Publications by authors named "Alexandre Leon Ribeiro de Avila"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of Autoimmune Encephalitis With Combined Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Treatment for Metastatic Cancer.

JAMA Neurol 2016 Aug;73(8):928-33

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Paraneoplastic encephalitides usually precede a diagnosis of cancer and are often refractory to immunosuppressive therapy. Conversely, autoimmune encephalitides are reversible conditions that can occur in the presence or absence of cancer.

Objective: To report the induction of autoimmune encephalitis in 2 patients after treatment of metastatic cancer with a combination of the immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab and ipilimumab.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective case study was conducted of the clinical and management course of 2 patients with progressive, treatment-refractory metastatic cancer who were treated with a single dose each (concomitantly) of the immune checkpoint inhibitors nivolumab, 1 mg/kg, and ipilimumab, 3 mg/kg.

Exposures: Nivolumab and ipilimumab.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy in suspected autoimmune encephalitis in the setting of immune checkpoint inhibitor use.

Results: Autoantibody testing confirmed identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of 1 patient. Withdrawal of immune checkpoint inhibitors and initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, consisting of intravenous methylprednisolone sodium succinate equivalent to 1000 mg of methylprednisolone for 5 days, 0.4 mg/kg/d of intravenous immunoglobulin for 5 days, and 2 doses of rituximab, 1000 mg, in 1 patient and oral prednisone, 60 mg/d, in the other patient, resulted in improved neurologic symptoms.

Conclusions And Relevance: Immune checkpoint inhibition may favor the development of immune responses against neuronal antigens, leading to autoimmune encephalitis. Early recognition and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis in patients receiving immune checkpoint blockade therapy will likely be essential for maximizing clinical recovery and minimizing the effect of drug-related toxic effects. The mechanisms by which immune checkpoint inhibition may contribute to autoimmune encephalitis require further study.
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August 2016

Characterization of individuals at high risk of developing melanoma in Latin America: bases for genetic counseling in melanoma.

Genet Med 2016 07 17;18(7):727-36. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Unidad de Lesiones Pigmentadas, Cátedra de Dermatología, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Purpose: CDKN2A is the main high-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, but it has been poorly assessed in Latin America. We sought to analyze CDKN2A and MC1R in patients from Latin America with familial and sporadic multiple primary melanoma (SMP) and compare the data with those for patients from Spain to establish bases for melanoma genetic counseling in Latin America.

Methods: CDKN2A and MC1R were sequenced in 186 Latin American patients from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay, and in 904 Spanish patients. Clinical and phenotypic data were obtained.

Results: Overall, 24 and 14% of melanoma-prone families in Latin America and Spain, respectively, had mutations in CDKN2A. Latin American families had CDKN2A mutations more frequently (P = 0.014) than Spanish ones. Of patients with SMP, 10% of those from Latin America and 8.5% of those from Spain had mutations in CDKN2A (P = 0.623). The most recurrent CDKN2A mutations were c.-34G>T and p.G101W. Latin American patients had fairer hair (P = 0.016) and skin (P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of MC1R variants (P = 0.003) compared with Spanish patients.

Conclusion: The inclusion criteria for genetic counseling of melanoma in Latin America may be the same criteria used in Spain, as suggested in areas with low to medium incidence, SMP with at least two melanomas, or families with at least two cases among first- or second-degree relatives.Genet Med 18 7, 727-736.
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July 2016

Germline CDKN2A mutations in Brazilian patients of hereditary cutaneous melanoma.

Fam Cancer 2014 Dec;13(4):645-9

Department of Skin Cancer, AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.

Approximately 10 % of all cutaneous melanoma cases occur in a familial context. The major susceptibility gene for familial melanoma is CDKN2A. In Latin America, genetic studies investigating melanoma predisposition are scarce. The aim of this work was to investigate germline CDKN2A point mutations and genomic rearrangements in a cohort of 59 Brazilian melanoma-prone patients. Screening of CDKN2A alterations was performed by sequencing and multiplex ligation probe amplification. Germline CDKN2A mutations affecting p16(INK4a) were detected in 8 unrelated probands (13.6 %), including 7 familial cases and one patient with multiple melanomas; 4 out of 8 mutation carriers met the criteria for familial melanoma and had multiple primary lesions. Although this study adds to the literature on melanoma susceptibility in Latin America, it is limited by the small size of the cohort. Our findings suggest that stringent inclusion criteria led to a substantially increased rate of CDKN2A mutation detection. This consideration should be taken into account when referring patients for genetic screening in a setting of limited budget, such as in developing countries.
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December 2014

Atypical mole syndrome and dysplastic nevi: identification of populations at risk for developing melanoma - review article.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011 ;66(3):493-9

Oncology School Celestino Bourroul, Hospital AC Camargo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for developing cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Because the diagnosis of melanoma at an early stage is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers is essential, as well as the creation of recommended preventative measures that must be taken by these patients.
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November 2011