Publications by authors named "Alexander T Yahanda"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

First in-human report of the clinical accuracy of thoracolumbar percutaneous pedicle screw placement using augmented reality guidance.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 08;51(2):E10

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that has great potential for guiding the safe and accurate placement of spinal hardware, including percutaneous pedicle screws. The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of 63 percutaneous pedicle screws placed at a single institution using an AR head-mounted display (ARHMD) system.

Methods: Retrospective analyses were performed for 9 patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar percutaneous pedicle screw placement guided by ARHMD technology. Clinical accuracy was assessed via the Gertzbein-Robbins scale by the authors and by an independent musculoskeletal radiologist. Thoracic pedicle subanalysis was also performed to assess screw accuracy based on pedicle morphology.

Results: Nine patients received thoracic or lumbar AR-guided percutaneous pedicle screws. The mean age at the time of surgery was 71.9 ± 11.5 years and the mean number of screws per patient was 7. Indications for surgery were spinal tumors (n = 4, 44.4%), degenerative disease (n = 3, 33.3%), spinal deformity (n = 1, 11.1%), and a combination of deformity and infection (n = 1, 11.1%). Presenting symptoms were most commonly low-back pain (n = 7, 77.8%) and lower-extremity weakness (n = 5, 55.6%), followed by radicular lower-extremity pain, loss of lower-extremity sensation, or incontinence/urinary retention (n = 3 each, 33.3%). In all, 63 screws were placed (32 thoracic, 31 lumbar). The accuracy for these screws was 100% overall; all screws were Gertzbein-Robbins grade A or B (96.8% grade A, 3.2% grade B). This accuracy was achieved in the thoracic spine regardless of pedicle cancellous bone morphology.

Conclusions: AR-guided surgery demonstrated a 100% accuracy rate for the insertion of 63 percutaneous pedicle screws in 9 patients (100% rate of Gertzbein-Robbins grade A or B screw placement). Using an ARHMS system for the placement of percutaneous pedicle screws showed promise, but further validation using a larger cohort of patients across multiple surgeons and institutions will help to determine the true accuracy enabled by this technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.5.FOCUS21217DOI Listing
August 2021

A multicenter validation of the condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment in Chiari malformation type I: a study using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

1Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: The condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment (C-C2SVA) describes the relationship between the occipitoatlantal joint and C2 in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I). It has been suggested that a C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is predictive of the need for occipitocervical fusion (OCF) or ventral brainstem decompression (VBD). The authors' objective was to validate the predictive utility of the C-C2SVA by using a large, multicenter cohort of patients.

Methods: This validation study used a cohort of patients derived from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium; patients < 21 years old with CM-I and syringomyelia treated from June 2011 to May 2016 were identified. The primary outcome was the need for OCF and/or VBD. After patients who required OCF and/or VBD were identified, 10 age- and sex-matched controls served as comparisons for each OCF/VBD patient. The C-C2SVA (defined as the position of a plumb line from the midpoint of the O-C1 joint relative to the posterior aspect of the C2-3 disc space), pBC2 (a line perpendicular to a line from the basion to the posteroinferior aspect of the C2 body), and clival-axial angle (CXA) were measured on sagittal MRI. The secondary outcome was the need for ≥ 2 CM-related operations.

Results: Of the 206 patients identified, 20 underwent OCF/VBD and 14 underwent repeat posterior fossa decompression. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for requiring OCF/VBD, with a 12.6% misclassification rate, whereas CXA < 125° was 55% sensitive and 99% specific, and pBC2 ≥ 9 was 20% sensitive and 88% specific. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that there was a significantly shorter time to second decompression in children with C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm (p = 0.0039). The mean C-C2SVA was greater (6.13 ± 1.28 vs 3.13 ± 1.95 mm, p < 0.0001), CXA was lower (126° ± 15.4° vs 145° ± 10.7°, p < 0.05), and pBC2 was similar (7.65 ± 1.79 vs 7.02 ± 1.26 mm, p = 0.31) among those who underwent OCF/VBD versus decompression only. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the continuous measurement of C-C2SVA was 0.52; the kappa value was 0.47 for the binary categorization of C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm.

Conclusions: These results validated the C-C2SVA using a large, multicenter, external cohort with 100% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and a 12.6% misclassification rate. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is highly predictive of the need for OCF/VBD in patients with CM-I. The authors recommend that this measurement be considered among the tools to identify the "high-risk" CM-I phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20809DOI Listing
June 2021

Intraoperative MRI for Glioma Surgery: Present Overview and Future Directions.

World Neurosurg 2021 05;149:267-268

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.03.011DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes for various dural graft materials after posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty for Chiari malformation type I: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 9:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is often used for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I), but outcomes associated with different dural graft materials are not well characterized. In this meta-analysis, the authors examined complication rates and outcomes after PFDD for CM-I for autografts and four types of nonautologous grafts.

Methods: A literature search of numerous electronic databases (Ovid Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov) was performed to identify articles detailing complications for dural graft materials after PFDD. Whenever available, data were also extracted regarding the need for revision surgery, symptom changes after PFDD, and syrinx size changes after PFDD. All searches were compliant with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), Institute of Medicine, Standards for Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies guidelines. There were no exclusion criteria based on patient age or presence or absence of syringomyelia.

Results: The current evidence surrounding outcomes for various dural graft materials was found to be of low or very low quality. Twenty-seven studies were included, encompassing 1461 patients. Five types of dural graft materials were included: autograft (n = 404, 27.6%), synthetic (n = 272, 18.6%), bovine pericardium (n = 181, 12.4%), collagen-based (n = 397, 27.2%), and allograft (n = 207, 14.2%). Autograft was associated with a significantly lower rate of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based grafts, allografts, and nonautologous grafts in aggregate. Autograft was also associated with the lowest rates of aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and need for revision PFDD, though these associations did not reach statistical significance. No other graft comparisons yielded significant results. Autograft and nonautologous graft materials yielded similar rates of revision surgery and produced similar improvements in postoperative symptoms and syrinx size.

Conclusions: Autograft was the dural graft material that most frequently had the lowest rate of complications and was associated with significantly lower rates of pseudomeningocele compared to collagen-based graft, allograft, and nonautologous graft materials. Autografts and nonautologous grafts yielded similar outcomes for revision surgery, symptoms, and syrinx size. Large prospective studies comparing different graft materials are needed to accurately and precisely characterize outcomes for individual graft types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.JNS202641DOI Listing
April 2021

Photosensitivity Reaction From Operating Room Lights After Oral Administration of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for Fluorescence-Guided Resection of a Malignant Glioma.

Cureus 2021 Feb 19;13(2):e13442. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.

Orally administered 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), which was approved in the United States in 2017, is preferentially metabolized by malignant glioma cells into protoporphyrin IX and enhances tumor visualization when using a blue light filter on an operating microscope. Photosensitivity after 5-ALA administration is a known side effect, but a photosensitivity reaction from operating room lights has not yet been documented. We report the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of previous resection of a grade II astrocytoma who presented with imaging concerning for tumor recurrence and possible malignant transformation. Repeat surgical resection utilized 5-ALA. Soon after the surgery, he developed reddening of his skin, particularly over the right side of his head and neck, with blistering and peeling in a distribution that was particularly exposed to operating room lights during surgery. No other areas of his skin experienced the same redness, blistering, or peeling. Topical lotions were applied and the skin changes resolved spontaneously over weeks. Significant photosensitivity after administration of oral 5-ALA is a rare complication, but neurosurgeons who perform fluorescence-guided tumor resection should remain cognizant of its potential association with exposure to intense light, including in the operating room. Phototoxicity typically is self-limited, but awareness is important to minimize its occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7978397PMC
February 2021

Dural augmentation approaches and complication rates after posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: a Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

3Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

Results: A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

Conclusions: In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS2087DOI Listing
February 2021

Intraoperative MRI for Adult and Pediatric Neurosurgery.

Anesthesiol Clin 2021 Mar 9;39(1):211-225. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) technology and its use in both adult and pediatric neurosurgery have advanced significantly over the past 2 decades, allowing neurosurgeons to account for brain shift and optimize resection of brain lesions. Combining the risks of the MR environment with those of the operating room creates a challenging, zero-tolerance environment for the anesthesiologist. This article provides an overview of the currently available iMRI systems, the neurosurgical evidence supporting iMRI use, and the anesthetic and safety considerations for iMRI procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anclin.2020.11.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Occipital-Cervical Fusion and Ventral Decompression in the Surgical Management of Chiari-1 Malformation and Syringomyelia: Analysis of Data From the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):332-341

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Occipital-cervical fusion (OCF) and ventral decompression (VD) may be used in the treatment of pediatric Chiari-1 malformation (CM-1) with syringomyelia (SM) as adjuncts to posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for complex craniovertebral junction pathology.

Objective: To examine factors influencing the use of OCF and OCF/VD in a multicenter cohort of pediatric CM-1 and SM subjects treated with PFD.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry was used to examine 637 subjects with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and at least 1 yr of follow-up after their index PFD. Comparisons were made between subjects who received PFD alone and those with PFD + OCF or PFD + OCF/VD.

Results: All 637 patients underwent PFD, 505 (79.2%) with and 132 (20.8%) without duraplasty. A total of 12 subjects went on to have OCF at some point in their management (PFD + OCF), whereas 4 had OCF and VD (PFD + OCF/VD). Of those with complete data, a history of platybasia (3/10, P = .011), Klippel-Feil (2/10, P = .015), and basilar invagination (3/12, P < .001) were increased within the OCF group, whereas only basilar invagination (1/4, P < .001) was increased in the OCF/VD group. Clivo-axial angle (CXA) was significantly lower for both OCF (128.8 ± 15.3°, P = .008) and OCF/VD (115.0 ± 11.6°, P = .025) groups when compared to PFD-only group (145.3 ± 12.7°). pB-C2 did not differ among groups.

Conclusion: Although PFD alone is adequate for treating the vast majority of CM-1/SM patients, OCF or OCF/VD may be occasionally utilized. Cranial base and spine pathologies and CXA may provide insight into the need for OCF and/or OCF/VD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803430PMC
January 2021

A tribute to the late Professor Donald Simpson, Australian neurosurgeon and namesake of the Simpson grading system for meningioma extent of resection.

J Neurosurg 2020 Oct 23:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Donald Simpson (1927-2018) was a neurosurgeon from Adelaide, Australia, who is often cited for the 1957 publication he wrote as a trainee on the relationship between extent of resection and outcomes for meningiomas. That paper summarized a series of over 300 patients operated on in England by well-known neurosurgeons Sir Hugh Cairns and Joseph Buford Pennybacker. Simpson was also known later in his career, when he was at the University of Adelaide in South Australia, for his contributions to the areas of hydrocephalus, spina bifida, craniofacial anomalies, head injury, brain abscesses, and neurosurgical history, and he published extensively on these topics. In addition to his work in clinical neurosurgery, Simpson made humanitarian contributions studying kuru in New Guinea and aiding refugees during the Vietnam War. Simpson was an active member and leader of many Australian surgical organizations and was an officer of the Order of Australia. Donald Simpson's legacy as an adult and pediatric neurosurgeon, an academician, a leader, and a humanitarian is extensive and will prove long lasting. Professor Simpson's life serves as an example from which all neurosurgeons may learn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.JNS201331DOI Listing
October 2020

Intraoperative MRI for newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma: a multicenter-registry comparative study to conventional surgery.

J Neurosurg 2020 Oct 9:1-10. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used in the surgical treatment of glioblastoma, with uncertain effects on outcomes. The authors evaluated the impact of iMRI on extent of resection (EOR) and overall survival (OS) while controlling for other known and suspected predictors.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort of 640 adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma who underwent resection was evaluated. iMRI was performed in 332/640 cases (51.9%). Reviews of MRI features and tumor volumetric analysis were performed on a subsample of cases (n = 286; 110 non-iMRI, 176 iMRI) from a single institution.

Results: The median age was 60.0 years (mean 58.5 years, range 20.5-86.3 years). The median OS was 17.0 months (95% CI 15.6-18.4 months). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 403/640 cases (63.0%). Kaplan-Meier analysis of 286 cases with volumetric analysis for EOR (grouped into 100%, 95%-99%, 80%-94%, and 50%-79%) showed longer OS for 100% EOR compared to all other groups (p < 0.01). Additional resection after iMRI was performed in 104/122 cases (85.2%) with initial subtotal resection (STR), leading to a 6.3% mean increase in EOR and a 2.2-cm3 mean decrease in tumor volume. For iMRI cases with volumetric analysis, the GTR rate increased from 54/176 (30.7%) on iMRI to 126/176 (71.5%) postoperatively. The EOR was significantly higher in the iMRI group for intended GTR and STR groups (p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). Predictors of GTR on multivariate logistic regression included iMRI use and intended GTR. Predictors of shorter OS on multivariate Cox regression included older age, STR, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) wild type, no O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation, and no Stupp therapy. iMRI was a significant predictor of OS on univariate (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98; p = 0.03) but not multivariate analyses. Use of iMRI was not associated with an increased rate of new permanent neurological deficits.

Conclusions: GTR increased OS for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma after adjusting for other prognostic factors. iMRI increased EOR and GTR rate and was a significant predictor of GTR on multivariate analysis; however, iMRI was not an independent predictor of OS. Additional supporting evidence is needed to determine the clinical benefit of iMRI in the management of glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.JNS19287DOI Listing
October 2020

Using Histopathology to Assess the Reliability of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Guiding Additional Brain Tumor Resection: A Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):E49-E59

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a powerful tool for guiding brain tumor resections, provided that it accurately discerns residual tumor.

Objective: To use histopathology to assess how reliably iMRI may discern additional tumor for a variety of tumor types, independent of the indications for iMRI.

Methods: A multicenter database was used to calculate the odds of additional resection during the same surgical session for grade I to IV gliomas and pituitary adenomas. The reliability of iMRI for identifying residual tumor was assessed using histopathology of tissue resected after iMRI.

Results: Gliomas (904/1517 cases, 59.6%) were more likely than pituitary adenomas (176/515, 34.2%) to receive additional resection after iMRI (P < .001), but these tumors were equally likely to have additional tissue sent for histopathology (398/904, 44.4% vs 66/176, 37.5%; P = .11). Tissue samples were available for resections after iMRI for 464 cases, with 415 (89.4%) positive for tumor. Additional resections after iMRI for gliomas (361/398, 90.7%) were more likely to yield additional tumor compared to pituitary adenomas (54/66, 81.8%) (P = .03). There were no significant differences in resection after iMRI yielding histopathologically positive tumor between grade I (58/65 cases, 89.2%; referent), grade II (82/92, 89.1%) (P = .98), grade III (72/81, 88.9%) (P = .95), or grade IV gliomas (149/160, 93.1%) (P = .33). Additional resection for previously resected tumors (122/135 cases, 90.4%) was equally likely to yield histopathologically confirmed tumor compared to newly-diagnosed tumors (293/329, 89.0%) (P = .83).

Conclusion: Histopathological analysis of tissue resected after use of iMRI for grade I to IV gliomas and pituitary adenomas demonstrates that iMRI is highly reliable for identifying residual tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa338DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Other Factors on Surgical Outcomes for Newly Diagnosed Grade II Astrocytomas and Oligodendrogliomas: A Multicenter Study.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):63-73

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Few studies use large, multi-institutional patient cohorts to examine the role of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) in the resection of grade II gliomas.

Objective: To assess the impact of iMRI and other factors on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for newly diagnosed grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Methods: Retrospective analyses of a multicenter database assessed the impact of patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors on OS and PFS.

Results: A total of 232 resections (112 astrocytomas and 120 oligodendrogliomas) were analyzed. Oligodendrogliomas had longer OS (P < .001) and PFS (P = .01) than astrocytomas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated improved OS for gross total resection (GTR) vs subtotal resection (STR; P = .006, hazard ratio [HR]: .23) and near total resection (NTR; P = .02, HR: .64). GTR vs STR (P = .02, HR: .54), GTR vs NTR (P = .04, HR: .49), and iMRI use (P = .02, HR: .54) were associated with longer PFS. Frontal (P = .048, HR: 2.11) and occipital/parietal (P = .003, HR: 3.59) locations were associated with shorter PFS (vs temporal). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed longer OS with increasing extent of surgical resection (EOR) (P = .03) and 1p/19q gene deletions (P = .02). PFS improved with increasing EOR (P = .01), GTR vs NTR (P = .02), and resections above STR (P = .04). Factors influencing adjuvant treatment (35.3% of patients) included age (P = .002, odds ratio [OR]: 1.04) and EOR (P = .003, OR: .39) but not glioma subtype or location. Additional tumor resection after iMRI was performed in 105/159 (66%) iMRI cases, yielding GTR in 54.5% of these instances.

Conclusion: EOR is a major determinant of OS and PFS for patients with grade II astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Intraoperative MRI may improve EOR and was associated with increased PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa320DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of 3-Dimensional Versus 2-Dimensional Image Distortion Correction on Stereotactic Neurosurgical Navigation Image Fusion Reliability for Images Acquired With Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 10;19(5):599-607

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Fusion of preoperative and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) studies during stereotactic navigation may be very useful for procedures such as tumor resections but can be subject to error because of image distortion.

Objective: To assess the impact of 3-dimensional (3D) vs 2-dimensional (2D) image distortion correction on the accuracy of auto-merge image fusion for stereotactic neurosurgical images acquired with iMRI using a head phantom in different surgical positions.

Methods: T1-weighted intraoperative images of the head phantom were obtained using 1.5T iMRI. Images were postprocessed with 2D and 3D image distortion correction. These studies were fused to T1-weighted preoperative MRI studies performed on a 1.5T diagnostic MRI. The reliability of the auto-merge fusion of these images for 2D and 3D correction techniques was assessed both manually using the stereotactic navigation system and via image analysis software.

Results: Eight surgical positions of the head phantom were imaged with iMRI. Greater image distortion occurred with increased distance from isocenter in all 3 axes, reducing accuracy of image fusion to preoperative images. Visually reliable image fusions were accomplished in 2/8 surgical positions using 2D distortion correction and 5/8 using 3D correction. Three-dimensional correction yielded superior image registration quality as defined by higher maximum mutual information values, with improvements ranging between 2.3% and 14.3% over 2D correction.

Conclusion: Using 3D distortion correction enhanced the reliability of surgical navigation auto-merge fusion of phantom images acquired with iMRI across a wider range of head positions and may improve the accuracy of stereotactic navigation using iMRI images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa152DOI Listing
October 2020

What's the Role of Time in Shared Decision Making?

AMA J Ethics 2020 05 1;22(5):E416-422. Epub 2020 May 1.

Assistant professor of medicine in the Bioethics Research Center at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis, Missouri.

Shared decision making (SDM) is a desirable process and outcome of patient-clinician relationships. Ideally, patients and clinicians have sufficient time to engage in SDM. In reality, time is often insufficient. This article explores time as a barrier to SDM, alternative ways clinicians can think about time, and steps they can take to have fulfilling SDM interactions despite time constraints. Although discussions of time typically focus on time quantity, redirecting attention to the ethical significance of time in establishing patient-clinician relationships suggests the importance of also considering time quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2020.416DOI Listing
May 2020

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with a novel paraneoplastic process in hepatic epithelial hemangioendothelioma: A case report.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 07 12;194:105903. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Ave, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.105903DOI Listing
July 2020

Paralysis Caused by Spinal Cord Injury After Posterior Fossa Surgery: A Systematic Review.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 17;139:151-157. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: Paralysis (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after posterior fossa surgery is a rare but devastating complication. We investigated previous reports of this complication to examine similarities among patients, risk factors, and methods by which it may be prevented.

Methods: A systematic review was completed according to PRISMA guidelines. Electronic databases were searched until November 2019 using keywords "paraplegia," "quadriplegia," or "spinal cord injury" added to "posterior fossa surgery."

Results: Thirteen case reports published between 1996 and 2019 were included. Five (38.5%) involved quadriplegia/quadriparesis and 8 (61.5%) involved paraplegia after surgery. Ten cases (76.9%) were tumor resections and 3 (23.1%) were posterior fossa decompressions (2 for Chiari malformations and 1 for Morquio syndrome). Seven surgeries (53.8%) were performed in the sitting position and 6 (46.2%) were prone. Proposed mechanisms of paralysis involved cervical hyperflexion yielding spinal cord ischemia in 8 patients (61.5%), arterial hypotension in 2 patients (15.4%), spinal cord compression from hematoma in 1 patient (7.7%), and decreased cardiac output in 1 patient (7.7%) (1 study did not propose a cause). Cervical hyperflexion was equally likely in the sitting and prone positions (4 patients each). Only 3 patients (23.1%) involved intraoperative complications (all cardiopulmonary in nature).

Conclusions: Paralysis after posterior fossa surgery often involves spinal cord infarction apparently caused by cervical hyperflexion. Extreme care during patient positioning is needed in both the sitting or prone positions. Electrophysiologic monitoring might enable early identification of spinal cord dysfunction to minimize or avoid this complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.016DOI Listing
July 2020

Image Guidance in Cranial Neurosurgery: How a Six-Ton Magnet and Fluorescent Colors Make Brain Tumor Surgery Better.

Mo Med 2020 Jan-Feb;117(1):39-44

Michael R. Chicoine, MD, is the August A. Busch, Jr. Professor of Neurological Surgery; Peter Sylvester, MD, Neurosurgery Resident PGY6; Alexander T. Yahanda, BS; and Amar Shah, MD, are all in the Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Maximal safe resection can improve patient outcomes for a variety of brain tumor types including low- and high-grade gliomas, pituitary adenomas, and other pathologies. Numerous intraoperative adjuncts exist to guide surgeons with maximizing extent of resection. Three distinct strategies exist including: 1) surgical navigation; 2) intraoperative imaging; and 3) tumor fluorescence. Surgical navigation involves registration of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging to the patient's cranial surface anatomy, allowing real-time localization of tumor and brain structures. Intraoperative imaging devices like intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), intraoperative computed tomography (iCT), 3-D fluoroscopy, and intraoperative ultrasonography (iUS) allow near real time visualization to assess the extent of resection. Intraoperative fluorescence via intravenous fluorescein or oral 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) causes brain tumors to "light up", which can be viewed through surgical optics using selective filters and specific wavelength light sources. A general overview, as well as implementation and utilization of some of these image guidance strategies at Washington University and by Siteman Cancer Center neurosurgeons at Barnes Jewish Hospital, is discussed in this review.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023946PMC
November 2020

Custom Shunt System for Increased Baseline Intracranial Pressure in a Patient with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 26;136:318-322. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Background: Standard treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) involves reduction of intracranial pressure (ICP) to normal range, often via a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). We describe a case of a middle-aged man who presented with symptoms consistent with IIH. After ICP was normalized with a VPS, the patient had neurologic deterioration into a coma. He completely recovered after a month when his ICP was allowed to increase and remain above the normal range.

Case Description: A 50-year-old man presented with daily headaches, visual loss (right > left), and increased lumbar opening pressure consistent with IIH. A VPS was inserted using a Strata II valve with a pressure setting of 1.5, lowering ICP into the normal range. The patient initially had a normal postoperative course, but then became comatose and developed imaging signs consistent with intracranial hypotension. A Codman Certas valve was placed at a setting of 7 and a distal slit-cut peritoneal catheter was used (as opposed to standard open output). This custom system drained at pressure >26 mm Hg based on intraoperative manometry. The patient tolerated this well and is currently planned for a gradual reduction in ICP with valve setting adjustments as an outpatient.

Conclusions: In patients with chronic IIH, reduction to normal ICP may unexpectedly lead to encephalopathic changes. Personalized shunts may facilitate reduction of ICP to still elevated but tolerable levels in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.142DOI Listing
April 2020

A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Factors Influencing Surgical Outcomes for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Grade I Gliomas.

World Neurosurg 2020 Mar 31;135:e754-e764. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Objective: To assess the impact of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI), extent of resection (EOR), and other factors on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with newly diagnosed grade I gliomas.

Methods: A multicenter database was queried to identify patients with grade I gliomas. Retrospective analyses assessed the impact of patient, treatment, and tumor characteristics on OS and PFS.

Results: A total of 284 patients underwent treatment for grade I gliomas, including 248 resections (205 with iMRI, 43 without), 23 biopsies, and 13 laser interstitial thermal therapy treatments. Log-rank analyses of Kaplan-Meier plots showed improved 5-year OS (P = 0.0107) and PFS (P = 0.0009) with increasing EOR, and a trend toward improved 5-year OS for patients with lower American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = 0.0528). Greater EOR was associated with significantly increased 5-year PFS for pilocytic astrocytoma (P < 0.0001), but not for ganglioglioma (P = 0.10) or dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (P = 0.57). Temporal tumors (P = 0.04) and location of "other" (P = 0.04) were associated with improved PFS, and occipital/parietal tumors (P = 0.02) were associated with decreased PFS compared with all other locations. Additional tumor resection was performed after iMRI in 49.7% of cases using iMRI, which produced gross total resection in 64% of these additional resection cases.

Conclusions: Patients with grade I gliomas have extended OS and PFS, which correlates positively with increasing EOR, especially for patients with pilocytic astrocytoma. iMRI may increase EOR, indicated by the rate of gross total resection after iMRI use but was not independently associated with increased OS or PFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.156DOI Listing
March 2020

Spinal cord infarction with resultant paraplegia after Chiari I decompression: case report.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Dec 20:1-7. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Paraplegia after posterior fossa surgery is a rare and devastating complication. The authors reviewed a case of paraplegia following Chiari decompression and surveyed the literature to identify strategies to reduce the occurrence of such events.An obese 44-year-old woman had progressive left arm pain, weakness, and numbness and tussive headaches. MRI studies revealed a Chiari I malformation and a cervicothoracic syrinx. Immediately postoperatively after Chiari decompression the patient was paraplegic, with a T6 sensory level bilaterally. MRI studies revealed equivocal findings of epidural hematoma at the site of the Chiari decompression and in the upper thoracic region. Surgical exploration of the Chiari decompression site and upper thoracic laminectomies identified possible venous engorgement, but no hematoma. Subsequent imaging suggested a thoracic spinal cord infarction. Possible explanations for the spinal cord deficit included spinal cord ischemia related to venous engorgement from prolonged prone positioning in an obese patient in the chin-tucked position. At 6.5 years after surgery the patient had unchanged fixed motor and sensory deficits.Spinal cord infarction is rare after Chiari decompression, but the risk for this complication may be increased for obese patients positioned prone for extended periods of time. Standard precautions may be insufficient and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring may need to be considered in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.10.SPINE19921DOI Listing
December 2019

Transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography: a multicenter case series and technical report.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Feb 4;12(2):170-175. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

Background: Use of the radial artery as an access site for neurointerventional procedures is gaining popularity after several studies in interventional cardiology have demonstrated superior patient safety, decreased length of stay, and patient preference compared with femoral artery access. The transradial approach has yet to be characterized for intraoperative cerebral angiography.

Objective: To report a multicenter experience on the use of radial artery access in intraoperative cerebral angiography, including case series and discussion of technical nuances.

Methods: 27 patients underwent attempted transradial cerebral angiography betweenMay 2017 and May 2019. Data were collected regarding technique, patient positioning, vessels selected, technical success rate, and access site complications.

Results: 24 of the 27 patients (88.8%) underwent successful transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography. 18 patients (66.7%) were positioned supine, 6 patients (22.2%) were positioned prone, 1 patient (3.7%) was positioned lateral, and 2 patients (7.4%) were positioned three-quarters prone. A total of 31 vessels were selected including 13 right carotid arteries (8 common, 1 external, 4 internal), 11 left carotid arteries (9 common and 2 internal), and 6 vertebral arteries (5 right and 1 left). Two patients (7.4%) required conversion to femoral access in order to complete the intraoperative angiogram (1 due to arterial vasospasm and 1 due to inadvertent venous catheterization). One procedure (3.7%) was aborted because of inability to obtain the appropriate fluoroscopic views due to patient positioning. No patient experienced stroke, arterial dissection, or access site complication.

Conclusions: Transradial intraoperative cerebral angiography is safe and feasible with potential for improved operating room workflow ergonomics, faster patient mobility in the postoperative period, and reduced costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015207DOI Listing
February 2020

Treatment, complications, and outcomes of metastatic disease of the spine: from Patchell to PROMIS.

Ann Transl Med 2019 May;7(10):216

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Spinal metastases are common in patients with cancer. As cancer treatments improve and these patients live longer, the number who present with metastatic spine disease will increase. Treatment strategies for these patients continues to evolve. In particular, since the prospective randomized controlled study in 2005 by Patchell showed increased survival with decompressive surgical treatment of spinal metastases, there is a growing body of literature focusing on surgical management and complications of surgery for this disease. Surgery is often one component of a multimodal treatment approach with chemotherapy and radiation, which makes it difficult to parse the benefits of each individual treatment in outcome studies. Additionally, there has been more recent emphasis placed on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) after treatment for metastatic spine disease. In this review, we summarize treatments of metastatic spinal disease, possible perioperative complications, and validated tools used to assess outcomes for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.04.83DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595215PMC
May 2019

Patient Engagement and Cost Savings Achieved by Automated Telemonitoring Systems Designed to Prevent and Identify Surgical Site Infections After Joint Replacement.

Telemed J E Health 2019 02 7;25(2):143-151. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

2 Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: We designed two telemonitoring text and voice messaging interventions, EpxDecolonization (EpxDecol) and EpxWound, to improve management of orthopedic joint replacement patients at Washington University. We reviewed the use of these tools for a period of 88 weeks.

Methods: Cohorts of 1,392 and 1,753 participants completed EpxDecol and EpxWound, respectively. All patients who completed EpxDecol also completed EpxWound. We assessed patient use of and satisfaction with these interventions. A return on investment (ROI) analysis was conducted to determine the cost savings generated by EpxWound and EpxDecol.

Results: The proportions of patients who responded daily to EpxDecol and EpxWound were 91.9% and 77.7%, respectively, over the lengths of each intervention. The percent of daily responders declined <5% during each intervention. Ultimately, 88.4% of EpxDecol patients and 67.8% of EpxWound patients responded to ≥80% of all messages. Median patient survey responses (n = 1,246) were 9/9 (best possible) for care, 8/9 for improved communication, and 5/9 (perfect number) for number of messages received. ROI analysis for this 88-week period showed that using EpxDecol and EpxWound to engage patients (instead of nurses calling patients) saved the equivalent of 2.275 full-time nursing equivalents per week. We calculated net savings of $260,348 with an ROI of 14.85x for 1,753 patients over 88 weeks. One-year cost savings from these interventions were $153,800 with an ROI of 14.79x.

Conclusions: EpxDecol and EpxWound may serve important roles in the perioperative process for orthopedic joint reconstruction surgery given high patient usage of and satisfaction with these interventions. Implementing EpxDecol and EpxWound for a large patient population could yield substantial cost savings and ROI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2017.0325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061301PMC
February 2019

A Systematic Review of the Factors that Patients Use to Choose their Surgeon.

World J Surg 2016 Jan;40(1):45-55

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, John L. Cameron Professor of Alimentary Surgery, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Blalock 688, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: Given surgery's inherent risks, a patient should be able to make the most informed decisions possible in selecting surgical treatment. However, there is little information on what factors patients deem important when choosing a surgeon. We performed a systematic review of the literature focused on how patients select surgical care, focusing on identification of factors that influence patient choice as well as important sources of information used by patients.

Methods: A search of all available literature on factors associated with choice of surgeon/surgical care, as well as sources of information used by patients before undergoing surgery, was conducted using the MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database.

Results: Of the 2315 publications identified, 86 studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, patients draw upon a wide range of factors when choosing surgical care. Surgeon reputation and competency stood out as the most valued professional attributes. Patients also often selected surgeons based on their interpersonal skills. Many patients chose surgical care using hospital, rather than surgeon, characteristics. For these patients, hospital reputation and hospital distance were factors of primary importance. Importantly, most patients relied on word-of-mouth and physician referrals when choosing a surgeon. Patients also expressed interest in quality information on surgeons, indicating that these data would be useful in decision-making.

Conclusions: Patients draw upon a myriad of factors when choosing a surgeon and the circumstances surrounding patients' decisions maybe differ based on sociodemographic, cultural, as well as other factors. Additional information on how patients choose surgeons or hospitals will help providers assist patients in finding their preferred caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-015-3246-7DOI Listing
January 2016
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