Publications by authors named "Alexandra Rossano"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outbreaks of a Methicillin-Resistant Clone ST398-t011 in a Hungarian Equine Clinic: Emergence of Rifampicin and Chloramphenicol Resistance After Treatment with These Antibiotics.

Microb Drug Resist 2019 Oct 8;25(8):1219-1226. Epub 2019 May 8.

Vetsuisse Faculty, Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Between July 2011 and May 2016, a total of 40 strains originating from 36 horses were confirmed as methicillin resistant (methicillin-resistant [MRSA]) in a university equine clinic. An additional 10 MRSA strains from 36 samples of clinic workers were obtained in October 2017. The first equine isolate represented the sequence type ST398, -type t011, and SCC IV. This isolate was resistant to a wide spectrum of antimicrobial agents. MRSA strains with the same genotype and with very similar resistance profiles were isolated on 21 more occasions from September 2013 to September 2014. A second outbreak occurred from May 2015 until May 2016. The first isolate in this second outbreak shared the same genotype, but was additionally resistant to chloramphenicol. The second isolate from August 2015 also showed resistance to rifampicin. The clone was isolated 18 times. Most of the human isolates shared the same genotype as the isolates from horses and their resistance patterns showed only slight differences. We can conclude that the MRSA-related cases at the Department and Clinic of Equine Medicine were all nosocomial infections caused by the same clonal lineage belonging to the clonal complex 398. The clonal complex 398 of equine origin is reported for the first time in Hungary. In addition, our observation of the emergence of new resistance to antimicrobial agents within the clonal lineage after treatment with antibiotics is of concern. Strict hygiene regulations have been introduced to lower the incidence of MRSA isolation and the related clinical disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2018.0384DOI Listing
October 2019

Predominance of a macrolide-lincosamide-resistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae of sequence type 196 in Swiss pig herds.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Nov 11;226:97-102. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Clinic for Swine, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Worldwide emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae led us question whether specific clones are present in Switzerland. Fifty-one B. hyodysenteriae isolates originating from 27 different Swiss pig herds sampled between 2010 and 2017 were characterised. Multilocus sequence typing revealed the presence of four different sequence types (STs) ST6, ST66, ST196 and ST197 with ST196 being predominant. Antimicrobial susceptibility to six different antimicrobial agents was determined by measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration by broth dilution. Isolates were examined for the presence of point mutations and genes known to be associated with antimicrobial resistance in B. hyodysenteriae by PCR and sequence analysis. Forty-one isolates belonging to ST6 (n = 1), ST66 (n = 4) and ST196 (n = 36) exhibited decreased susceptibility to macrolides and lincomycin associated with an A2058 T/G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. One isolate of ST66 and five isolates of ST196 exhibited decreased susceptibility to doxycycline associated with a G1058C mutation in the 16S rRNA gene. The Swiss B. hyodysenteriae population is characterised by a low genetic diversity, with macrolide-lincosamide-resistant isolates of ST196 being predominant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.10.007DOI Listing
November 2018

Small colony variant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST71 presenting as a sticky phenotype.

J Clin Microbiol 2014 Apr 22;52(4):1225-7. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Clinical Microbiology and Virology, Spirito Santo Hospital, Pescara, Italy.

We first observed the phenomenon of small colony variants (SCVs) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sequence type 71 (ST71) strain, isolated from a non-pet owner. Although we found that small-sized colonies share main features with Staphylococcus aureus SCVs, they nevertheless show a novel, particular, and sticky phenotype, whose expression was extremely stable, even after subcultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02861-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3993511PMC
April 2014

First report of OXA-23-mediated carbapenem resistance in sequence type 2 multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with urinary tract infection in a cat.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 2;58(2):1267-8. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Laboratory of Antimicrobial and Biocide Resistance, CIISA, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa (FMV-UL), Lisbon, Portugal.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02527-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3910809PMC
September 2014

Novel pseudo-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (ψSCCmec57395) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius CC45.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2013 Nov 26;57(11):5509-15. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Genetic characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) from Thailand and Israel revealed the presence of a predominant atypical clonal lineage which was not typeable by SmaI-PFGE and SCCmec typing. All the atypical isolates (n = 34) belonged to CC45 (30 ST45 and 2 ST179 isolates, 1 ST57 isolate, and 1 ST85 isolate). The isolates originated from healthy and diseased dogs and cats, as well as from the environment of one clinic. Cfr9I-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (Cfr9I-PFGE) and dru typing permitted the further distinction of CC45 isolates from the two different countries. Microarray analysis identified genes that confer resistance to β-lactams (mecA; blaZ), aminoglycosides [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia; aph(3')-III; ant(6)-Ia], macrolides and lincosamides [erm(B)], tetracyclines [tet(M)], trimethoprim [dfr(G)], streptothricin (sat4), and chloramphenicol (catpC221). Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributed to specific amino acid substitutions, i.e., Ser84Leu in GyrA and Ser80Ile and Asp84Asn in GrlA. A novel pseudo-staphylococcal cassette chromosome (ΨSCCmec57395) element was identified in MRSP strain 57395 (sequence type ST45) by whole-genome sequencing. The 12,282-bp ΨSCCmec57395 element contained a class C1 mec gene complex but no ccr genes. In addition to the methicillin resistance gene mecA, ΨSCCmec57395 also carried determinants of resistance to heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, and copper. Bsu36I restriction analysis of the ΨSCCmec57395 element amplified by long-range PCR revealed the presence of ΨSCCmec57395 in the 33 additional isolates of MRSP CC45. The ΨSCCmec57395 element represents a new class of SCCmec and has been identified in MRSP of CC45, which is a predominant clonal lineage in Israel and Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00738-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3811289PMC
November 2013

Evaluation of PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry for rapid molecular diagnosis of bovine mastitis.

J Dairy Sci 2013 Jun 12;96(6):3611-20. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry. The treatment and prevention of this disease is linked heavily to the use of antibiotics in agriculture and early detection of the primary pathogen is essential to control the disease. Milk samples (n=67) from cows suffering from mastitis were analyzed for the presence of pathogens using PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and were compared with standard culture diagnostic methods. Concurrent identification of the primary mastitis pathogens was obtained for 64% of the tested milk samples, whereas divergent results were obtained for 27% of the samples. The PCR/ESI-MS failed to identify some of the primary pathogens in 18% of the samples, but identified other pathogens as well as microorganisms in samples that were negative by culture. The PCR/ESI-MS identified bacteria to the species level as well as yeasts and molds in samples that contained a mixed bacterial culture (9%). The sensitivity of the PCR/ESI-MS for the most common pathogens ranged from 57.1 to 100% and the specificity ranged from 69.8 to 100% using culture as gold standard. The PCR/ESI-MS also revealed the presence of the methicillin-resistant gene mecA in 16.2% of the milk samples, which correlated with the simultaneous detection of staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that PCR/ESI-MS, a more rapid diagnostic platform compared with bacterial culture, has the significant potential to serve as an important screening method in the diagnosis of bovine clinical mastitis and has the capacity to be used in infection control programs for both subclinical and clinical disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6124DOI Listing
June 2013

First countrywide survey of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli from broilers, swine, and cattle in Switzerland.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2012 May;73(1):31-8

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

The herd prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (3GC-R-Ec) was determined for broilers (25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.6-33.7%]), pigs (3.3% [(95% CI 0.4-11.5%]), and cattle (3.9% [95% CI 0.5-13.5%]), using a sampling strategy that was representative of the livestock population slaughtered in Switzerland between October 2010 and April 2011. The 3GC-R-Ec isolates were characterized by the measurement of the MICs of various antibiotics, microarray analyses, analytical isoelectric focusing, polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing for bla genes, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing. CMY-2 (n = 12), CTX-M-1 (n = 11), SHV-12 (n = 5), TEM-52 (n = 3), CTX-M-15 (n = 2), and CTX-M-3 (n = 1) producers were found. The majority of CMY-2 producers fell into 1 PFGE cluster, which predominantly contained ST61, whereas the CTX-M types were carried by heterogeneous clones of E. coli, as shown by the numerous PFGE profiles and STs that were found. This is the first national Swiss study that focuses on the spread of 3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae among slaughtered animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2012.01.004DOI Listing
May 2012

Evolution of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in horses and colonized personnel in an equine clinic between 2005 and 2010.

Microb Drug Resist 2011 Sep;17(3):471-8

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

A total of 70 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from postoperative infections in hospitalized horses were isolated between January 2005 and January 2011. Among them, 12 isolates were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 18 were borderline-oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA), and 40 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). During the same period, the equine clinic personnel were screened for nasal carriage of BORSA and MRSA. Genotyping revealed that BORSA ST1(MLST)-t2863(spa) isolates were responsible for most equine infections and were the main isolates found in colonized members of the personnel between 2005 and 2007, and that in 2007, MRSA ST398-t011-IVa(SCCmec) emerged in infection sites and personnel, replacing BORSA. Besides decreased susceptibility to oxacillin, all MRSA and BORSA of these two major clonal lineages displayed resistance to gentamicin and kanamycin conferred by the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia gene and to trimethoprim conferred by dfr(K) in MRSA and dfr(A) in BORSA. All MRSA had additional resistance to tetracycline conferred by tet(M), whereas BORSA generally also display resistance to streptomycin conferred by str. The number of hospital-acquired MRSA infections in horses could be limited after the introduction of basic hygiene measures and personnel decolonization. Two MRSA carriers could not be decolonized using mupirocin, and a year after decolonization, additional members were recolonized with MRSA. Hygiene measures should, therefore, be maintained to limit the transmission of S. aureus between personnel and horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2010.0188DOI Listing
September 2011

Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from pets and horses in Switzerland: molecular characterization and clinical data.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2011 Oct 6;66(10):2248-54. Epub 2011 Jul 6.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Länggass-Strasse 122, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: We investigated whether Acinetobacter baumannii isolates of veterinary origin shared common molecular characteristics with those described in humans.

Methods: Nineteen A. baumannii isolates collected in pets and horses were analysed. Clonality was studied using repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR and DNA sequencing for various β-lactamase, aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, gyrA and parC, ISAba1 and IS1133, adeR and adeS of the AdeABC efflux pump, carO porin and class 1/2/3 integron genes were performed.

Results: Two main clones [A (n = 8) and B (n = 9)] were observed by rep-PCR. MLST indicated that clone A contained isolates of sequence type (ST) ST12 (international clone II) and clone B contained isolates of ST15 (international clone I). Two isolates of ST10 and ST20 were also noted. Seventeen isolates were resistant to gentamicin, 12 to ciprofloxacin and 3 to carbapenems. Isolates of ST12 carried bla(OXA-66), bla(ADC-25), bla(TEM-1), aacC2 and IS1133. Strains of ST15 possessed bla(OXA-69), bla(ADC-11), bla(TEM-1) and a class 1 integron carrying aacC1 and aadA1. ISAba1 was found upstream of bla(ADC) (one ST10 and one ST12) and/or bla(OXA-66) (seven ST12). Twelve isolates of different STs contained the substitutions Ser83Leu in GyrA and Ser80Leu or Glu84Lys in ParC. Significant disruptions of CarO porin and overexpressed efflux pumps were not observed. The majority of infections were hospital acquired and in animals with predisposing conditions for infection.

Conclusions: STs and the molecular background of resistance observed in our collection have been frequently described in A. baumannii detected in human patients. Animals should be considered as a potential reservoir of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkr289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3172040PMC
October 2011

Bovine Bacillus anthracis in Cameroon.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2011 Aug 24;77(16):5818-21. Epub 2011 Jun 24.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, Universität Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Bovine Bacillus anthracis isolates from Cameroon were genetically characterized. They showed a strong homogeneity, and they belong, together with strains from Chad, to cluster Aβ, which appears to be predominant in western Africa. However, one strain that belongs to a newly defined clade (D) and cluster (D1) is penicillin resistant and shows certain phenotypes typical of Bacillus cereus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00074-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165263PMC
August 2011

The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the presence of an unusual sequence type ST49 in slaughter pigs in Switzerland.

BMC Vet Res 2011 Jun 24;7:30. Epub 2011 Jun 24.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggass-Strasse 122, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.

Background: In years past, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been frequently detected in pigs in Europe, North America and Asia. Recent, yet sporadic studies have revealed a low occurrence of MRSA in Switzerland. In 2009, a monitoring survey of the prevalence and genetic diversity of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in slaughter pigs in Switzerland was conducted using methods recommended by the EU guidelines, and using a sampling strategy evenly distributed throughout the year and representative of the Swiss slaughter pig population. Monitoring should determine if the overall prevalence of MRSA in the entire country is increasing over the years and if specific multi-resistant MRSA clones are spreading over the country.

Results: In 2009, the nasal cavities of eight out of 405 randomly selected pigs were positive for MRSA, representing a prevalence of 2.0% (95% CI 0.9-3.9). The following year, 23 out of 392 pigs were positive for MRSA [5.9% prevalence (95% CI 3.8-8.7)]. Three multilocus sequence types (ST), four spa types and two types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements were detected. The most frequent genotypes were ST398 (MLST)-(spa)t034-V(SCCmec) (n=18) and ST49-t208-V (n=7), followed by ST398-t011-V (n=4), ST398-t1451-V (n=1), and ST1-t2279-IVc (n=1). The isolates displayed resistance to ß-lactams [mecA, (31/31); blaZ, (19/31)]; tetracycline [tet(M), (31/31); tet(K), (30/31)] (n=31); macrolides and lincosamides [erm(C) (4/31) or erm(A) (18/31)] (n=22); tiamulin [vga(A)v (9/31) or unknown mechanism (18/31)] (n=27); trimethoprim [dfr(G) (18/31); spectinomycin [ant(9)-Ia (19/31) or unknown mechanism (3/31)] (n=22); streptomycin [str (19/31)]; sulphamethoxazole (7/31) and ciprofloxacin (n=1) (mechanisms not determined).

Conclusions: This study is the first to describe the presence of MRSA ST49 in slaughter pigs, and to demonstrate a significant and nearly three-fold increase of MRSA prevalence in pigs within two years. The presence of a specific clonal lineage of MRSA from Switzerland suggests that it has been selected in Swiss pig husbandry. Effective hygiene measures should be enhanced within the entire pig production chain to suppress the spread of these pathogens into the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-7-30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3148971PMC
June 2011

Clonal spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in Europe and North America: an international multicentre study.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2010 Jun 25;65(6):1145-54. Epub 2010 Mar 25.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and to examine the clonal distribution in Europe and North America.

Methods: A total of 103 MRSP isolates from dogs isolated from several countries in Europe, the USA and Canada were characterized. Isolates were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by broth dilution or gradient diffusion, and antimicrobial resistance genes were detected using a microarray. Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), PFGE and spa typing. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements were characterized by multiplex PCR.

Results: Thirteen different sequence types (STs), 18 PFGE types and 8 spa types were detected. The hybrid SCCmec element II-III described in a MRSP isolate was present in 75 (72.8%) isolates. The remaining isolates either had SCCmec type III (n=2), IV (n=6), V (n=14) or VII-241 (n=4) or were non-typeable (n=2). The most common genotypes were ST71(MLST)-J(PFGE)-t02(spa)-II-III(SCCmec) (56.3%) and ST68-C-t06-V (12.6%). In addition to mecA-mediated beta-lactam resistance, isolates showed resistance to trimethoprim [dfr(G)] (90.3%), gentamicin/kanamycin [aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia] (88.3%), kanamycin [aph(3')-III] (90.3%), streptomycin [ant(6')-Ia] (90.3%), streptothricin (sat4) (90.3%), macrolides and/or lincosamides [erm(B), lnu(A)] (89.3%), fluoroquinolones (87.4%), tetracycline [tet(M) and/or tet(K)] (69.9%), chloramphenicol (cat(pC221)) (57.3%) and rifampicin (1.9%).

Conclusions: Two major clonal MRSP lineages have disseminated in Europe (ST71-J-t02-II-III) and North America (ST68-C-t06-V). Regardless of their geographical or clonal origin, the isolates displayed resistance to the major classes of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and thus infections caused by MRSP isolates represent a serious therapeutic challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkq078DOI Listing
June 2010

Antibiotic resistance in Lactococcus species from bovine milk: presence of a mutated multidrug transporter mdt(A) gene in susceptible Lactococcus garvieae strains.

Vet Microbiol 2008 Oct 30;131(3-4):348-57. Epub 2008 Mar 30.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

A total of 72 Lactococcus strains (41 Lactococcus lactis and 31 Lactococcus garvieae) isolated from bovine milk were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics and screened for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes using a microarray. Resistance to tetracycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, streptomycin, nitrofurantoin were found. The tetracycline-resistant L. garvieae and L. lactis harbored tet(M) and tet(S). L. lactis that were resistant to clindamycin were also resistant to erythromycin and possessed the erm(B) gene. The multidrug transporter mdt(A), originally described in L. lactis, was detected for the first time in L. garvieae and does not confer decreased susceptibility to erythromycin nor tetracycline in this species. Mdt(A) of L. garvieae contains one mutation in each antiporter motif C, which is known to play an essential role in drug efflux antiporters. This suggests that the mutations found in the C-motifs of Mdt(A) from L. garvieae may be responsible for susceptibility. The study revealed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in non-pathogenic and pathogenic lactococci from bovine milk, including a mutated multidrug transporter in L. garvieae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.03.008DOI Listing
October 2008

Characterization of new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and topoisomerase genes in fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

J Clin Microbiol 2008 May 27;46(5):1818-23. Epub 2008 Feb 27.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Bern, Länggass-Strasse 122, Postfach, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Fluoroquinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates harbor two new staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements that belong to class A, allotype 3 (SCCmec II-III), and to the new allotype 5 (SCCmec VII). Analysis of the complete nucleotide sequences of the topoisomerase loci gyrB/gyrA and grlB/grlA revealed mutations involved in fluoroquinolone resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02255-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2395120PMC
May 2008

Small multidrug resistance plasmids in Actinobacillus porcitonsillarum.

Plasmid 2008 Mar 10;59(2):144-52. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, Postfach, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

The complete nucleotide sequences of six Actinobacillus porcitonsillarum plasmids pKMA202 (13.425-kb), pKMA1467 (11.115-kb), pKMA5 (9.549-kb), pIMD50 (8.751-kb), pKMA505 (8.632-kb) and pKMA757 (4.556-kb) and three Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae plasmids pPSAS1522 (4.244-kb), pARD3079 (3.884-kb) and pKMA2425 (3.156-kb) were determined. All the plasmids contain the sulfonamide resistance gene sul2. One A. pleuropneumoniae plasmid and five A. porcitonsillarum plasmids also have the streptomycin resistance gene strA. Among these latter five A. porcitonsillarum plasmids, four also harbor the beta-lactam resistance gene bla(ROB-1). This study is the first report of multidrug resistance plasmids in the non-pathogenic A. porcitonsillarum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plasmid.2007.11.003DOI Listing
March 2008

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Actinobacillus porcitonsillarum.

Vet Microbiol 2007 May 19;122(1-2):146-56. Epub 2007 Jan 19.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, Postfach, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

A total of 83 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and 58 Actinobacillus porcitonsillarum strains collected from slaughtered pigs in Switzerland were screened for susceptibility to 20 antimicrobial agents by MIC determinations. Resistance to sulfamethoxazole, the combination sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tiamulin, tilmicosin, tetracycline, penicillin and ampicillin were found. A few A. porcitonsillarum isolates displayed decreased susceptibility to enrofloxacin. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the sul2 gene in approximately one-fifth of the sulfonamide-resistant A. pleuropneumoniae and A. porcitonsillarum isolates. The tetracycline-resistant A. pleuropneumoniae harbored tet(B) and tet(H), whereas the tetracycline-resistant A. porcitonsillarum isolates harbored the tet(B) gene. The penicillin and ampicillin-resistant A. pleuropneumoniae and A. porcitonsillarum harbored the bla(ROB-1) gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.01.009DOI Listing
May 2007

Presence of new mecA and mph(C) variants conferring antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the skin of horses before and after clinic admission.

J Clin Microbiol 2006 Dec 27;44(12):4444-54. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, Postfach, CH-3001 Bern, Switzerland.

Because of the frequency of multiple antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus species often represent a challenge in incisional infections of horses undergoing colic surgery. To investigate the evolution of antibiotic resistance patterns before and after preventative peri- and postoperative penicillin treatment, staphylococci were isolated from skin and wound samples at different times during hospitalization. Most staphylococci were normal skin commensals and belonged to the common coagulase-negative group. In some cases they turned out to be opportunistic pathogens present in wound infections. MICs were determined for 12 antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes were detected by microarray. At hospital admission, horses harbored staphylococci that were susceptible to antibiotics or resistant to one group of drugs, mainly due to the presence of new variants of the methicillin and macrolide resistance genes mecA and mph(C), respectively. After 3 days, the percentage of Staphylococcus isolates displaying antibiotic resistance, as well as the number of resistance genes per isolate, increased moderately in hospitalized horses without surgery or penicillin treatment but dramatically in hospitalized horses after colic surgery as well as penicillin treatment. Staphylococcus species displaying multiple resistance were found to harbor mainly genes conferring resistance to beta-lactams (mecA and blaZ), aminoglycosides [str and aac(6')-Ie-aph(2')-Ia], and trimethoprim [dfr(A) and dfr(D)]. Additional genes conferring resistance to macrolides [mph(C), erm(C), and erm(B)], tetracycline [tet(K) and tet(M)], chloramphenicol [cat(pC221) and cat(pC223)], and streptothricin (sat4) appeared in several strains. Hospitalization and preventive penicillin use were shown to act as selection agents for multidrug-resistant commensal staphylococcal flora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00868-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1698435PMC
December 2006

Antibiotic susceptibility and molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis strains in Chad: detection of a new phylogenetic subgroup.

J Clin Microbiol 2006 Sep;44(9):3422-5

Laboratoire de Recherches Vétérinaires et Zootechniques, BP433 Farcha, N'Djaména, Chad.

We genotyped 15 Bacillus anthracis isolates from Chad, Africa, using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and three additional direct-repeat markers. We identified two unique genotypes that represent a novel genetic lineage in the A cluster. Chadian isolates were susceptible to 11 antibiotics and free of 94 antibiotic resistance genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01269-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1594716PMC
September 2006