Publications by authors named "Alexandre Lima Ferreira"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dietary nutrient restrictions in the post-weaning period change Santa Inês ewe lamb nutritional metabolic profile.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jun 14;53(3):359. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Animal Science Department, Federal University of Tocantins, BR-153, Km 112, s/no, Caixa Postal 132, 77.804-970, Araguaina, Tocantins, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the metabolic profile of Santa Inês ewe lambs fed diets for early or late-maturing diets with or without nutrient restrictions. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 completely randomized factorial experiment with either early- or late-maturity feed formulation according to "Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants" with or without 15% crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) restrictions in diets formulated, five replications, and 20 ewe lambs averaging 15.1±2.6 kg. Lambs on early-maturity diets consumed greater (P<0.05) dietary ether extract (EE), non-fibrous carbohydrates, and TDN than those on late-maturity diets. Lambs on early-maturity diets had 7.11% greater dry matter digestibility (DMD) compared to lambs fed late-maturity diets. Lambs fed late-maturity diets, in general, had greater intake (IN), excreted (EN), and retained (RN) N as well as greater RN/IN and EN/IN ratios. There were no differences in blood total protein or albumin among lambs fed for different finishing maturity targets. Diets designed for late-maturing lambs resulted in greater microbial N and CP as well as rumen and metabolizable, degradable, and undegradable rumen and metabolizable CP. The selection of diets for early or late maturity carcasses depends on the production system goals. Diets without restrictions are recommended for early-maturity carcass finishing while diets with 15% CP and TDN restriction are recommend for late-maturity finishing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02767-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Energy metabolism of pregnant zebu and crossbred zebu dairy cattle.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(2):e0246208. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Veterinary School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was to determine the energy partition of pregnant F1 Holstein x Gyr with average initial body weight (BW) of 515.6 kg and Gyr cows with average initial BW of 435.1 kg at 180, 210 and 240 days of gestation, obtained using respirometry. Twelve animals in two groups (six per genetic group) received a restricted diet equivalent to 1.3 times the net energy for maintenance (NEm). The proportion of gross energy intake (GEI) lost as feces did not differ between the evaluated breeds and corresponded to 28.65% on average. The daily methane production (L/d) was greater for (P<0.05) F1 HxG compared to Gyr animals. However, when expressed as L/kg dry matter (DM) or as percentage of GEI there were no differences between the groups (P>0.05). The daily loss of energy as urine (mean of 1.42 Mcal/d) did not differ (P>0.05) between groups and ranged from 3.87 to 5.35% of the GEI. The metabolizable energy intake (MEI) of F1 HxG animals was greater (P < 0.05) at all gestational stages compared to Gyr cows when expressed in Mcal/d. However, when expressed in kcal/kg of metabolic BW (BW0,75), the F1 HxG cows had MEI 11% greater (P<0.05) at 240 days of gestation and averaged 194.39 kcal/kg of BW0,75. Gyr cows showed no change in MEI over time (P>0.05), with a mean of 146.66 kcal/kg BW0. 75. The ME used by the conceptus was calculated by deducting the metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) from the MEI, which was obtained in a previous study using the same cows prior to becoming pregnant. The values of NEm obtained in the previous study with similar non-pregnant cows were 92.02 kcal/kg BW0.75 for F1 HxG, and 76.83 kcal/kg BW0.75 for Gyr (P = 0.06). The average ME for pregnancy (MEp) was 5.33 Mcal/d for F1 HxG and 4.46 Mcal/d for Gyr. The metabolizability ratio, averaging 0.60, was similar among the evaluated groups (P>0.05). The ME / Digestible Energy (DE) ratio differed between groups and periods evaluated (P<0.05) with a mean of 0.84. The heat increment (HI) accounted for 22.74% and 24.38% of the GEI for F1 HxG and Gyr cows, respectively. The proportion of GEI used in the basal metabolism by pregnant cows in this study represented 29.69%. However, there were no differences between the breeds and the evaluation periods and corresponded to 29.69%. The mean NE for pregnancy (NEp) was 2.76 Mcal/d and did not differ between groups and gestational stages (P>0.05).
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246208PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861432PMC
July 2021

Grouping crossbred Holstein x Gyr heifers according to different feed efficiency indexes and its effects on energy and nitrogen partitioning, blood metabolic variables and gas exchanges.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(9):e0238419. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-Embrapa Dairy Cattle, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower β-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238419PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485853PMC
October 2020

Effect of pelleted vs. ground starter with or without hay on preweaned dairy calves.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0234610. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

EMBRAPA - Dairy Cattle Research Center, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234610PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347148PMC
September 2020

Generation of models from existing models composition: An application to agrarian sciences.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(12):e0214778. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of statistics and informatics, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Mathematical models that describe gas production are widely used to estimate the rumen degradation digestibility and kinetics. The present study presents a method to generate models by combining existing models and to propose the von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model based on this method. The proposed model was compared with the logistic two-compartment one to indicate which best describes the kinetic curve of gas production through the semi-automated in vitro technique from different pinto peanut cultivars. The data came from an experiment grown and harvested at the Far South Animal Sciences station (Essul) in Itabela, BA, Brazil and gas production was read at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 h after the start of the in vitro fermentation process. The parameters were estimated by the least squares method using the iterative Gauss-Newton process in the software R version 3.4.1. The best model to describe gas accumulation was based on the adjusted coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, mean absolute deviation, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion. The von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model had the best fit to describe the cumulative gas production over time according to the methodology and conditions of the present study.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214778PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6932759PMC
March 2020

Replacement of Soybean Meal With Soybean Cake Reduces Methane Emissions in Dairy Cows and an Assessment of a Face-Mask Technique for Methane Measurement.

Front Vet Sci 2019 4;6:295. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Faculty of Science, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The objective of this study was to (a) evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with soybean cake (SBC) on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, milk production, nutrient digestibility and CH emissions and (b) investigate whether a face-mask technique could be used to predict daily methane (CH) emissions in dairy cattle. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with 32 crossbred Holstein × Gyr cows (days in milk (DIM): 112 ± 25.1) randomly assigned to the following treatments ( = 8/group) for 75 days: (1) 0% SBC, (2) 6% SBC, (3) 14% SBC, and (4) 23% SBC, in place of SBM on a dry matter (DM) basis. Across the final 4 weeks of the study, CH production was estimated using the proposed face-mask technique subsequent to a respiration chamber measurement for an evaluation of treatment efficacy and face-mask accuracy. There was no effect of SBM replacement by SBC on intake, feeding or drinking behavior ( > 0.21). Total VFA concentration, the individual proportions of VFA and blood metabolites were not altered ( > 0.17) by SBC, however there was a tendency for decreased ( = 0.08) lactate and plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.07) concentration associated with SBC addition. Fat-corrected milk yield (FCM) and composition was not affected ( > 0.27) by SBC; however, there was a tendency for decreased total milk solids ( = 0.07) and milk fat ( = 0.08) associated with 23% SBC treatment. There was no treatment × technique interaction ( > 0.05) effect on gas measurements. A maximum reduction ( = 0.01) in CH yield (g/kg DM) and intensity (g/kg milk) of 11 and 20%, respectively, was observed for the 14% SBC inclusion. Compared to the week of mask measurements, chambers decreased ( = 0.01) intake (kg/d, %BW) and increased ( = 0.05) FCM. The face-mask method over estimated O consumption by 5%. The face-mask method accurately predicted daily CH emissions when compared to the chamber at the same time-point. However, there was a linear bias of CH outputs so further evaluation of the calculation of total CH from a spot measurement is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738022PMC
September 2019

Energy partitioning in cattle fed diets based on tropical forage with the inclusion of antibiotic additives.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(4):e0211565. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, Pampulha.

The aim of this study was to describe energy partitioning in dairy crossbreed bulls fed tropical forage-based diets supplemented with different additives. Twenty F1 crossbred bulls (Holstein x Gyr) with initial and final live weight (LW) averages of 190 ± 17 and 275 ± 20 kg were fed sorghum (Sorghum bicolour) and Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania) silage (70:30 DM basis) with supplemented concentrate at a forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50. The bulls were allocated to four treatment: control groups (without additives), monensin [22 mg/kg monensin dry matter (DM)] (M), virginiamycin (30 mg/kg virginiamycin DM) (V), and combination (22 mg/kg DM of monensin and 30 mg/kg DM of virginiamycin) (MV), in a completely randomised design. The intake of gross energy (GE, MJ/d), digestible energy (DE, MJ/d), metabolizable energy (ME, MJ/d), as well as energy losses in the form of faeces, urine, methane, heat production (HE), and retained energy (RE) were measured. Faecal output was measured in apparent digestibility trial. Right after the apparent digestibility trial, urine samples were collected in order to estimate the daily urinary production of the animals. Heat and methane production were measured in an open circuit respirometry chamber. The intake of GE, DE, and ME of the animals receiving monensin and virginiamycin alone or in combination (MV) showed no differences (P>0.05) from the control treatment. However, the MV treatment reduced (P<0.05) the methane production (5.44 MJ/d) compared to the control group (7.33 MJ/d), expressed in MJ per day, but not when expressed related to gross energy intake (GEI) (CH4, % GEI) (P = 0.34). Virginiamycin and monensin alone or in combination did not change (P>0.05) the utilization efficiency of ME for weight gain, RE and net gain energy. This study showed that for cattle fed tropical forages, the combination of virginiamycin and monensin as feed additives affected their energy metabolism by a reduction in the energy lost as methane.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211565PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6476472PMC
December 2019

Milk production and composition, food consumption, and energy balance of postpartum crossbred Holstein-Gir dairy cows fed two diets of different energy levels.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Jan 13;51(1):65-71. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Embrapa Gado de Leite, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, 36038-330, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the production, consumption, and energy balance parameters of primiparous 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein × Gir (HG) dairy cows fed two diets of differing energy levels during the postpartum period. At the beginning of the study, 28 days prepartum, the average weight of both genetic groups was 498 ± 12 kg and body condition score (BCS) was 3.5 ± 0.05. At the end of the study, 61 days postpartum, the 3/4 HG cows had higher weight and body condition scores than the 7/8 HG (456 ± 8 and 429 ± 8 kg and 3.13 ± 0.03 and 2.94 ± 0.03 BCS for 3/4 HG and 7/8 HG, respectively). Milk from cows fed the high-energy diet had higher percentages of fat, protein, lactose, and total dry extract than cows fed the low-energy diet. Cows fed the high-energy diet had higher net energy intake (95.3 ± 1.9 vs. 88.1 ± 2.1 MJ/day) and higher energy balance (3.64 ± 2.13 vs - 6.02 ± 2.30 MJ/day). The 3/4 HG cows displayed higher energy for maintenance (33.1 ± 0.4 MJ/day) than the 7/8 HG (31.5 ± 0.5 MJ /day). In conclusion, although the primiparous 3/4 HG were heavier than the 7/8 HG and had a higher body condition score, no differences in milk produced up to 60 days postpartum were observed. The higher energy diet during the postpartum period increased energy balance, resulting in higher production of milk fat, protein, and lactose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1660-1DOI Listing
January 2019
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