Publications by authors named "Alexandra Lerchner"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PASylation of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) retains IL-1 blockade and extends its duration in mouse urate crystal-induced peritonitis.

J Biol Chem 2020 01 9;295(3):868-882. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado 80045.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key mediator of inflammation and immunity. Naturally-occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds and blocks the IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1), preventing signaling. Anakinra, a recombinant form of IL-1Ra, is used to treat a spectrum of inflammatory diseases. However, anakinra is rapidly cleared from the body and requires daily administration. To create a longer-lasting alternative, PASylated IL-1Ra (PAS-IL-1Ra) has been generated by in-frame fusion of a long, defined-length, N-terminal Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) random-coil polypeptide with IL-1Ra. Here, we compared the efficacy of two PAS-IL-1Ra molecules, PAS600-IL-1Ra and PAS800-IL-1Ra (carrying 600 and 800 PAS residues, respectively), with that of anakinra in mice. PAS600-IL-1Ra displayed markedly extended blood plasma levels 3 days post-administration, whereas anakinra was undetectable after 24 h. We also studied PAS600-IL-1Ra and PAS800-IL-1Ra for efficacy in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced peritonitis. 5 days post-administration, PAS800-IL-1Ra significantly reduced leukocyte influx and inflammatory markers in MSU-induced peritonitis, whereas equimolar anakinra administered 24 h before MSU challenge was ineffective. The 6-h pretreatment with equimolar anakinra or PAS800-IL-1Ra before MSU challenge similarly reduced inflammatory markers. In cultured A549 lung carcinoma cells, anakinra, PAS600-IL-1Ra, and PAS800-IL-Ra reduced IL-1α-induced IL-6 and IL-8 levels with comparable potency. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, these molecules suppressed -induced production of the cancer-promoting cytokine IL-22. Surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed significant binding between PAS-IL-1Ra and IL-1R1, although with a slightly lower affinity than anakinra. These results validate PAS-IL-1Ra as an active IL-1 antagonist with marked potency and a significantly extended half-life compared with anakinra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.010340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970921PMC
January 2020

Engineering of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis for novel cofactor specificity.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2016 Sep 11;63(5):616-624. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Munich Center for integrated Protein Science (CiPSM) and Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

The l-alanine dehydrogenase of Bacillus subtilis (BasAlaDH), which is strictly dependent on NADH as redox cofactor, efficiently catalyzes the reductive amination of pyruvate to l-alanine using ammonia as amino group donor. To enable application of BasAlaDH as regenerating enzyme in coupled reactions with NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, we alterated its cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH via protein engineering. By introducing two amino acid exchanges, D196A and L197R, high catalytic efficiency for NADPH was achieved, with k /K  = 54.1 µM  Min (K  = 32 ± 3 µM; k  = 1,730 ± 39 Min ), almost the same as the wild-type enzyme for NADH (k /K  = 59.9 µM  Min ; K  = 14 ± 2 µM; k  = 838 ± 21 Min ). Conversely, recognition of NADH was much diminished in the mutated enzyme (k /K  = 3 µM  Min ). BasAlaDH(D196A/L197R) was applied in a coupled oxidation/transamination reaction of the chiral dicyclic dialcohol isosorbide to its diamines, catalyzed by Ralstonia sp. alcohol dehydrogenase and Paracoccus denitrificans ω-aminotransferase, thus allowing recycling of the two cosubstrates NADP and l-Ala. An excellent cofactor regeneration with recycling factors of 33 for NADP and 13 for l-Ala was observed with the engineered BasAlaDH in a small-scale biocatalysis experiment. This opens a biocatalytic route to novel building blocks for industrial high-performance polymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1414DOI Listing
September 2016

Fusion of an alcohol dehydrogenase with an aminotransferase using a PAS linker to improve coupled enzymatic alcohol-to-amine conversion.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2016 Dec 29;29(12):557-562. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Munich Center for integrated Protein Science (CiPSM) and Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Emil-Erlenmeyer-Forum 5, 85354 Freising, Germany

To facilitate biocatalytic conversion of the biotechnologically accessible dicyclic dialcohol isosorbide into its industrially relevant diamines, we have designed a fusion protein between two homo-oligomeric enzymes: the levodione reductase (LR) from Leifsonia aquatica and the variant L417M of the ω-aminotransferase from Paracoccus denitrificans (PDωAT(L417M)), mutually connected by a short Pro/Ala/Ser linker sequence. The hybrid protein was produced in Escherichia coli in correctly folded state, comprising a tetrameric LR moiety and presumably two dimers of PDωAT(L417M), as proven by SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography. The bifunctional enzyme revealed beneficial kinetics over the two-component system, in particular at low substrate concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzw039DOI Listing
December 2016

Crystallographic analysis and structure-guided engineering of NADPH-dependent Ralstonia sp. alcohol dehydrogenase toward NADH cosubstrate specificity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2013 Nov 1;110(11):2803-14. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science, CIPS-M, and Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, 85350, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

The NADP⁺-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Ralstonia sp. (RasADH) belongs to the protein superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). As an enzyme that accepts different types of substrates--including bulky-bulky as well as small-bulky secondary alcohols or ketones--with high stereoselectivity, it offers potential as a biocatalyst for industrial biotechnology. To understand substrate and cosubstrate specificities of RasADH we determined the crystal structure of the apo-enzyme as well as its NADP⁺-bound state with resolutions down to 2.8 Å. RasADH displays a homotetrameric quaternary structure that can be described as a dimer of homodimers while in each subunit a seven-stranded parallel β-sheet, flanked by three α-helices on each side, forms a Rossmann fold-type dinucleotide binding domain. Docking of the well-known substrate (S)-1-phenylethanol clearly revealed the structural determinants of stereospecificity. To favor practical RasADH application in the context of established cofactor recycling systems, for example, those involving an NADH-dependent amino acid dehydrogenase, we attempted to rationally change its cosubstrate specificity from NADP⁺ to NAD⁺ utilizing the structural information that NADP⁺ specificity is largely governed by the residues Asn15, Gly37, Arg38, and Arg39. Furthermore, an extensive sequence alignment with homologous dehydrogenases that have different cosubstrate specificities revealed a modified general SDR motif ASNG (instead of NNAG) at positions 86-89 of RasADH. Consequently, we constructed mutant enzymes with one (G37D), four (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S), and six (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S/A86N/S88A) amino acid exchanges. RasADH (N15G/G37D/R38V/R39S) was better able to accept NAD⁺ while showing much reduced catalytic efficiency with NADP⁺, leading to a change in NADH/NADPH specificity by a factor of ∼3.6 million.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.24956DOI Listing
November 2013

Crystal structure of the ω-aminotransferase from Paracoccus denitrificans and its phylogenetic relationship with other class III aminotransferases that have biotechnological potential.

Proteins 2013 May 15;81(5):774-87. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Munich Center for integrated Protein Science (CiPSM) and Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

Apart from their crucial role in metabolism, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases (ATs) constitute a class of enzymes with increasing application in industrial biotechnology. To provide better insight into the structure-function relationships of ATs with biotechnological potential we performed a fundamental bioinformatics analysis of 330 representative sequences of pro- and eukaryotic Class III ATs using a structure-guided approach. The calculated phylogenetic maximum likelihood tree revealed six distinct clades of which the first segregates with a very high bootstrap value of 92%. Most enzymes in this first clade have been functionally well characterized, whereas knowledge about the natural functions and substrates of enzymes in the other branches is sparse. Notably, in those clades 2-6 members of the peculiar class of ω-ATs prevail, many of which have proven useful for the preparation of chiral amines or artificial amino acids. One representative is the ω-AT from Paracoccus denitrificans (PD ω-AT) which catalyzes, for example, the transamination in a novel biocatalytic process for the production of L-homoalanine from L-threonine. To gain structural insight into this important enzyme, its X-ray analysis was carried out at a resolution of 2.6 Å, including the covalently bound PLP as well as 5-aminopentanoate as a putative amino donor substrate. On the basis of this crystal structure in conjunction with our phylogenetic analysis, we have identified a generic set of active site residues of ω-ATs that are associated with a strong preference for aromatic substrates, thus guiding the discovery of novel promising enzymes for the biotechnological production of corresponding chiral amines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.24233DOI Listing
May 2013

Probing conserved amino acids in phospholipase D (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) for their importance in hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation activity.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2006 Oct 14;19(10):443-52. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology Kurt-Mothes-Strasse 3, Halle, Germany.

In addition to hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids, phospholipases D (PLDs) catalyze the head group exchange. The molecular basis of this transphosphatidylation potential, which strongly varies for PLDs from different sources, is unknown hitherto. Recently, the genes of two PLD isoenzymes from white cabbage have been sequenced and expressed in Escherchia coli, yielding the basis for mutational studies. In the present paper, three sequence characteristics of the isoenzyme (PLD2) that corresponds to the often used enzyme isolated from cabbage leaves have been probed for their importance in hydrolysis as well as transphosphatidylation activities: (i) the two HKD motifs, (ii) the C terminus and (iii) the eight cysteine residues. All these regions or amino acids are highly conserved in alpha-type plant PLDs. Based on multiple alignments, predictions of secondary structure and comparisons of hydrophobicity profiles, 35 enzyme variants were created and assayed. All positions tested proved to be very sensitive towards amino acid exchanges with respect to hydrolytic activity in the absence of glycerol as well as to the ratio of hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activities in the presence of glycerol. A significant increase of total activity and transphosphatidylation activity could be obtained by the substitutions C310S and C625S.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzl028DOI Listing
October 2006

Two highly homologous phospholipase D isoenzymes from Papaver somniferum L. with different transphosphatidylation potential.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2005 Dec 7;1737(2-3):94-101. Epub 2005 Oct 7.

Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, Kurt Mothes Str. 3, D-06120 Halle, Germany.

The genes of two phospholipase D (PLD) isoenzymes, PLD1 and PLD2, from poppy seedlings (2829 and 2828 bp) were completely sequenced. The two genes have 96.9% identity in the encoding region and can be assigned to the alpha-type of plant PLDs. The corresponding amino acid sequences do not contain any signal sequences. One Asn-glycosylation site, six and two phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase, respectively, and two phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding motifs could be identified. Like in most plant PLDs, two HKD motifs and one C2 domain are present. PLD1 and PLD2 have ten and nine cysteine residues. The two enzymes were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity by Ca2+ ion-mediated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The Ca2+ ion concentration needed for carrier binding of the two enzymes in chromatography as well as for optimum activity was found to be considerably higher (>100 mM) than with other alpha-type plant PLDs. Although PLD1 and PLD2 differ in eleven amino acids only, they showed remarkable differences in their transphosphatidylation activity. Two amino acid exchanges within and near the first HKD motif contribute to this difference as shown by the A349E/E352Q-variant of PLD2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2005.09.010DOI Listing
December 2005

Phospholipase D and its application in biocatalysis.

Biotechnol Lett 2005 Apr;27(8):535-44

Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, D-06120, Halle, Germany.

Phospholipase D (PLD) from plants or microorganisms is used as biocatalyst in the transformation of phospholipids and phospholipid analogs in both laboratory and industrial scale. In recent years the elucidation of the primary structure of many PLDs from several sources, as well as the resolution of the first crystal structure of a microbial PLD, have yielded new insights into the structural basis and the catalytic mechanism of this catalyst. This review summarizes some new results of PLD research in the light of application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-005-3251-2DOI Listing
April 2005
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