Publications by authors named "Alexandra Richard-Mazet"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gamithromycin in swine: Pharmacokinetics and clinical evaluation against swine respiratory disease.

Vet Med Sci 2021 03 15;7(2):455-464. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Rohrdorf, Germany.

The pharmacokinetics of gamithromycin were evaluated in 26 male castrated and female crossbred swine administered gamithromycin 15% w/v (Zactran®, Boehringer Ingelheim) intravenously at 6 mg/kg bodyweight or intramuscularly at 3, 6 or 12 mg/kg bodyweight. Blood samples were collected up to Day 10 to establish the plasma profile of gamithromycin, bioavailability and dose proportionality. When administered by intramuscular injection at 6 mg/kg BWT, pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: area under the curve until last quantifiable plasma concentration, 5.13 ± 0.957 µg*hours/ml; maximum plasma concentration, 960 ± 153 ng/ml at 5 to 15 min; terminal half-life of 94.1 ± 20.4 hr. Absolute bioavailability was 92.2%. Increase in systemic exposure was proportional to the gamithromycin dose level over the range 3-12 mg/kg BWT. No gender-related statistically significant difference in exposure was observed. For clinical evaluation of Zactran® against swine respiratory disease, 305 pigs from six commercial farms in three countries in Europe with signs associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and/or Haemophilus parasuis and/or Pasteurella multocida and/or Bordetella bronchiseptica were used. At each site, animals were treated once in a 1:1 ratio with a single intramuscular dose of Zactran® (6 mg gamithromycin/kg bodyweight) or Zuprevo® (4% w/v tildipirosin at 4 mg/kg bodyweight; MSD Animal Health) at the recommended dose respectively. Animals were observed and scored daily for 10 consecutive days for signs of swine respiratory disease (depression, respiration and rectal temperature), and animals presenting signs of clinical swine respiratory disease (Depression Score 3 and/or Respiratory Score 3 associated with Rectal Temperature > 40.0°C) were removed from the study and considered as treatment failure. Animals which remained in the study were individually assessed for 'treatment success' or 'treatment failure' (Depression Score ≥ 1 and Rectal Temperature > 40.0°C or Respiratory Score ≥ 1 and Rectal Temperature > 40.0°C). Using a non-inferiority hypothesis test (non-inferiority margin = 0.10), the proportion of treatment successes in the Zactran® group (97%) was equivalent to or better than that in the Zuprevo® group (93%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025653PMC
March 2021

Bordetella bronchiseptica experimental model development in pigs and efficacy evaluation of a single intramuscular injection of gamithromycin (Zactran® for Swine) against Bordetella bronchiseptica-associated respiratory disease in experimentally infected piglets.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2020 Mar 24;43(2):197-207. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Merial SAS, Lyon, France.

In the Bordetella bronchiseptica infection model development study, twenty-eight piglets were inoculated with B. bronchiseptica strain of either canine (10  CFU/ml) or swine (10 and 10  CFU/ml) origin; swine origin strain at 10  CFU/ml was chosen for the efficacy assessment study due to higher incidence and severity of gross and histopathological lesions compared with other strains. To assess efficacy of gamithromycin against B. bronchiseptica, forty piglets were experimentally inoculated on Day 0 and clinical signs were scored as per severity. Animals were then treated either with gamithromycin or saline on Day 3. The Global Clinical Scores in gamithromycin-treated group were consistently lower than the saline-treated control group from Day 4 onwards and were 0 and 40 in the gamithromycin-treated and saline-treated control groups, respectively, on Day 6. Severity and frequency of gross and histopathological observations were significantly lower in gamithromycin-treated animals compared with saline-treated controls. The efficacy of Zactran® for Swine at the label dose for the treatment of B. bronchiseptica-associated respiratory disease was demonstrated based on the faster reduction in clinical signs as early as 1 day post-gamithromycin treatment and based on the significant difference in the severity of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions 10 days post-gamithromycin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12834DOI Listing
March 2020

Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Europe.

Vet Microbiol 2017 May 14;204:188-193. Epub 2017 Apr 14.

Animal and Plant Health Laboratory (Weybridge), Addlestone, Surrey, UK.

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pigs and Mycoplasma bovis in cattle are major pathogens affecting livestock across Europe and are the focus of the MycoPath pan-European antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring programme. Fifty M. hyopneumoniae isolates from Belgium, Spain and the United Kingdom (UK), and 156 M. bovis isolates from France, Hungary, Spain and the UK that met specific criteria were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in a central laboratory by using a microbroth dilution method. Specific isolate criteria included recovery from animals not recently treated with antimicrobials, isolates from different locations within each country and retaining only one isolate per farm. MICMIC values were 0.031/0.5, 0.031/0.5, 0.062/0.25, ≤0.001/0.004, 0.031/0.125, 0.25/0.5 and 0.062/0.25mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, spiramycin, tulathromycin, tylosin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline respectively against M. hyopneumoniae and 0.25/4, 1/4, 4/16, >64/ >64, 32/ >64, 2/4 and 4/64mg/L, respectively against M. bovis. MIC/MIC values for tiamulin and valnemulin against M. hyopneumoniae were 0.016/0.062 and ≤0.001/ ≤0.001mg/L respectively. The MIC/MIC values of danofloxacin and gamithromycin for M. bovis were 0.25/1 and >64/ >64mg/L respectively. The highest MIC values for M. hyopneumoniae were found in the UK at 1.0mg/L for enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and florfenicol. In contrast, for M. bovis the lowest MIC value was 1.0mg/L, but ranged to >64mg/L. Specific laboratory standards and clinical breakpoints for veterinary Mycoplasma species are required as no independently validated clinical breakpoints are specified for veterinary Mycoplasma species, which makes data interpretation and correlation to in vivo efficacy difficult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2017.04.012DOI Listing
May 2017

Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

Vet Microbiol 2016 Oct 14;194:11-22. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

LGC, Fordham, UK,. Electronic address:

VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.009DOI Listing
October 2016

Immunogenicity and efficacy of fowlpox-vectored and inactivated avian influenza vaccines alone or in a prime-boost schedule in chickens with maternal antibodies.

Vet Res 2014 Oct 30;45:107. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Merial S.A.S., R&D, 254 rue M. Mérieux, 69007, Lyon, France.

Inactivated and fowlpox virus (FP)-vectored vaccines have been used to control H5 avian influenza (AI) in poultry. In H5 AI endemic countries, breeder flocks are vaccinated and therefore, maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) are transferred to their progeny. Results of three immunogenicity and one efficacy studies performed in birds with or without MDA indicated that the immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine based on a H5N9 AI isolate (inH5N9) was severely impaired in chicks hatched from inH5N9-vaccinated breeders. This MDA interference was lower when breeders received only one administration of the same vaccine and could be overcome by priming the chicks at day-of-age with a live recombinant FP-vectored vaccine with H5 avian influenza gene insert (FP-AI). The interference of anti-FP MDA was of lower intensity than the interference of anti-AI MDA. The highest interference observed on the prime-boost immunogenicity was in chicks hatched from breeders vaccinated with the same prime-boost scheme. The level of protection against an antigenic variant H5N1 highly pathogenic AI isolate from Indonesia against which the FP-AI or inH5N9 alone was poorly protective could be circumvented by the prime-boost regimen in birds with either FP or AI MDA. Thus, the immunogenicity of vaccines in young chicks with MDA depends on the vaccination scheme and the type of vaccine used in their parent flocks. The heterologous prime-boost in birds with MDA may at least partially overcome MDA interference on inactivated vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-014-0107-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4258031PMC
October 2014

Immunogenicity of poxvirus vector avian influenza vaccines in Muscovy and Pekin ducks.

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):232-8

Merial S.A.S., R&D, 69007 Lyon, France.

Fowlpox (FP)-vectored avian influenza (FP-AI) vaccines are used in 1-day-old chickens, but they have also recently been shown to be immunogenic in ducks. The objectives of this work were 1) to evaluate safety and to compare the immunogenicity in ducks of three poxvirus vectors (fowlpox, canarypox, and vaccinia) expressing the same hemagglutinin gene from an H5N1 isolate, 2) to study the effect of the dose of the FP-AI and the presence of an adjuvant in 1-day-old Pekin ducks on antibody response after a boost with inactivated vaccine given 3 wk later, and 3) to confirm the immunogenicity of such a heterologous prime-boost vaccination scheme in 1-day-old Muscovy ducks. Immunogenicity induced by the three poxvirus vectors was comparable, and the FP vector was selected for the other studies. As published previously, there was a strong dose effect of the FP-AI priming on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers induced after the boost with an inactivated vaccine. In contrast, the two tested adjuvants did not significantly increase the activity of FP-AI priming. The heterologous prime-boost regimen given to both Muscovy and Pekin ducklings at 1 and 14 or 21 days of age, respectively, was shown to be at least as immunogenic as two administrations of inactivated vaccines given at 2 and 5 wk of age. However, HI antibody titers were of short duration for both vaccine schemes, and their persistence was heterogeneous among individual birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8795-040109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010
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