Publications by authors named "Alexandra Laberko"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

International retrospective study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for activated PI3K-delta syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta syndrome (APDS) is a combined immunodeficiency with a heterogeneous phenotype considered reversible by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).

Objective: We sought to characterize HCT outcomes in APDS.

Methods: Retrospective data was collected on 57 APDS1/2 patients (median age 13 years, range 2-66) who underwent HCT.

Results: Pre-HCT comorbidities such as lung, gastrointestinal, and liver pathology were common, with hematologic malignancy in 26%. With 2.3 years median follow-up, 2-year overall and graft failure-free survival probabilities were 86% and 68%, respectively, and did not differ significantly by APDS1 vs 2, donor type, or conditioning intensity. The 2-year cumulative incidence of graft failure following first HCT was 17% overall but 42% if mTOR inhibitors (mTORi) were used in the first year post-HCT, compared to 9% without mTORi. Similarly, 2-year cumulative incidence of unplanned donor cell infusion was overall 28%, but 65% in the context of mTORi receipt and 23% without. Phenotype reversal occurred in 96% of evaluable patients, of whom 17% had mixed chimerism. Vulnerability to renal complications continued post-HCT, adding new insights into potential non-immunologic roles of PI3K not correctable through HCT.

Conclusions: Graft failure, graft instability and poor graft function requiring unplanned donor cell infusion were major barriers to successful HCT. Post-HCT mTORi use may confer an advantage to residual host cells, promoting graft instability. Longer term post-HCT follow-up of more patients is needed to elucidate the kinetics of immune reconstitution and donor chimerism, establish approaches that reduce graft instability, and assess the completeness of phenotype reversal over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.036DOI Listing
May 2021

HSCT is effective in patients with PSTPIP1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory (PAMI) syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Immunology, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Research Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1-associated myeloid-related proteinemia inflammatory (PAMI) syndrome is a novel genetic disorder, causing hypercalprotectinemia and hyperzincemia with inflammatory complications accompanied by cytopenia. Immunosuppressive and/or anticytokine therapy is of limited effect.

Objectives: Because of cytokine production in nonhematopoietic tissues, the potential therapeutic effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in autoinflammatory disorders, including PAMI syndrome, has remained uncertain.

Methods: Five patients with PAMI syndrome underwent allogeneic HSCT with myeloablative (4) or reduced-intensity (1) conditioning regimens. Lack of PAMI disease control served as indication for the HSCT in 4 patients and myelodysplastic syndrome development in 1.

Results: All 5 patients engrafted; however, 1 patient at day +13 developed hemophagocytic syndrome, followed by graft rejection at day +17. After 5.5 months, a second HSCT was performed from an alternative donor. A further patient at day +116 developed an intense inflammatory syndrome with significant serositis and severe mitral and aortic valve regurgitation, controlled with adalimumab, tacrolimus, and prednisone. No other noninfectious inflammatory episodes, or acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease, occurred in any patient. At the last follow-up (median, 2.2 years), all 5 patients have predominantly or complete donor chimerism and adequate immune recovery and are free of any PAMI symptoms.

Conclusions: Allogeneic HSCT seems to be an effective option to cure cytopenia and severe autoinflammation in PAMI syndrome and may be a curative option for other proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1-associated inflammatory disorders with poor therapeutic control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.11.043DOI Listing
December 2020

Treosulfan-Based Conditioning Regimen in Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with TCRαβ/CD19 Depletion in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 30;40(6):861-871. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Samory Mashela str, Moscow, Russia, 117997.

Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a DNA repair disorder characterized by combined immunodeficiency and a high predisposition to malignancies. HSCT appears to cure immunodeficiency, but remains challenging due to limited experience in long-term risks of transplant-associated toxicity and malignancies. Twenty NBS patients received 22 allogeneic HSCTs with TCRαβ/CD19+ graft depletion with fludarabine 150 mg/m, cyclophosphamide 20-40 mg/kg and thymoglobulin 5 mg/kg based conditioning regimens (CRs). Twelve patients additionally received low-dose busulfan 4 mg/kg (Bu group) and 10 patients (including 2 recipients of a second HSCT) treosulfan (Treo group) 30 g/m. Overall and event-free survival were 0.75 vs 1 (p = 0.16) and 0.47 vs 0.89 (p = 0.1) in the Bu and Treo groups, respectively. In the Bu group, four patients developed graft rejection, and three died: two died of de novo and relapsed lymphomas and one died of adenoviral hepatitis. The four living patients exhibited split chimerism with predominantly recipient myeloid cells and predominantly donor T and B lymphocytes. In Treo group, one patient developed rhabdomyosarcoma. There was no difference in the incidence of GVHD, viral reactivation, or early toxicity between either group. Low-dose Bu-containing CR in NBS leads to increased graft failure and low donor myeloid chimerism. Treo-CR followed by TCRαβ/CD19-depleted HSCT demonstrates a low level of early transplant-associated toxicity and enhanced graft function with stable donor chimerism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00811-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Serious Hemorrhagic Complications After Successful Treatment of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy With Defibrotide in Pediatric Patient With Myelodysplastic Syndrome.

Front Pediatr 2020 5;8:155. Epub 2020 May 5.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TAM) is a life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). There is some evidence of endothelial injury playing a significant role in TAM development. The efficacy of defibrotide was demonstrated for prophylaxis and treatment of another HSCT-associated endothelial damage syndrome-liver veno-occlusive disease. The data for defibrotide usage in TAM are limited. A 9-year old boy underwent HSCT from a matched unrelated donor for monosomy seven-associated myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. A myeloablative preparative regimen and post-transplant immunosuppression with cyclophosphamide on days +3 and +4 and a combination of tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil from day +5 were used. From day +61, sustained fever with progressive neurologic impairment and no evidence of infection was observed. On day +68, the patient developed severe TAM with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Defibrotide therapy 25 mg/kg/day was administered for 7 days with resolution of TAM symptoms. It was followed by multiple hemorrhagic episodes-epistaxis, hemorrhagic cystitis, and renal hemorrhage, which are presumed to be the complications of defibrotide therapy. Defibrotide could be an effective therapy for TAM, but adequate doses, duration of therapy, and drug safety profile both for pediatric and adult patients need to be evaluated by randomized prospective studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214790PMC
May 2020

BCG-Related Inflammatory Syndromes in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency After TCRαβ+/CD19+ Depleted HSCT.

J Clin Immunol 2020 05 6;40(4):625-636. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Immunology, Dmitry Rogachev National Medical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, 1, Samory Mashela str., Moscow, Russia, 117997.

Introduction: The live-attenuated BCG vaccine is known to cause disseminated Mycobacterium bovis infection in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, BCG-related post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes, similar to those described in patients with HIV infections, are less-known complications of SCID.

Patients And Methods: We reported on 22 BCG-vaccinated SCID patients who had received conditioned allogeneic HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ graft depletion. All BCG-vaccinated patients received anti-mycobacterial therapy pre- and post-HSCT. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus in 10 patients and of 8 mg/kg tocilizumab (d-1, + 14, + 28) and 10 mg/kg abatacept (d-1, + 5, + 14, + 28) in 11 patients.

Results: Twelve patients, five of whom had BCG infection prior to HSCT, developed BCG-related inflammatory syndromes (BCG-IS). Five developed early BCG-IS with the median time of manifestation 11 days after HSCT, corresponding with a dramatic increase of CD3+TCRγδ+ in at least two patients. Early BCG-IS was noted in only one out of 11 patients who received tocilizumab/abatacept and 4 out of 11 patients who did not. Seven patients developed late BCG-IS which corresponded to T cell immune recovery; at the time of manifestation (median 4.2 months after HSCT), the median number of CD3+ cells was 0.42 × 10/ and CD3+CD4+ cells 0.27 × 10/l. In all patients, late BCG-IS was controlled with IL-1 or IL-6 inhibitors.

Conclusion: BCG-vaccinated SCID patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ graft depletion are at an increased risk of early and late BCG-IS. Anti-inflammatory therapy with IL-1 and IL-6 blockade is efficient in the prevention of early and treatment of late BCG-IS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00774-xDOI Listing
May 2020

Mismatched related vs matched unrelated donors in TCRαβ/CD19-depleted HSCT for primary immunodeficiencies.

Blood 2019 11;134(20):1755-1763

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

TCRαβ+/CD19+ graft depletion effectively prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the current study, we compared the outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with TCRαβ+/CD19+ depletion from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) and mismatched related donors (MMRDs) in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). A total of 98 pediatric patients with various PIDs underwent HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ graft depletion from MUDs (n = 75) and MMRDs (n = 23). All patients received a fludarabine-/treosulfan-based conditioning regimen, with 73 also receiving a second alkylating agent. For GVHD prophylaxis, all but 2 received serotherapy (antithymocyte globulin) before HSCT and a short course of posttransplant immunosuppression. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment in both the MUD and MMRD groups occurred on days 14 and 13, respectively. The incidence of secondary graft failure was 0.16 and 0.17 (P = .85), respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grade 2 to 4 was 0.17 in the MUD group and 0.22 in the MMRD group (P = .7). The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia was 0.5 in the MUD group and 0.6 in the MMRD group (P = .35). The frequency of CMV disease was high (17%), and the most common manifestation was retinitis. The kinetics of immune recovery was similar in both groups. The overall survival was 0.86 in the MUD group and 0.87 in the MMRD group (P = .95). In our experience, there was no difference in the outcomes of HSCT performed from MUD and MMRD. Hence, given the immediate availability of donors, in the absence of HLA-identical siblings, HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ graft depletion from MMRDs can be considered as the first choice in patients with PID.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856988PMC
November 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with type 1 mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 05 3;14(1):97. Epub 2019 May 3.

Dmitriy Rogachev National Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Department of Immunology, 1, Samory Mashela str, 117997, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder that leads to aneuploidies of different chromosomes in various tissues. Type 1 MVA (MVA1) is caused by mutations in the budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (BUB1B) gene. The main clinical features of MVA1 syndrome are growth and mental retardation, central nervous system anomalies, microcephaly, and predisposition to cancers. There have been no reports of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MVA patients.

Results: We report an 11-year old boy diagnosed with MVA1 syndrome. The BUB1B gene mutations c.498_505delAAACTTTA and c.1288 + 5G > A were detected using the next generation sequencing (NGS) method. The patient presented with cytopenia soon after birth, but remained stable until 9 years of age, when he developed myelodysplastic syndrome associated with monosomy of chromosome 7. Due to severe dependence on blood transfusions, a TCRαβ+/CD19+ depleted HSCT was performed from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) using a treosulfan-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. The engraftment occurred, and no severe toxicity was observed soon after the HSCT, but on day + 47, graft rejection was detected. It was followed by prolonged pancytopenia and sepsis with multi-organ Enterococcus faecium infection, which led to the patient's death on day + 156 after HSCT.

Conclusions: In conclusion, we demonstrate that RIC HSCT with TCRαβ+/CD19+ depletion was well tolerated and resulted in complete hematologic recovery in our MVA1 patient, but, unfortunately, it was followed by rapid graft rejection. This fact needs to be taken into consideration for HSCT in other MVA patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1073-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6500003PMC
May 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CD40 ligand deficiency: Results from an EBMT/ESID-IEWP-SCETIDE-PIDTC study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 06 17;143(6):2238-2253. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Objective: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure.

Results: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%.

Conclusion: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.12.1010DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical considerations in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant management of primary immunodeficiencies.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 04 11;14(4):297-306. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

b Primary Immunodeficiency Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine , Newcastle University , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK.

Introduction: Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic immune disorders causing increased predisposition to infections and autoimmunity. The only curative procedure is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), results from which have improved dramatically since 2000. Complications remain a serious issue, especially in HLA non-identical transplantation. In PID patients, persistent infection and autoimmunity with end-organ damage cause particular problems with approach to transplantation. This article examines these, emphasising approach to management and consequences. Areas covered: It is challenging to know which patients should be offered HSCT. As new diseases are discovered, data are required to determine natural history, and HSCT outcomes. Treatment of adults can be challenging, although HSCT outcomes are encouraging. New methods of T-lymphocyte depletion show results comparable to those of matched sibling donor transplants. New cellular therapies to treat viral infections show promising results, and immunomodulatory methods are successful in treating acute graft-versus-host disease. Expert commentary: New T-lymphocyte depletion methods are a paradigm shift in approach to HSCT for PID. In combination with new cellular approaches to treating viral infection, immunomodulatory approaches to acute graft-versus-host disease and better understanding of endothelial activation syndromes, survival approaches 90%. Widespread introduction of newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiencies will improve survival further.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2018.1459189DOI Listing
April 2018

A Conditioning Regimen with Plerixafor Is Safe and Improves the Outcome of TCRαβ and CD19 Cell-Depleted Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 14;24(7):1432-1440. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev National Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Our initial experience with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 12) or a haploidentical related donor (n = 6) with T cell receptor (TCR)αβ/CD19 graft depletion in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 18) showed a dramatic decrease in the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplantation-related mortality, with an increased overall survival (OS) of 88.9%. Unfortunately, the treatment was associated with mixed myeloid donor chimerism and secondary graft dysfunction (severe thrombocytopenia, n = 2; graft rejection, n = 5). To improve the outcome, we hypothesized that the addition of G-CSF and plerixafor to the conditioning chemotherapy would result in more complete donor stem cell engraftment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03019809). A study group of patients with WAS (n = 16) underwent TCRαβ/CD19-depleted HSCT (MUD, n = 6; haploidentical, n = 10). The conditioning regimen was treosulfan-fludarabine-rabbit antithymocyte globulin-melphalan (or thiophosphamide in 1 patient) with G-CSF (10 µg/kg/day for 5 days starting on day -8) and plerixafor (240 µg/kg/day for 3 days starting on day -6). The clinical outcomes in this study were compared to those in a historical dataset (n = 18). No patients had grade III/IV acute GVHD in either the study or the historical control group. Importantly, in the patients with WAS, there was no statistical significance in OS between those who underwent HSCT from haploidentical donors and those who underwent HSCT from MUDs (93.8% versus 88.5%; P = .612). All patients in the study group had full donor chimerism in whole blood and in the CD3 compartments. The OS was 93.8%, and there were no cases of graft dysfunction. This study demonstrates the efficacy of adding G-CSF/plerixafor to the conditioning regimen before HSCT with TCRαβ/C D19 graft depletion in patients with WAS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.03.006DOI Listing
July 2018

Prospective Study of a Cohort of Russian Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Patients Demonstrating Predictive Value of Low Kappa-Deleting Recombination Excision Circle (KREC) Numbers and Beneficial Effect of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT).

Front Immunol 2017 24;8:807. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Dmitry Rogachev National Research and Clinical Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a combined primary immunodeficiency with DNA repair defect, microcephaly, and other phenotypical features. It predominantly occurs in Slavic populations that have a high frequency of carriers with the causative NBN gene c.657_661del5 mutation. Due to the rarity of the disease in the rest of the world, studies of NBS patients are few. Here, we report a prospective study of a cohort of Russian NBS patients.

Methods: 35 Russian NBS patients of ages 1-19 years, referred to our Center between years 2012 and 2016, were prospectively studied.

Results: Despite the fact that in 80% of the patients microcephaly was diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter, the average delay of NBS diagnosis was 6.5 years. Though 80% of the patients had laboratory signs of immunodeficiency, only 51% of the patients experienced significant infections. Autoimmune complications including interstitial lymphocytic lung disease and skin granulomas were noted in 34%, malignancies-in 57% of the patients. T-cell excision circle (TREC)/kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) levels were low in the majority of patients studied. Lower KREC levels correlated with autoimmune and oncological complications. Fifteen patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 10 of them were alive and well, with good graft function. Three patients in the HSCT group and five non-transplanted patients died; tumor progression being the main cause of death. The probability of the overall survival since NBS diagnosis was 0.76 in the HSCT group and 0.3 in the non-transplanted group.

Conclusion: Based on our findings of low TRECs in most NBS patients, independent of their age, TREC detection can be potentially useful for detection of NBS patients during neonatal screening. KREC concentration can be used as a prognostic marker of disease severity. HSCT is a viable treatment option in NBS and should be especially considered in patients with low KREC numbers early on, before development of life-threatening complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5523727PMC
July 2017

Outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for DNA double-strand break repair disorders.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 01 7;141(1):322-328.e10. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

Immunology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Department, Federal Research Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Background: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT).

Methods: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used.

Results: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved.

Conclusion: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2017.02.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632132PMC
January 2018

Risk Factors for and the Clinical Impact of Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Pediatric Recipients of TCR-α/β- and CD19-Depleted Grafts.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Mar 27;23(3):483-490. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitriy Rogachev Federal Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Alpha/beta T cell and CD19 depletion are used to improve the outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We evaluated the burden of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in pediatric patients after this HSCT type. A cohort of 182 patients with malignant (n = 114) or nonmalignant (n = 68) disorders was transplanted from either matched unrelated (n = 124) or haploidentical (n = 58) donors. The cumulative incidence of CMV and EBV viremia were 51% and 33%, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades II to IV, D-/R+ serology, and malignant HSCT indications were associated with increased risk of CMV viremia. CMV disease developed in 10 patients (6%). The occurrence of CMV viremia was not associated with inferior outcomes. Acute GVHD grade ≥ II was the only factor significantly associated with an increased risk of EBV viremia. Rituximab significantly decreased the rate of EBV reactivation in a subgroup that received a higher B cell dose in the graft. The rate of EBV-associated disease was .5%, and EBV viremia did not affect survival. TCR-α/β and CD19 depletion are associated with a significant rate of CMV viremia that does not affect survival. The hazard of EBV post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is eliminated by the combination of CD19 depletion and rituximab.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.12.635DOI Listing
March 2017

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant in patients with activated PI3K delta syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017 03 12;139(3):1046-1049. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Great North Children's Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Primary Immunodeficiency Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle upon Tyne University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.09.040DOI Listing
March 2017

Single-Center Experience of Unrelated and Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation with TCRαβ and CD19 Depletion in Children with Primary Immunodeficiency Syndromes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2015 Nov 15;21(11):1955-62. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Dmitry Rogachev Federal Research and Clinical Center of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

The transplantation of stem cells from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) or a haploidentical mismatched related donor (MMRD) is a widely used variant of curative treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Currently, different strategies are used to reduce the risk of post-transplant complications and enhance immune reconstitution. We report the preliminary results of MUD and MMRD transplantation with TCRαβ/CD19 depletion in patients with PID (trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02327351). Thirty-seven PID patients (median age, 2.6 years; range, .2 to 17) were transplanted from MUDs (n = 27) or haploidentical MMRDs (n = 10) after TCRαβ(+)/CD19(+) graft depletion. The median numbers of CD34(+) and TCRαβ(+) cells in the graft were 11.7 × 10(6)/kg and 10.6 × 10(3)/kg, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was observed in 8 patients (22%), without a statistically significant difference between MUDs and MMRDs; 7 of these patients had grade II acute GVHD and responded to first-line therapy, whereas 1 patient had grade IV acute GVHD with transformation to extensive chronic GVHD. Primary and secondary graft failure (nonengraftment or rejection) was observed in 10 patients (27%), 9 of whom were treated with 1 alkylating agent in the conditioning regimen. All these patients were successfully retransplanted with different rescue protocols. Preliminary data on immune reconstitution were very encouraging. Most patients had significant numbers of T lymphocytes detected on the first assessment (day +30) and more than 500 T cells/μL, on day +120. Based on our preliminary data, no significant difference was seen between MMRD and MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With a median follow-up period of 15 months, the cumulative probabilities of overall patient survival and transplant-related mortality were 96.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Based on the results, the ability to control the main post-transplant complications and the immune reconstitution rates are the main factors leading to successful outcome in patients with PID after TCRαβ(+)-depleted HSCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.07.008DOI Listing
November 2015

Cytoreductive conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency--help or hindrance?

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2015 ;11(7):785-8

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Department, Federal Research Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Moscow, Russia.

Use of chemotherapy-based conditioning-facilitated engraftment in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is contentious. In T- and NK lymphocyte-negative, B-lymphocyte-positive (T-B+NK+) and T-B-NK+ SCID, the osteo-medullary space is occupied by recipient hematopoietic stem cells and mature B-lymphocytes. The thymic niche is empty in T-B+NK+ SCID but fully occupied by developmentally arrested T-lymphocyte precursors in T-B-NK+ SCID. The outcome of infusion of donor stem cells differs and is dependent on genetic defect and the lymphocyte developmental arrest stage. At best, donor hematopoietic stem cell osteo-medullary engraftment induces normal B-lymphocyte function and long-term thymopoiesis; at worst, peripheral expansion of donor T-lymphocytes from the stem cell source results in a restricted T-lymphocyte receptor repertoire with possible B-lymphocyte failure. Conditioning improves immunoreconstitution but causes short- and long-term toxicities, and increased mortality. Newborn screening for SCID will propel the search for safe, effective methods of achieving donor cell engraftment and full immunoreconstitution without toxic sequalae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/1744666X.2015.1041926DOI Listing
March 2016