Publications by authors named "Alexandra Gagner"

5 Publications

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Postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Skilled Nursing Facility Residents and Staff Members - Chicago, Illinois, December 2020-March 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 30;70(17):632-638. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Early studies suggest that COVID-19 vaccines protect against severe illness (1); however, postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections (i.e., breakthrough infections) can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection (2,3). Data evaluating the occurrence of breakthrough infections and impact of vaccination in decreasing transmission in congregate settings are limited. Skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents and staff members have been disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (4,5), and were prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination (6,7). Starting December 28, 2020, all 78 Chicago-based SNFs began COVID-19 vaccination clinics over several weeks through the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program (PPP). In February 2021, through routine screening, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) identified a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a SNF resident >14 days after receipt of the second dose of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. SARS-CoV-2 cases, vaccination status, and possible vaccine breakthrough infections were identified by matching facility reports with state case and vaccination registries. Among 627 persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection across 75 SNFs since vaccination clinics began, 22 SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified among 12 residents and 10 staff members across 15 facilities ≥14 days after receiving their second vaccine dose (i.e., breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated persons). Nearly two thirds (14 of 22; 64%) of persons with breakthrough infections were asymptomatic; two residents were hospitalized because of COVID-19, and one died. No facility-associated secondary transmission occurred. Although few SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated persons were observed, these cases demonstrate the need for SNFs to follow recommended routine infection prevention and control practices and promote high vaccination coverage among SNF residents and staff members.
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April 2021

Modeling and Surveillance of Reporting Delays of Mosquitoes and Humans Infected With West Nile Virus and Associations With Accuracy of West Nile Virus Forecasts.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 04 5;2(4):e193175. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Importance: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease.

Objective: To develop real-time WNV forecasts of infected mosquitoes and human cases.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Real-time forecasts of WNV in 4 geographically dispersed locations in the United States were generated using a WNV model-inference forecasting system previously validated with retrospective data. Analysis was performed to evaluate how observational reporting delays of mosquito WNV assay results and human medical records were associated with real-time forecast accuracy.

Exposures: Mosquitoes positive for WNV and human cases.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Delays in reporting mosquito WNV assay results and human medical records and the association of these delays with real-time WNV forecast accuracy.

Results: Substantial delays in data reporting exist for both infected mosquitoes and human WNV cases. For human cases, confirmed data (n = 37) lagged behind the onset of illness by a mean (SD) of 5.5 (2.3) weeks (range, 2-14 weeks). These human case reporting lags reduced mean forecast accuracy for the total number of human cases over the season in 110 simulated outbreaks for 2 forecasting systems by 26% and 14%, from 2 weeks before to 3 weeks after the predicted peak of infected mosquitoes. This period is the time span during which 47% of human cases are reported. Of 7064 mosquito pools, 500 (7%) tested positive; the reporting lag for these data associated with viral testing at a state laboratory was a mean (SD) of 6.6 (2.6) days (range, 4-11 days). This reporting lag was associated with decreased mean forecast accuracy for the 3 mosquito infection indicators, timing, magnitude, and season, by approximately 5% for both forecasting systems.

Conclusions And Relevance: Delays in reporting human WNV disease and infected mosquito information are associated with difficulties in outbreak surveillance and decreased real-time forecast accuracy. Infected mosquito lags were short enough that skillful forecasts could still be generated for mosquito infection indicators, but the human WNV case lags were too great to support accurate forecasting in real time. Forecasting WNV is potentially an important evidence-based decision support tool for public health officials and mosquito abatement districts; however, to operationalize real-time forecasting, more resources are needed to reduce human case reporting lags between illness onset and case confirmation.
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April 2019

Antiretroviral Prescription and Viral Suppression in a Representative Sample of HIV-Infected Persons in Care in 4 Large Metropolitan Areas of the United States, Medical Monitoring Project, 2011-2013.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2017 10;76(2):158-170

*Division of HIV and STD Programs, Los Angeles County Department of Public Health; †HIV/STI Services Division, Chicago Department of Public Health; ‡Clinical Outcomes Team, Behavioral and Clinical Surveillance Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; §Applied Research, Community Health, Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, San Francisco Department of Public Health; and ‖AIDS Activities Coordinating Unit, Philadelphia Department of Public Health.

Background: Comparisons of antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription and viral suppression among people in HIV care across US metropolitan areas are limited. Medical Monitoring Project, 2011-2013, data were used to describe and compare associations between sociodemographics and ART prescription and viral suppression for persons receiving HIV care.

Setting: Chicago, Los Angeles County (LAC), Philadelphia, and San Francisco in the United States.

Methods: Bivariate and multivariable methods were used.

Results: The proportion of patients prescribed ART (91%-93%) and virally suppressed (79%-88%) was consistent although more persons were virally suppressed in San Francisco compared with the other areas, and a smaller proportion was virally suppressed in Philadelphia compared with Chicago. In the combined cohort, persons aged 30-49 years were less likely than persons 50+ (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) -0.97, confidence interval (CI): 0.94 to 0.99); persons reporting non-injection drug use were less likely than non-users (aPR = 0.94, CI: 0.90 to 0.98); and Hispanics were more likely than whites (aPR - 1.04, CI: 1.01 to 1.08) to be prescribed ART. Blacks (aPR = 0.93; CI: 0.87 to 0.99) and homeless persons (aPR = 0.87; CI: 0.80 to 0.95) were less likely to be virally suppressed in the combined cohort. In LAC, persons aged 30-49 years were less likely than those 50+ to be prescribed ART (aPR = 0.94, CI: 0.90 to 0.98). Younger persons (18-29) (aPR = 0.77; CI: 0.60 to 0.99) and persons with less than a high school education (aPR = 0.80; CI: 0.67 to 0.95) in Philadelphia, blacks (aPR = 0.90; CI: 0.83 to 0.99) and men who have sex with women only (aPR = 0.89; CI: 0.80 to 0.99) in Chicago, and homeless individuals in LAC (aPR = 0.80; CI: 0.67 to 0.94) were less likely to be virally suppressed.

Conclusion: Data highlight the need to increase ART prescription to achieve viral suppression among younger persons, noninjection drug users, blacks, and homeless persons in US metropolitan areas and underscores the importance of region-specific strategies for affected subgroups.
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October 2017

A cross-jurisdictional evaluation of insurance coverage among HIV care patients following the Affordable Care Act.

AIDS Care 2017 04 23;29(4):511-515. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

f Georgia Department of Public Health , Division of Health Protection , Atlanta , GA , USA.

The impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on HIV care patients, aged 18-64, was evaluated in three jurisdictions with Medicaid expansion (Chicago, New York State, and Washington) and three jurisdictions without Medicaid expansion (Georgia, Texas, and Virginia) using data from the Medical Monitoring Project. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate insurance status that was reported pre- and post-ACA; self-reported impact of ACA on HIV care was explored with descriptive statistics. The likelihood of having insurance was significantly greater post-ACA compared to pre-ACA in Chicago (aRR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.20, 1.47), Washington (aRR = 1.15, 95%CI = 1.08, 1.22), and Virginia (aRR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.00, 1.29). In Washington and Chicago, the likelihood of being Medicaid-insured was greater post-ACA compared to pre-ACA implementation (Chicago: aRR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.03,1.53; Washington: aRR = 1.66 95% CI = 1.30, 2.13). No other significant differences were observed. Only a subset of HIV care patients (range: 15-35%) reported a change in insurance that would have coincided with the implementation of ACA; and within this subset, a change in medical care costs was the most commonly noted issue. In conclusion, the influence of ACA on insurance coverage and other factors affecting HIV care likely varies by jurisdiction.
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April 2017