Publications by authors named "Alexander Teumer"

268 Publications

The genomics of heart failure: design and rationale of the HERMES consortium.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: The HERMES (HEart failure Molecular Epidemiology for Therapeutic targetS) consortium aims to identify the genomic and molecular basis of heart failure.

Methods And Results: The consortium currently includes 51 studies from 11 countries, including 68 157 heart failure cases and 949 888 controls, with data on heart failure events and prognosis. All studies collected biological samples and performed genome-wide genotyping of common genetic variants. The enrolment of subjects into participating studies ranged from 1948 to the present day, and the median follow-up following heart failure diagnosis ranged from 2 to 116 months. Forty-nine of 51 individual studies enrolled participants of both sexes; in these studies, participants with heart failure were predominantly male (34-90%). The mean age at diagnosis or ascertainment across all studies ranged from 54 to 84 years. Based on the aggregate sample, we estimated 80% power to genetic variant associations with risk of heart failure with an odds ratio of ≥1.10 for common variants (allele frequency ≥ 0.05) and ≥1.20 for low-frequency variants (allele frequency 0.01-0.05) at P < 5 × 10 under an additive genetic model.

Conclusions: HERMES is a global collaboration aiming to (i) identify the genetic determinants of heart failure; (ii) generate insights into the causal pathways leading to heart failure and enable genetic approaches to target prioritization; and (iii) develop genomic tools for disease stratification and risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13517DOI Listing
September 2021

Large-scale cis- and trans-eQTL analyses identify thousands of genetic loci and polygenic scores that regulate blood gene expression.

Nat Genet 2021 Sep 2;53(9):1300-1310. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland.

Trait-associated genetic variants affect complex phenotypes primarily via regulatory mechanisms on the transcriptome. To investigate the genetics of gene expression, we performed cis- and trans-expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses using blood-derived expression from 31,684 individuals through the eQTLGen Consortium. We detected cis-eQTL for 88% of genes, and these were replicable in numerous tissues. Distal trans-eQTL (detected for 37% of 10,317 trait-associated variants tested) showed lower replication rates, partially due to low replication power and confounding by cell type composition. However, replication analyses in single-cell RNA-seq data prioritized intracellular trans-eQTL. Trans-eQTL exerted their effects via several mechanisms, primarily through regulation by transcription factors. Expression of 13% of the genes correlated with polygenic scores for 1,263 phenotypes, pinpointing potential drivers for those traits. In summary, this work represents a large eQTL resource, and its results serve as a starting point for in-depth interpretation of complex phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00913-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432599PMC
September 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
August 2021

A deeper understanding of the causal relationships between thyroid function and atrial fibrillation.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab525DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Thyroid Function on Hemostasis, Coagulation, and Fibrinolysis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Thyroid 2021 Sep 5;31(9):1305-1315. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Untreated hypothyroidism is associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombosis risk. However, the causal effects of thyroid function on hemostasis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis are unknown. In a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study with genome-wide association variants, we assessed causality of genetically predicted hypothyroidism ( = 134,641), normal-range thyrotropin (TSH;  = 54,288) and free thyroxine (fT4) ( = 49,269), hyperthyroidism ( = 51,823), and thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity ( = 25,821) on coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand factor [VWF], factor VIII [FVIII], prothrombin time, factor VII, fibrinogen) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [TPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) from the CHARGE Hemostasis Consortium ( = 2583-120,246). Inverse-variance-weighted random effects were the main MR analysis followed by sensitivity analyses. Two-sided  < 0.05 was nominally significant, and  < 0.0011[ = 0.05/(5 exposures × 9 outcomes)] was Bonferroni significant for the main MR analysis. Genetically increased TSH was associated with decreased VWF [β(SE) = -0.020(0.006),  = 0.001] and with decreased fibrinogen [β(SE) = -0.008(0.002),  = 0.001]. Genetically increased fT4 was associated with increased VWF [β(SE) = 0.028(0.011),  = 0.012]. Genetically predicted hyperthyroidism was associated with increased VWF [β(SE) = 0.012(0.004),  = 0.006] and increased FVIII [β(SE) = 0.013(0.005),  = 0.007]. Genetically predicted hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were associated with decreased TPA [β(SE) = -0.009(0.024),  = 0.024] and increased TPA [β(SE) = 0.022(0.008),  = 0.008], respectively. MR sensitivity analyses showed similar direction but lower precision. Other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were inconclusive. In the largest genetic studies currently available, genetically increased TSH and fT4 may be associated with decreased and increased synthesis of VWF, respectively. Since Bonferroni correction may be too conservative given the correlation between the analyzed traits, we cannot reject nominal associations of thyroid traits with coagulation or fibrinolytic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0055DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma Proteomics of Renal Function: A Trans-ethnic Meta-analysis and Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

M Prunotto, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Studies on the relationship between renal function and the human plasma proteome have identified several potential biomarkers. However, investigations have been conducted largely in European populations, and causality of the associations between plasma proteins and kidney function has never been addressed.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 993 plasma proteins among 2,882 participants in four studies of European and admixed ancestries (KORA, INTERVAL, HUNT, QMDiab) identified trans-ethnic associations between eGFR/CKD and proteomic biomarkers. For the replicated associations, two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to investigate potential causal relationships. Publicly available datasets and transcriptomic data from independent studies were used to examine the association between gene expression in kidney tissue and eGFR .

Results: Fifty-seven plasma proteins were associated with eGFR, including one novel protein. Twenty-three of these were additionally associated with CKD. The strongest inferred causal effect was the positive effect of eGFR on testican-2, in line with the known biological role of this protein and the expression of its protein-coding gene (SPOCK2) in renal tissue. We also observed suggestive evidence of an effect of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), carbonic anhydrase III, and cystatin-M on eGFR.

Conclusions: In a discovery-replication setting, we identified 57 proteins trans-ethnically associated with eGFR. The revealed causal relationships are an important stepping-stone in establishing testican-2 as a clinically relevant physiological marker of kidney disease progression, and point to additional proteins warranting further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020071070DOI Listing
June 2021

Sex-Dependent Shared and Nonshared Genetic Architecture Across Mood and Psychotic Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Sex differences in incidence and/or presentation of schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BIP) are pervasive. Previous evidence for shared genetic risk and sex differences in brain abnormalities across disorders suggest possible shared sex-dependent genetic risk.

Methods: We conducted the largest to date genome-wide genotype-by-sex (G×S) interaction of risk for these disorders using 85,735 cases (33,403 SCZ, 19,924 BIP, and 32,408 MDD) and 109,946 controls from the PGC (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) and iPSYCH.

Results: Across disorders, genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism-by-sex interaction was detected for a locus encompassing NKAIN2 (rs117780815, p = 3.2 × 10), which interacts with sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) enzymes, implicating neuronal excitability. Three additional loci showed evidence (p < 1 × 10) for cross-disorder G×S interaction (rs7302529, p = 1.6 × 10; rs73033497, p = 8.8 × 10; rs7914279, p = 6.4 × 10), implicating various functions. Gene-based analyses identified G×S interaction across disorders (p = 8.97 × 10) with transcriptional inhibitor SLTM. Most significant in SCZ was a MOCOS gene locus (rs11665282, p = 1.5 × 10), implicating vascular endothelial cells. Secondary analysis of the PGC-SCZ dataset detected an interaction (rs13265509, p = 1.1 × 10) in a locus containing IDO2, a kynurenine pathway enzyme with immunoregulatory functions implicated in SCZ, BIP, and MDD. Pathway enrichment analysis detected significant G×S interaction of genes regulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in MDD (false discovery rate-corrected p < .05).

Conclusions: In the largest genome-wide G×S analysis of mood and psychotic disorders to date, there was substantial genetic overlap between the sexes. However, significant sex-dependent effects were enriched for genes related to neuronal development and immune and vascular functions across and within SCZ, BIP, and MDD at the variant, gene, and pathway levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.972DOI Listing
March 2021

Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of carotid intima-media thickness.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

Common carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is an index of subclinical atherosclerosis that is associated with ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease (CAD). We undertook a cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of measures of cIMT in 6400 individuals. Mendelian randomization analysis was applied to investigate the potential causal role of DNA methylation in the link between atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors and cIMT or clinical cardiovascular disease. The CpG site cg05575921 was associated with cIMT (beta = -0.0264, p value = 3.5 × 10) in the discovery panel and was replicated in replication panel (beta = -0.07, p value = 0.005). This CpG is located at chr5:81649347 in the intron 3 of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor gene (AHRR). Our results indicate that DNA methylation at cg05575921 might be in the pathway between smoking, cIMT and stroke. Moreover, in a region-based analysis, 34 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified of which a DMR upstream of ALOX12 showed the strongest association with cIMT (p value = 1.4 × 10). In conclusion, our study suggests that DNA methylation may play a role in the link between cardiovascular risk factors, cIMT and clinical cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00759-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Assessment of significance of conditionally independent GWAS signals.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Motivation: Multiple independently associated SNPs within a linkage disequilibrium (LD) region are a common phenomenon. Conditional analysis has been successful in identifying secondary signals. While conditional association tests are limited to specific genomic regions, they are benchmarked with genome-wide scale criterion, a conservative strategy.

Method: Within the weighted hypothesis testing framework, we developed a "quasi-adaptive" method that uses the pairwise correlation (r2) and physical distance (d) from the index association to construct priority functions G = G(r2, d), which assign a SNP-specific α-threshold to each SNP. Family-wise error rate (FWER) and power of the approach were evaluated via simulations based on real GWAS data. We compared a series of different G-functions.

Results: Simulations under the null hypothesis on 1100 primary SNPs confirmed appropriate empirical FWER for all G-functions. A G-function with optimal r2 = 0.3 between index and secondary SNP which down-weighted SNPs at higher distance step-wise-strong and gave more emphasis on d than on r2 had overall best power. It also gave the best results in application to the real data sets. As a proof of concept, "quasi-adaptive" method was applied toGWAS on free thyroxine (FT4), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and human height. Application of the algorithm revealed 5 secondary signals in our example GWAS on FT4, 5 secondary signals in case of the IBD, and 19 secondary signals on human height, that would have gone undetected with the established genome-wide threshold (α = 5 ×10-8).

Availability: https://github.com/sghasemi64/Secondary-Signal.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btab332DOI Listing
May 2021

Thyroid Function and Mood Disorders: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Thyroid 2021 08 26;31(8):1171-1181. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Center for Thyroid Diseases, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Observational studies suggest that even minor variations in thyroid function are associated with the risk of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is unknown whether these associations are causal or not. We used a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach to investigate causal effects of minor variations in thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels on MDD and BD risk. We performed two-sample MR analyses using data from the largest publicly available genome-wide association studies on normal-range TSH ( = 54,288) and fT4 ( = 49,269) levels, MDD (170,756 cases, 329,443 controls) and BD (20,352 cases, 31,358 controls). Secondary MR analyses investigated the effects of TSH and fT4 levels on specific MDD and BD subtypes. Reverse MR was also performed to assess the effects of MDD and BD on TSH and fT4 levels. There were no associations between genetically predicted TSH and fT4 levels and MDD risk, nor MDD subtypes and minor depressive symptoms. A one standard deviation increase in fT4 levels was nominally associated with an 11% decrease in the overall BD risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80-0.98,  = 0.022) and a 13% decrease in the BD type 1 risk (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.75-1.00,  = 0.047). In the reverse direction, genetic predisposition to MDD and BD was not associated with TSH nor fT4 levels. Variations in normal-range TSH and fT4 levels have no effects on the risk of MDD and its subtypes, and neither on minor depressive symptoms. This indicates that depressive symptoms should not be attributed to minor variations in thyroid function. Borderline associations with BD and BD type 1 risks suggest that further clinical studies should investigate the effect of thyroid hormone treatment in BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2020.0884DOI Listing
August 2021

Sex effects for the interaction of dopamine related genetic variants for COMT and BDNF on declarative memory performance.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 Jun 12;20(5):e12737. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Genetic factors are assumed to contribute to memory performance, especially genes affecting the dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed to evaluate leading functional genetic variants of the dopamine system, Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) SNP rs4680 and Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) SNP rs6265, previously found to be associated with memory performance. In two independent general population cohorts (total N = 5937) we investigated direct and interaction effects between COMT and BDNF SNPs on declarative memory performance. We found significant two-way interactions for COMT and BDNF in both cohorts but no direct genetic effects. Sensitivity analyses revealed that an interaction between COMT and BDNF was mainly carried by females. While direct associations of COMT and BDNF on memory have been reported previously, we could demonstrate that the interaction of COMT and BDNF is sex-dependent and more complex and needs further investigation. Our results could be demonstrated in two independent cohorts of valuable size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12737DOI Listing
June 2021

Genetic factors influencing a neurobiological substrate for psychiatric disorders.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 29;11(1):192. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

A retrospective meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry studies proposed that reduced gray matter volumes in the dorsal anterior cingulate and the left and right anterior insular cortex-areas that constitute hub nodes of the salience network-represent a common substrate for major psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the common substrate serves as an intermediate phenotype to detect genetic risk variants relevant for psychiatric disease. To this end, after a data reduction step, we conducted genome-wide association studies of a combined common substrate measure in four population-based cohorts (n = 2271), followed by meta-analysis and replication in a fifth cohort (n = 865). After correction for covariates, the heritability of the common substrate was estimated at 0.50 (standard error 0.18). The top single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17076061 was associated with the common substrate at genome-wide significance and replicated, explaining 1.2% of the common substrate variance. This SNP mapped to a locus on chromosome 5q35.2 harboring genes involved in neuronal development and regeneration. In follow-up analyses, rs17076061 was not robustly associated with psychiatric disease, and no overlap was found between the broader genetic architecture of the common substrate and genetic risk for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. In conclusion, our study identified that common genetic variation indeed influences the common substrate, but that these variants do not directly translate to increased disease risk. Future studies should investigate gene-by-environment interactions and employ functional imaging to understand how salience network structure translates to psychiatric disorder risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01317-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007575PMC
March 2021

Physical activity, sedentary behavior and risk of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Aims: Observational evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is inversely and sedentarism positively related with cardiovascular disease risk. We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to examine whether genetically predicted PA and sedentary behavior are related to coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke.

Methods And Results: We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with self-reported moderate to vigorous PA (n = 17), accelerometer based PA (n = 7) and accelerometer fraction of accelerations > 425 milli-gravities (n = 7) as well as sedentary behavior (n = 6) in the UK Biobank as instrumental variables in a two sample MR approach to assess whether these exposures are related to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D genome-wide association study (GWAS) or ischemic stroke in the MEGASTROKE GWAS. The study population included 42,096 cases of coronary artery disease (99,121 controls), 27,509 cases of myocardial infarction (99,121 controls), and 34,217 cases of ischemic stroke (404,630 controls). We found no associations between genetically predicted self-reported moderate to vigorous PA, accelerometer-based PA or accelerometer fraction of accelerations > 425 milli-gravities as well as sedentary behavior with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: These results do not support a causal relationship between PA and sedentary behavior with risk of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Hence, previous observational studies may have been biased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01846-7DOI Listing
March 2021

1q21.1 distal copy number variants are associated with cerebral and cognitive alterations in humans.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 22;11(1):182. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01213-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985307PMC
March 2021

Associations and interactions of the serotonin receptor genes 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and childhood trauma with alexithymia in two independent general-population samples.

Psychiatry Res 2021 04 3;298:113783. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases DZNE, Site Rostock/ Greifswald, Germany.

Previous studies suggested that childhood trauma and a disturbed serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathogenesis of alexithymia. Specifically, genetic polymorphisms of the serotonin receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A were found to be associated with alexithymia. However, it is unclear whether these factors show main or interaction effects with childhood trauma on alexithymia. Data from two independent general-population cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-Trend: N=3,706, Age: range=20-83, 51.6% female, SHIP-LEGEND: N=2,162, Age: range=20-80, 52.5% female) were used. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were applied. Genotypes of rs6295 of 5-HT1A and rs6311 of 5-HT2A were determined. Ordinary least-squared regression models with robust standard errors were applied to investigate associations of the main and interaction effects of childhood maltreatment and the polymorphisms with alexithymia. Childhood trauma, but none of the investigated polymorphisms showed main effects on alexithymia. However, childhood trauma showed significant CTQ sum score x rs6295 interactions in male subjects in both samples such that the presence of the G-allele diminished the CTQ associated increase in the TAS-20 sum scores. Our results support a strong role of early life stress and interactions with rs6295 on alexithymic personality features at least in male subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113783DOI Listing
April 2021

Thyroid function, sex hormones and sexual function: a Mendelian randomization study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 6;36(3):335-344. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are observationally associated with sex hormone concentrations and sexual dysfunction, but causality is unclear. We investigated whether TSH, fT4, hypo- and hyperthyroidism are causally associated with sex hormones and sexual function. We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on TSH and fT4 and hypo- and hyperthyroidism from the ThyroidOmics Consortium (N ≤ 54,288). Outcomes from UK Biobank (women ≤ 194,174/men ≤ 167,020) and ReproGen (women ≤ 252,514) were sex hormones (sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], testosterone, estradiol, free androgen index [FAI]) and sexual function (ovulatory function in women: duration of menstrual period, age at menarche and menopause, reproductive lifespan, and erectile dysfunction in men). We performed two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses on summary level, and unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) analysis on individual level data. One SD increase in TSH was associated with a 1.332 nmol/L lower (95% CI: - 0.717,- 1.946; p = 2 × 10) SHBG and a 0.103 nmol/l lower (- 0.051,V0.154; p = 9 × 10) testosterone in two-sample MR, supported by the GRS approach. Genetic predisposition to hypothyroidism was associated with decreased and genetic predisposition to hyperthyroidism with increased SHBG and testosterone in both approaches. The GRS for fT4 was associated with increased testosterone and estradiol in women only. The GRS for TSH and hypothyroidism were associated with increased and the GRS for hyperthyroidism with decreased FAI in men only. While genetically predicted thyroid function was associated with sex hormones, we found no association with sexual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00721-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-wide association study of circulating interleukin 6 levels identifies novel loci.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 04;30(5):393-409

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (Pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (Pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (Pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098112PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide meta-analysis of muscle weakness identifies 15 susceptibility loci in older men and women.

Nat Commun 2021 01 28;12(1):654. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Low muscle strength is an important heritable indicator of poor health linked to morbidity and mortality in older people. In a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 256,523 Europeans aged 60 years and over from 22 cohorts we identify 15 loci associated with muscle weakness (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition: n = 48,596 cases, 18.9% of total), including 12 loci not implicated in previous analyses of continuous measures of grip strength. Loci include genes reportedly involved in autoimmune disease (HLA-DQA1 p = 4 × 10), arthritis (GDF5 p = 4 × 10), cell cycle control and cancer protection, regulation of transcription, and others involved in the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Using Mendelian randomization we report possible overlapping causal pathways, including diabetes susceptibility, haematological parameters, and the immune system. We conclude that muscle weakness in older adults has distinct mechanisms from continuous strength, including several pathways considered to be hallmarks of ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20918-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844411PMC
January 2021

The genetics of circulating BDNF: towards understanding the role of BDNF in brain structure and function in middle and old ages.

Brain Commun 2020 28;2(2):fcaa176. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's and Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, 78229 TX, USA.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in brain development and function. Substantial amounts of BDNF are present in peripheral blood, and may serve as biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease incidence as well as targets for intervention to reduce Alzheimer's disease risk. With the exception of the genetic polymorphism in the gene, Val66Met, which has been extensively studied with regard to neurodegenerative diseases, the genetic variation that influences circulating BDNF levels is unknown. We aimed to explore the genetic determinants of circulating BDNF levels in order to clarify its mechanistic involvement in brain structure and function and Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology in middle-aged and old adults. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study of circulating BDNF in 11 785 middle- and old-aged individuals of European ancestry from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES), the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), the Rotterdam Study and the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-Trend). Furthermore, we performed functional annotation analysis and related the genetic polymorphism influencing circulating BDNF to common Alzheimer's disease pathologies from brain autopsies. Mendelian randomization was conducted to examine the possible causal role of circulating BDNF levels with various phenotypes including cognitive function, stroke, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, physical activity and diet patterns. Gene interaction networks analysis was also performed. The estimated heritability of BDNF levels was 30% (standard error = 0.0246, -value = 4 × 10). We identified seven novel independent loci mapped near the gene and in , , , (two single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and . The expression of was associated with neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissues from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project (ROSMAP). Seven additional genes (, , , , , and ) were identified through expression and protein quantitative trait loci analyses. Mendelian randomization analyses indicated a potential causal role of BDNF in cardioembolism. Lastly, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis placed circulating BDNF levels in four major networks. Our study provides novel insights into genes and molecular pathways associated with circulating BDNF levels and highlights the possible involvement of plaque instability as an underlying mechanism linking BDNF with brain neurodegeneration. These findings provide a foundation for a better understanding of BDNF regulation and function in the context of brain aging and neurodegenerative pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734441PMC
October 2020

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Effects of Thyroid Status on Regional Brain Volumes: A Diagnostic and Genetic Imaging Study in UK Biobank.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 03;106(3):688-696

Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for optimal human neurodevelopment and may modify the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the brain structures involved are unknown and it is unclear if the adult brain is also susceptible to changes in thyroid status.

Methods: We used International Classification of Disease-10 codes, polygenic thyroid scores at different thresholds of association with thyroid traits (PT-values), and image-derived phenotypes in UK Biobank (n = 18 825) to investigate the effects of a recorded diagnosis of thyroid disease and genetic risk for thyroid status on cerebellar and subcortical gray matter volume. Regional genetic pleiotropy between thyroid status and ADHD was explored using the GWAS-pairwise method.

Results: A recorded diagnosis of hypothyroidism (n = 419) was associated with significant reductions in total cerebellar and pallidum gray matter volumes (β [95% CI] = -0.14[-0.23, -0.06], P = 0.0005 and β [95%CI] = -0.12 [-0.20, -0.04], P = 0.0042, respectively), mediated in part by increases in body mass index. While we found no evidence for total cerebellar volume alterations with increased polygenic scores for any thyroid trait, opposing influences of increased polygenic scores for hypo- and hyperthyroidism were found in the pallidum (PT < 1e-3: β [95% CI] = -0.02 [-0.03, -0.01], P = 0.0003 and PT < 1e-7: β [95% CI] = 0.02 [0.01, 0.03], P = 0.0003, respectively). Neither hypo- nor hyperthyroidism showed evidence of regional genetic pleiotropy with ADHD.

Conclusions: Thyroid status affects gray matter volume in adults, particularly at the level of the cerebellum and pallidum, with potential implications for the regulation of motor, cognitive, and affective function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947746PMC
March 2021

Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline.

Kidney Int 2021 04 31;99(4):926-939. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010357PMC
April 2021

Physical activity and Parkinson's disease: a two-sample Mendelian randomisation study.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 03 22;92(3):334-335. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-324515DOI Listing
March 2021

Mendelian randomization provides evidence for a causal effect of higher serum IGF-1 concentration on risk of hip and knee osteoarthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 04;60(4):1676-1686

Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Translational Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objectives: How insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is related to OA is not well understood. We determined relationships between IGF-1 and hospital-diagnosed hand, hip and knee OA in UK Biobank, using Mendelian randomization (MR) to determine causality.

Methods: Serum IGF-1 was assessed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. OA was determined using Hospital Episode Statistics. One-sample MR (1SMR) was performed using two-stage least-squares regression, with an unweighted IGF-1 genetic risk score as an instrument. Multivariable MR included BMI as an additional exposure (instrumented by BMI genetic risk score). MR analyses were adjusted for sex, genotyping chip and principal components. We then performed two-sample MR (2SMR) using summary statistics from Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genetic Epidemiology (CHARGE) (IGF-1, N = 30 884) and the recent genome-wide association study meta-analysis (N = 455 221) of UK Biobank and Arthritis Research UK OA Genetics (arcOGEN).

Results: A total of 332 092 adults in UK Biobank had complete data. Their mean (s.d.) age was 56.5 (8.0) years and 54% were female. IGF-1 was observationally related to a reduced odds of hand OA [odds ratio per doubling = 0.87 (95% CI 0.82, 0.93)], and an increased odds of hip OA [1.04 (1.01, 1.07)], but was unrelated to knee OA [0.99 (0.96, 1.01)]. Using 1SMR, we found strong evidence for an increased risk of hip [odds ratio per s.d. increase = 1.57 (1.21, 2.01)] and knee [1.30 (1.07, 1.58)] OA with increasing IGF-1 concentration. By contrast, we found no evidence for a causal effect of IGF-1 concentration on hand OA [0.98 (0.57, 1.70)]. Results were consistent when estimated using 2SMR and in multivariable MR analyses accounting for BMI.

Conclusion: We have found evidence that increased serum IGF-1 is causally related to higher risk of hip and knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023994PMC
April 2021

Genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of cortical structure in general population samples of 22,824 adults.

Nat Commun 2020 09 22;11(1):4796. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18367-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508833PMC
September 2020

Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity.

Diabetes 2020 12 11;69(12):2806-2818. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in , , , and , and one intergenic variant near The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry ( = 2 × 10, = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679778PMC
December 2020

The Genetic Makeup of the Electrocardiogram.

Cell Syst 2020 09 10;11(3):229-238.e5. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Cardiology, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, Heart and Lung Division, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is one of the most useful non-invasive diagnostic tests for a wide array of cardiac disorders. Traditional approaches to analyzing ECGs focus on individual segments. Here, we performed comprehensive deep phenotyping of 77,190 ECGs in the UK Biobank across the complete cycle of cardiac conduction, resulting in 500 spatial-temporal datapoints, across 10 million genetic variants. In addition to characterizing polygenic risk scores for the traditional ECG segments, we identified over 300 genetic loci that are statistically associated with the high-dimensional representation of the ECG. We established the genetic ECG signature for dilated cardiomyopathy, associated the BAG3, HSPB7/CLCNKA, PRKCA, TMEM43, and OBSCN loci with disease risk and confirmed this association in an independent cohort. In total, our work demonstrates that a high-dimensional analysis of the entire ECG provides unique opportunities for studying cardiac biology and disease and furthering drug development. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the Supplemental Information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2020.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530085PMC
September 2020

Genetic Determinants of Electrocardiographic P-Wave Duration and Relation to Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 21;13(5):387-395. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Germany (A.T., U.V., M.D., S.B.F.).

Background: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD.

Methods: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies.

Results: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (, , , , , , , ). The top variants at known sarcomere genes () were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, and ) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk.

Conclusions: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578098PMC
October 2020

GWAS of thyroid stimulating hormone highlights pleiotropic effects and inverse association with thyroid cancer.

Nat Commun 2020 08 7;11(1):3981. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Center for Statistical Genetics and Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17718-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414135PMC
August 2020

Integration of GWAS Summary Statistics and Gene Expression Reveals Target Cell Types Underlying Kidney Function Traits.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2020 10 6;31(10):2326-2340. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Background: Genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often not specific enough to reveal complex underlying physiology. By integrating RNA-seq data and GWAS summary statistics, novel computational methods allow unbiased identification of trait-relevant tissues and cell types.

Methods: The CKDGen consortium provided GWAS summary data for eGFR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), BUN, and serum urate. Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx) RNA-seq data were used to construct the top 10% specifically expressed genes for each of 53 tissues followed by linkage disequilibrium (LD) score-based enrichment testing for each trait. Similar procedures were performed for five kidney single-cell RNA-seq datasets from humans and mice and for a microdissected tubule RNA-seq dataset from rat. Gene set enrichment analyses were also conducted for genes implicated in Mendelian kidney diseases.

Results: Across 53 tissues, genes in kidney function-associated GWAS loci were enriched in kidney (=9.1E-8 for eGFR; =1.2E-5 for urate) and liver (=6.8·10 for eGFR). In the kidney, proximal tubule was enriched in humans (=8.5E-5 for eGFR; =7.8E-6 for urate) and mice (=0.0003 for eGFR; =0.0002 for urate) and confirmed as the primary cell type in microdissected tubules and organoids. Gene set enrichment analysis supported this and showed enrichment of genes implicated in monogenic glomerular diseases in podocytes. A systematic approach generated a comprehensive list of GWAS genes prioritized by cell type-specific expression.

Conclusions: Integration of GWAS statistics of kidney function traits and gene expression data identified relevant tissues and cell types, as a basis for further mechanistic studies to understand GWAS loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020010051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609008PMC
October 2020
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