Publications by authors named "Alexandra Grill"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Aestivation motifs explain hypertension and muscle mass loss in mice with psoriatic skin barrier defect.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 Feb 16:e13628. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Aim: Recent evidence suggests that arterial hypertension could be alternatively explained as a physiological adaptation response to water shortage, termed aestivation, which relies on complex multi-organ metabolic adjustments to prevent dehydration. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic water loss across diseased skin leads to similar adaptive water conservation responses as observed in experimental renal failure or high salt diet.

Methods: We studied mice with keratinocyte-specific overexpression of IL-17A which develop severe psoriasis-like skin disease. We measured transepidermal water loss and solute and water excretion in the urine. We quantified glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by intravital microscopy, and energy and nitrogen pathways by metabolomics. We measured skin blood flow and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in conjunction with renal resistive indices and arterial blood pressure.

Results: Psoriatic animals lost large amounts of water across their defective cutaneous epithelial barrier. Metabolic adaptive water conservation included mobilization of nitrogen and energy from muscle to increase organic osmolyte production, solute-driven maximal anti-diuresis at normal GFR, increased metanephrine and angiotensin 2 levels, and cutaneous vasoconstriction to limit TEWL. Heat exposure led to cutaneous vasodilation and blood pressure normalization without parallel changes in renal resistive index, albeit at the expense of further increased TEWL.

Conclusion: Severe cutaneous water loss predisposes psoriatic mice to lethal dehydration. In response to this dehydration stress, the mice activate aestivation-like water conservation motifs to maintain their body hydration status. The circulatory water conservation response explains their arterial hypertension. The nitrogen-dependency of the metabolic water conservation response explains their catabolic muscle wasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13628DOI Listing
February 2021

IL-17 controls central nervous system autoimmunity through the intestinal microbiome.

Sci Immunol 2021 Feb;6(56)

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Interleukin-17A- (IL-17A) and IL-17F-producing CD4 T helper cells (T17 cells) are implicated in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T17 cells also orchestrate leukocyte invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) and subsequent tissue damage. However, the role of IL-17A and IL-17F as effector cytokines is still confused with the encephalitogenic function of the cells that produce these cytokines, namely, T17 cells, fueling a long-standing debate in the neuroimmunology field. Here, we demonstrated that mice deficient for IL-17A/F lose their susceptibility to EAE, which correlated with an altered composition of their gut microbiota. However, loss of IL-17A/F in T cells did not diminish their encephalitogenic capacity. Reconstitution of a wild-type-like intestinal microbiota or reintroduction of IL-17A specifically into the gut epithelium of IL-17A/F-deficient mice reestablished their susceptibility to EAE. Thus, our data demonstrated that IL-17A and IL-17F are not encephalitogenic mediators but rather modulators of intestinal homeostasis that indirectly alter CNS-directed autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aaz6563DOI Listing
February 2021

Specialized regulatory T cells control venous blood clot resolution through SPARC.

Blood 2021 Mar;137(11):1517-1526

Department of Dermatology.

The cells and mechanisms involved in blood clot resorption are only partially known. We show that regulatory T cells (Tregs) accumulate in venous blood clots and regulate thrombolysis by controlling the recruitment, differentiation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity of monocytes. We describe a clot Treg population that forms the matricellular acid- and cysteine-rich protein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) and show that SPARC enhances monocyte MMP activity and that SPARC+ Tregs are crucial for blood clot resorption. By comparing different treatment times, we define a therapeutic window of Treg expansion that accelerates clot resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005407DOI Listing
March 2021

Gut Microbiota Restricts NETosis in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 09 2;40(9):2279-2292. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

From the Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (JGU), Germany (S.A., E.W., G.P., H.F., F.B., M.M., F.M., A.G., M.B., M.S., I.B., K.G., K.K., K.J., C.R.).

Objective: Recruitment of neutrophils and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to lethality in acute mesenteric infarction. To study the impact of the gut microbiota in acute mesenteric infarction, we used gnotobiotic mouse models to investigate whether gut commensals prime the reactivity of neutrophils towards formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis). Approach and Results: We applied a mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury model to germ-free (GF) and colonized C57BL/6J mice. By intravital imaging, we quantified leukocyte adherence and NET formation in I/R-injured mesenteric venules. Colonization with gut microbiota or monocolonization with augmented the adhesion of leukocytes, which was dependent on the TLR4 (Toll-like receptor-4)/TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β) pathway. Although neutrophil accumulation was decreased in I/R-injured venules of GF mice, NETosis following I/R injury was significantly enhanced compared with conventionally raised mice or mice colonized with the minimal microbial consortium altered Schaedler flora. Also ex vivo, neutrophils from GF and antibiotic-treated mice showed increased LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced NETosis. Enhanced TLR4 signaling in GF neutrophils was due to elevated TLR4 expression and augmented IRF3 (interferon regulatory factor-3) phosphorylation. Likewise, neutrophils from antibiotic-treated conventionally raised mice had increased NET formation before and after ischemia. Increased NETosis in I/R injury was abolished in conventionally raised mice deficient in the TLR adaptor TRIF. In support of the desensitizing influence of enteric LPS, treatment of GF mice with LPS via drinking water diminished LPS-induced NETosis in vitro and in the mesenteric I/R injury model.

Conclusions: Collectively, our results identified that the gut microbiota suppresses NETing neutrophil hyperreactivity in mesenteric I/R injury, while ensuring immunovigilance by enhancing neutrophil recruitment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484055PMC
September 2020

The Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Disease and Arterial Thrombosis.

Microorganisms 2019 Dec 13;7(12). Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

The gut microbiota has emerged as a contributing factor in the development of atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. Metabolites from the gut microbiota, such as trimethylamine N-oxide and short chain fatty acids, were identified as messengers that induce cell type-specific signaling mechanisms and immune reactions in the host vasculature, impacting the development of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, microbial-associated molecular patterns drive atherogenesis and the microbiota was recently demonstrated to promote arterial thrombosis through Toll-like receptor signaling. Furthermore, by the use of germ-free mouse models, the presence of a gut microbiota was shown to influence the synthesis of endothelial adhesion molecules. Hence, the gut microbiota is increasingly being recognized as an influencing factor of arterial thrombosis and attempts of dietary pre- or probiotic modulation of the commensal microbiota, to reduce cardiovascular risk, are becoming increasingly significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7120691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956001PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of blood collection methods and anticoagulants for platelet function analyses on C57BL/6J laboratory mice.

Platelets 2020 Nov 8;31(8):981-988. Epub 2019 Dec 8.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , Mainz, Germany.

The exploration of thrombotic mechanisms relies on the application of blood collection methods from laboratory mice with a minimal pre-activation of platelets and the clotting system. So far, very little is known on how the blood collection method and the anticoagulant used influence pre-activation of mouse platelets and coagulation. To determine the most suitable blood collection method, we systematically compared blood collection by heart puncture, puncture, and puncture of the retro-orbital vein plexus and the use of citrate, heparin, and EDTA as frequently used anticoagulants with regard to platelet activation and whole blood clotting parameters. The activation of platelet-rich plasma diluted in Tyrode's buffer was analyzed by flow cytometry, analyzing the exposure of P-selectin and activated integrin αβ. Clotting of whole blood was profiled by thrombelastometry. Puncture of the retro-orbital vein plexus by plastic capillaries is not superior in terms of blood volume and platelet pre-activation, whereas heart puncture and puncture resulted in similarly high blood volumes. Cardiac puncture and puncture did not result in pre-activated platelets with citrate as an anticoagulant, but the use of EDTA resulted in increased levels of integrin αβ activation. Puncture of the retro-orbital vein plexus by plastic capillaries resulted in increased platelet integrin αβ activation, which could be prevented by soaking with citrate or coating with heparin. Further, activation of coagulation in citrated whole blood by puncture of the retro-orbital vein plexus using a blunt plastic capillary was observed by thromboelastometry. The use of citrate is the optimal anticoagulant in mouse platelet assays. Blood collections from the heart or represent reliable alternatives to retro-orbital puncture of the vein plexus to avoid pre-activation of platelets and coagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2019.1701185DOI Listing
November 2020

Endothelial GLP-1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide-1) Receptor Mediates Cardiovascular Protection by Liraglutide In Mice With Experimental Arterial Hypertension.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 01 21;40(1):145-158. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

From the Center for Cardiology (J.H., K. Frenis, K. Filippou, M.D., S.K., F.P., S.K.-S., M.O., P.W. T.M., A.D., S.S.), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

Objective: Cardiovascular outcome trials demonstrated that GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) analogs including liraglutide reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Whether GLP-1 analogs reduce the risk for atherosclerosis independent of glycemic control is challenging to elucidate as the GLP-1R (GLP-1 receptor) is expressed on different cell types, including endothelial and immune cells. Approach and Results: Here, we reveal the cardio- and vasoprotective mechanism of the GLP-1 analog liraglutide at the cellular level in a murine, nondiabetic model of arterial hypertension. Wild-type (C57BL/6J), global (), as well as endothelial () and myeloid cell-specific knockout mice () of the GLP-1R were studied, and arterial hypertension was induced by angiotensin II. Liraglutide treatment normalized blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, vascular fibrosis, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and vascular inflammation in a GLP-1R-dependent manner. Mechanistically, liraglutide reduced leukocyte rolling on the endothelium and infiltration of myeloid Ly6GLy6C and Ly6GLy6C cells into the vascular wall. As a consequence, liraglutide prevented vascular oxidative stress, reduced S-glutathionylation as a marker of eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) uncoupling, and increased NO bioavailability. Importantly, all of these beneficial cardiovascular effects of liraglutide persisted in myeloid cell GLP-1R-deficient () mice but were abolished in global () and endothelial cell-specific () GLP-1R knockout mice.

Conclusions: GLP-1R activation attenuates cardiovascular complications of arterial hypertension by reduction of vascular inflammation through selective actions requiring the endothelial but not the myeloid cell GLP-1R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/atv.0000615456.97862.30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946108PMC
January 2020

Dietary tryptophan links encephalogenicity of autoreactive T cells with gut microbial ecology.

Nat Commun 2019 10 25;10(1):4877. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

DKTK Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

The interaction between the mammalian host and its resident gut microbiota is known to license adaptive immune responses. Nutritional constituents strongly influence composition and functional properties of the intestinal microbial communities. Here, we report that omission of a single essential amino acid - tryptophan - from the diet abrogates CNS autoimmunity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Dietary tryptophan restriction results in impaired encephalitogenic T cell responses and is accompanied by a mild intestinal inflammatory response and a profound phenotypic shift of gut microbiota. Protective effects of dietary tryptophan restriction are abrogated in germ-free mice, but are independent of canonical host sensors of intracellular tryptophan metabolites. We conclude that dietary tryptophan restriction alters metabolic properties of gut microbiota, which in turn have an impact on encephalitogenic T cell responses. This link between gut microbiota, dietary tryptophan and adaptive immunity may help to develop therapeutic strategies for protection from autoimmune neuroinflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12776-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814758PMC
October 2019

The Microbiota Promotes Arterial Thrombosis in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Deficient Mice.

mBio 2019 10 22;10(5). Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Atherosclerotic plaque development depends on chronic inflammation of the arterial wall. A dysbiotic gut microbiota can cause low-grade inflammation, and microbiota composition was linked to cardiovascular disease risk. However, the role of this environmental factor in atherothrombosis remains undefined. To analyze the impact of gut microbiota on atherothrombosis, we rederived low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient ( ) mice as germfree (GF) and kept these mice for 16 weeks on an atherogenic high-fat Western diet (HFD) under GF isolator conditions and under conventionally raised specific-pathogen-free conditions (CONV-R). In spite of reduced diversity of the cecal gut microbiome, caused by atherogenic HFD, GF mice and CONV-R mice exhibited atherosclerotic lesions of comparable sizes in the common carotid artery. In contrast to HFD-fed mice, showing no difference in total cholesterol levels, CONV-R mice fed control diet (CD) had significantly reduced total plasma cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and LDL levels compared with GF mice. Myeloid cell counts in blood as well as leukocyte adhesion to the vessel wall at the common carotid artery of GF mice on HFD were diminished compared to CONV-R controls. Plasma cytokine profiling revealed reduced levels of the proinflammatory chemokines CCL7 and CXCL1 in GF mice, whereas the T-cell-related interleukin 9 (IL-9) and IL-27 were elevated. In the atherothrombosis model of ultrasound-induced rupture of the common carotid artery plaque, thrombus area was significantly reduced in GF mice relative to CONV-R mice. , this atherothrombotic phenotype was explained by decreased adhesion-dependent platelet activation and thrombus growth of HFD-fed GF mice on type III collagen. Our results demonstrate a functional role for the commensal microbiota in atherothrombosis. In a ferric chloride injury model of the carotid artery, GF C57BL/6J mice had increased occlusion times compared to colonized controls. Interestingly, in late atherosclerosis, HFD-fed GF mice had reduced plaque rupture-induced thrombus growth in the carotid artery and diminished thrombus formation under arterial flow conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02298-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6805995PMC
October 2019

Cellular Origin and Functional Relevance of Collagen I Production in the Kidney.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 07 18;29(7):1859-1873. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Nephrology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany;

Interstitial fibrosis is associated with chronic renal failure. In addition to fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived cells and tubular epithelial cells have the capacity to produce collagen. However, the amount of collagen produced by each of these cell types and the relevance of fibrosis to renal function are unclear. We generated conditional cell type-specific collagen I knockout mice and used (reversible) unilateral ureteral obstruction and adenine-induced nephropathy to study renal fibrosis and function. In these mouse models, hematopoietic, bone marrow-derived cells contributed to 38%-50% of the overall deposition of collagen I in the kidney. The influence of fibrosis on renal function was dependent on the type of damage. In unilateral ureteral obstruction, collagen production by resident fibroblasts was essential to preserve renal function, whereas in the chronic model of adenine-induced nephropathy, collagen production was detrimental to renal function. Our data show that hematopoietic cells are a major source of collagen and that antifibrotic therapies need to be carefully considered depending on the type of disease and the underlying cause of fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2018020138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6050926PMC
July 2018

Renal Interstitial Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor- Cells Support Proximal Tubular Regeneration.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 05 23;29(5):1383-1396. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Institute of Physiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; and.

Background: The kidney is considered to be a structurally stable organ with limited baseline cellular turnover. Nevertheless, single cells must be constantly replaced to conserve the functional integrity of the organ. PDGF chain B (PDGF-BB) signaling through fibroblast PDGF receptor- (PDGFR) contributes to interstitial-epithelial cell communication and facilitates regenerative functions in several organs. However, the potential role of interstitial cells in renal tubular regeneration has not been examined.

Methods: In mice with fluorescent protein expression in renal tubular cells and PDGFR-positive interstitial cells, we ablated single tubular cells by high laser exposure. We then used serial intravital multiphoton microscopy with subsequent three-dimensional reconstruction and histology to evaluate the cellular and molecular processes involved in tubular regeneration.

Results: Single-tubular cell ablation caused the migration and division of dedifferentiated tubular epithelial cells that preceded tubular regeneration. Moreover, tubular cell ablation caused immediate calcium responses in adjacent PDGFR-positive interstitial cells and the rapid migration thereof toward the injury. These PDGFR-positive cells enclosed the injured epithelium before the onset of tubular cell dedifferentiation, and the later withdrawal of these PDGFR-positive cells correlated with signs of tubular cell redifferentiation. Intraperitoneal administration of trapidil to block PDGFR impeded PDGFR-positive cell migration to the tubular injury site and compromised the recovery of tubular function.

Conclusions: Ablated tubular cells are exclusively replaced by resident tubular cell proliferation in a process dependent on PDGFR-mediated communication between the renal interstitium and the tubular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017101069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967761PMC
May 2018

Mice deficient in the anti-haemophilic coagulation factor VIII show increased von Willebrand factor plasma levels.

PLoS One 2017 24;12(8):e0183590. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is the carrier protein of the anti-haemophilic Factor VIII (FVIII) in plasma. It has been reported that the infusion of FVIII concentrate in haemophilia A patients results in lowered VWF plasma levels. However, the impact of F8-deficiency on VWF plasma levels in F8-/y mice is unresolved. In order to avoid confounding variables, we back-crossed F8-deficient mice onto a pure C57BL/6J background and analysed VWF plasma concentrations relative to C57BL/6J WT (F8+/y) littermate controls. F8-/y mice showed strongly elevated VWF plasma concentrations and signs of hepatic inflammation, as indicated by increased TNF-α, CD45, and TLR4 transcripts and by elevated macrophage counts in the liver. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed that expression of VWF antigen was significantly enhanced in the hepatic endothelium of F8-/y mice, most likely resulting from increased macrophage recruitment. There were no signs of liver damage, as judged by glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT) and glutamate-oxalacetate-transaminase (GOT) in the plasma and no signs of systemic inflammation, as white blood cell subsets were unchanged. As expected, impaired haemostasis was reflected by joint bleeding, prolonged in vitro clotting time and decreased platelet-dependent thrombin generation. Our results point towards a novel role of FVIII, synthesized by the liver endothelium, in the control of hepatic low-grade inflammation and VWF plasma levels.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183590PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5570278PMC
October 2017

Profound hypothermia after adenosine kinase inhibition in A1AR-deficient mice suggests a receptor-independent effect of intracellular adenosine.

Pflugers Arch 2017 02 14;469(2):339-347. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Administration of the nucleoside adenosine has been shown to induce hypothermia in a number of species, an effect mediated predominantly by the adenosine 1 receptor (A1AR) subtype. The present experiments were performed to explore the possibility that the rise of intracellular adenosine levels expected to accompany adenosine administration may contribute to the hypothermic effect of adenosine independent of A1AR activation. Since phosphorylation of adenosine by adenosine kinase (ADK) is causal in the maintenance of low intracellular adenosine, we have examined the effect of ADK inhibition on core body temperature (CBT). Our data show that inhibition of ADK by A-134974 causes a long-lasting deep hypothermia in wild-type mice. Since there was an about 4-fold increase of adenosine plasma levels, experiments were repeated in A1AR-/- mice. ADK inhibition caused deep hypothermia despite the absence of A1AR, although the effect was significantly reduced compared to WT. Furthermore, the dose-dependent hypothermia caused by adenosine administration in WT mice was found to be reduced, but not abolished in A1AR-/- mice. To assess the possible role of A2AR and A3AR activation in our experimental setting, we compared the effects of the agonists CPA (A1AR), CGS21680 (A2AR), and IB-MECA (A3AR) on CBT. Hypothermia induced by CPA was much greater than that caused by CGS21680 or IB-MECA indicating that A1AR activation is the major receptor-dependent pathway for adenosine-induced hypothermia under our experimental conditions. Induction of deep hypothermia by inhibition of ADK, maintenance of this effect in A1AR-/- mice, and maintenance of adenosine-induced hypothermia in A1AR-deficient mice suggest that a receptor-independent action of adenosine requiring intact function of adenosine kinase contributes importantly to the hypothermia induced by adenosine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-016-1925-3DOI Listing
February 2017

The angiotensin receptor-associated protein Atrap is a stimulator of the cardiac Ca2+-ATPase SERCA2a.

Cardiovasc Res 2016 06 25;110(3):359-70. Epub 2016 Mar 25.

Institute of Physiology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg, Germany

Aims: The angiotensin II type 1 receptor-associated protein (Atrap) is highly expressed in the heart, but its function in the heart is unknown. We hypothesized that cardiac Atrap may interact with proteins other than the AT1 receptor.

Methods And Results: To identify potential novel interacting partners of Atrap, pull-down assays were performed. Sequencing by MALDI-MS of the isolated complexes showed that Atrap interacts with the cardiac Ca(2+)-ATPase SERCA2a. The interaction between Atrap and SERCA2a was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Atrap enhanced the SERCA-dependent Ca(2+) uptake in isolated SR membrane vesicles. Furthermore, sarcomere shortenings and [Ca(2+)]i transients (CaTs) were determined in ventricular myocytes isolated from Atrap-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. The amplitudes of CaTs and sarcomere shortenings were similar in Atrap-/- and WT myocytes. However, the CaT decay and sarcomere re-lengthening were prolonged in Atrap-/- myocytes. To further evaluate the functional relevance of the Atrap-SERCA2a interaction in vivo, left-ventricular function was assessed in WT and Atrap-/- mice. The heart rates (564 ± 10 b.p.m. vs. 560 ± 11 b.p.m.; P = 0.80) and ejection fractions (71.3 ± 1.3 vs. 72 ± 1.8%; P = 0.79) were similar in WT and Atrap-/- mice, respectively (n = 15 for each genotype). However, the maximum filling rate (dV/dtmax) was markedly decreased in Atrap-/- (725 ± 48 µL/s) compared with WT mice (1065 ± 122 µL/s; P = 0.01; n = 15).

Conclusion: We identified Atrap as a novel regulatory protein of the cardiac Ca(2+)-ATPase SERCA2a. We suggest that Atrap enhances the activity of SERCA2a and, consequently, facilitates ventricular relaxation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvw064DOI Listing
June 2016