Publications by authors named "Alexandre Blanchette"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

EPHB6 and testosterone in concert regulate epinephrine release by adrenal gland chromaffin cells.

Sci Rep 2018 01 16;8(1):842. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Research Centre, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, Quebec, H2X 0A9, Canada.

Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular receptor (EPH) B6 (EPHB6) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. We previously demonstrated that EPHB6 knockout reduces catecholamine secretion in male but not female mice, and castration reverses this phenotype. We showed here that male EPHB6 knockout adrenal gland chromaffin cells presented reduced acetylcholine-triggered Ca influx. Such reduction depended on the non-genomic effect of testosterone. Increased large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel current densities were recorded in adrenal gland chromaffin cells from male EPHB6 knockout mice but not from castrated knockout or female knockout mice. Blocking of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in adrenal gland chromaffin cells from male knockout mice corrected their reduced Ca influx. We conclude that the absence of EPHB6 and the presence of testosterone would lead to augmented large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents, which limit voltage-gated calcium channel opening in adrenal gland chromaffin cells. Consequently, acetylcholine-triggered Ca influx is reduced, leading to lower catecholamine release in adrenal gland chromaffin cells from male knockout mice. This explains the reduced resting-state blood catecholamine levels, and hence the blood pressure, in male but not female EPHB6 knock mice. These findings have certain clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-19215-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770418PMC
January 2018

CaMKII regulates intracellular Ca²⁺ dynamics in native endothelial cells.

Cell Calcium 2015 Sep 10;58(3):275-85. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Physiology, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Localized endothelial Ca(2+) signalling, such as Ca(2+) pulsars, can modulate the contractile state of the underlying vascular smooth muscle cell through specific endothelial targets. In addition to K(Ca)3.1 as a target, Ca(2+) pulsars, an IP3R-dependent pulsatile Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) could activate a frequency-sensitive Ca(2+)-dependent kinase such as CaMKII. In the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), acetylcholine increased endothelial CaMKII phosphorylation and activation, thereby suggesting CaMKII activation independently of Ca(2+) influx. Herein, a reciprocal relation where CaMKII controls endothelial Ca(2+) dynamics has been investigated in mesenteric arteries. Both CaMKIIα and β isoforms have been identified in endothelial cells and close proximity (<40 nm) suggests their association in heteromultimers. Intracellular Ca(2+) monitoring with high speed confocal microscopy then showed that inhibition of CaMKII with KN-93 significantly increased the population of Ca(2+) pulsars active sites (+89%), suggesting CaMKII as a major regulator of Ca(2+) pulsars in native endothelium. Mechanistic insights were then sought through the elucidation of the impact of CaMKII on ER Ca(2+) store. ER Ca(2+) emptying was accelerated by CaMKII inhibition and ER Ca(2+) content was assessed using ionomycin. Exposure to KN-93 strongly diminished ER Ca(2+) content (-61%) by relieving CaMKII-dependent inhibition of IP3 receptors (IP3R). Moreover, in situ proximity ligation assay suggested CaMKII-IP3R promiscuity, essential condition for a protein-protein interaction. Interestingly, segregation of IP3R within myoendothelial projection (MEP) appears to be isoform-specific. Hence, only IP3R type 1 and type 2 are detected within fenestrations of the internal elastic lamina, sites of MEP, whilst type 3 is absent from these structures. In summary, CaMKII seems to act as a Ca(2+)-sensitive switch of a negative feedback loop regulating endothelial Ca(2+) homeostasis, including Ca(2+) pulsars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2015.06.005DOI Listing
September 2015

Expression of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isoforms in native endothelial cells.

PLoS One 2015 13;10(4):e0123769. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Qc, Canada; Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Qc, Canada; Department of Pharmacology, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Qc, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Qc, Canada.

Phospholipase C (PLC) comprises a superfamily of enzymes that play a key role in a wide array of intracellular signalling pathways, including protein kinase C and intracellular calcium. Thirteen different mammalian PLC isoforms have been identified and classified into 6 families (PLC-β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η) based on their biochemical properties. Although the expression of PLC isoforms is tissue-specific, concomitant expression of different PLC has been reported, suggesting that PLC family is involved in multiple cellular functions. Despite their critical role, the PLC isoforms expressed in native endothelial cells (ECs) remains undetermined. A conventional PCR approach was initially used to elucidate the mRNA expression pattern of PLC isoforms in 3 distinct murine vascular beds: mesenteric (MA), pulmonary (PA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA). mRNA encoding for most PLC isoforms was detected in MA, MCA and PA with the exception of η2 and β2 (only expressed in PA), δ4 (only expressed in MCA), η1 (expressed in all but MA) and ζ (not detected in any vascular beds tested). The endothelial-specific PLC expression was then sought in freshly isolated ECs. Interestingly, the PLC expression profile appears to differ across the investigated arterial beds. While mRNA for 8 of the 13 PLC isoforms was detected in ECs from MA, two additional PLC isoforms were detected in ECs from PA and MCA. Co-expression of multiple PLC isoforms in ECs suggests an elaborate network of signalling pathways: PLC isoforms may contribute to the complexity or diversity of signalling by their selective localization in cellular microdomains. However in situ immunofluorescence revealed a homogeneous distribution for all PLC isoforms probed (β3, γ2 and δ1) in intact endothelium. Although PLC isoforms play a crucial role in endothelial signal transduction, subcellular localization alone does not appear to be sufficient to determine the role of PLC in the signalling microdomains found in the native endothelium.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123769PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4395365PMC
January 2016

8th GCC: consolidated feedback to US FDA on the 2013 draft FDA guidance on bioanalytical method validation.

Bioanalysis 2014 ;6(22):2957-63

Covance Laboratories, Chantilly, VA, USA.

The 8th GCC Closed Forum for Bioanalysis was held in Baltimore, MD, USA on 5 December 2013, immediately following the 2013 AAPS Workshop (Crystal City V): Quantitative Bioanalytical Methods Validation and Implementation--The 2013 Revised FDA Guidance. This GCC meeting was organized to discuss the contents of the draft revised FDA Guidance on bioanalytical method validation that was published in September 2013 and consolidate the feedback of the GCC members. In attendance were 63 senior-level participants, from seven countries, representing 46 bioanalytical CRO companies/sites. This event represented a unique opportunity for CRO bioanalytical experts to share their opinions and concerns regarding the draft FDA Guidance, and to build unified comments to be provided to the FDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.287DOI Listing
July 2015