possible rearrangements between the chromosomes of both species. The river buffalo represents an important agricultural species whose genetic improvement has lagged behind other species due to limited prior genomic characterization. We present the first-generation RH map which provides a more extensive resource for positional candidate cloning of genes associated with complex traits and also for large-scale physical mapping of the river buffalo genome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-9-631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2625372PMC
December 2008

Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants Bm86 Campo Grande strain, Bm86 and Bm95.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2008 Apr-Jun;17(2):93-8

Department of Animal Health, Embrapa Beef Cattle, Campo Grande, MS 79002-970, Brazil.

This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and Gavac, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612008000200006DOI Listing
January 2009

Cloning and expression of an antigenic domain of a major surface protein (Nc-p43) of Neospora caninum.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2007 Apr-Jun;16(2):61-6

Curso de Zootecnia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde (CCBS), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.

Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. It was described in 1988 as causing neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. Recently, N. caninum has been the focus of considerable attention for its large impact on the dairy industry, given the economic losses related to breeding failures and to a decrease in productivity. ELISA diagnosis of neosporosis has not been widely used in Brazil, mostly because of the assay's cost, and thus the distribution of the disease in the country is not well known. In order to evaluate its ability to react with sera from infected animals from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, an antigenic determinant domain of a major surface protein (Nc-p43) was produced. The antigenic domain, located in the distal 2/3 region of the C-terminus, was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The DNA fragments were cloned into pet100/D-TOPO vectors. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli of the BL21 Star (DE3) strain and induced to express the fused fragment of Nc-p43 as a 29-kDa protein that, when assayed with bovine Neospora-positive serum from a regional sample, was sensitive for identification by immunoblotting. This Nc-p43 fragment may be of use in additional studies targeted at diagnosing N. caninum infection and at evaluating the immunoprotection conferred by the protein fragment to animal hosts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2008

A physical map of the bovine genome.

Genome Biol 2007 ;8(8):R165

USDA, ARS, US Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE 68933, USA.

Background: Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project.

Results: A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly.

Conclusion: Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2007-8-8-r165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374996PMC
February 2008

GoSh: a web-based database for goat and sheep EST sequences.

Bioinformatics 2007 Apr 24;23(8):1043-5. Epub 2007 Mar 24.

Parco Tecnologico Padano, Località Cascina Codazza, Lodi, Italy.

Unlabelled: The GoSh database is a collection of 58 990 Capra hircus and Ovis aries expressed sequence tags. A perl pipeline was prepared to process sequences, and data were collected in a MySQL database. A PHP-based web interface allows browsing and querying the database. Putative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection, as well as search to repeats were performed, and links to external related resources were provided. Sequences were annotated against three different databases and an algorithm was implemented to create statistics of the distribution of retrieved homologous ontologies in the Gene Ontology categories. The GoSh database is a repository of data and links related to goat and sheep expressed genes.

Availability: The GoSh database is available at http://www.itb.cnr.it/gosh/
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btm063DOI Listing
April 2007

Generation and sequence characterization of a normalized cDNA library from swine ovarian follicles.

Mamm Genome 2003 Jan;14(1):65-70

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, 68583-0908, USA.

Ovulation rate is a major factor determining litter size in swine and is, therefore, a trait of economic importance to the pork industry. The dynamics of follicle development, which in turn are dictated by a balance between follicle recruitment, maturation, selection, and atresia, are a major determining factor of ovulation rate. The role of several genes expressed in the ovaries during these processes has been described, but studies utilizing large-scale genomic approaches have yet to be conducted to examine gene expression in this tissue more globally. We have developed a normalized cDNA library from swine ovarian follicles in various stages of development, ranging from 2.0 to 10.0 mm in diameter, collected from gilts from divergent genetic lines selected for high and low ovulation rates, during the 7 initial days of the follicular phase of the estrous cycle. EST sequences were obtained from 5231 distinct clones derived from this library. In total, 3479 unique sequence clusters were obtained, of which 2661 singletons (76.5%) were observed. BLASTN searches with the primary sequences from the clusters obtained resulted in 1037 sequences not matching (E <1.0(-06) any of the sequences in the nt database (29.8% novelty rate). This resource will facilitate the use of cDNA microarrays in functional genomics studies aiming at unraveling the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying follicle maturation and ovulation rate in swine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-002-2220-5DOI Listing
January 2003
-->