Publications by authors named "Alexander Petutschnigg"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Method to Investigate Multi-Axis Release Action of Ski Safety Bindings: A New Approach for Testing in Research and Development.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 10;3:585775. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Industrial Design Department, Institute of Space and Design, University of Art and Design Linz, Linz, Austria.

The authors developed and elaborated on a new method to release ski bindings by utilizing an industrial robot to simulate release movement showing a spatial repeatability of ± 0.06 mm. The parametric programming of the release parameters gave free control while executing repeatable release tests. A series of different motion patterns were performed, on the one hand, to test the applicability of the setup to the simulation of motion patterns and, on the other, to check for the impact of the ski deformations like ski deflections within the range of -5 mm to -85 mm, on the safety bindings' release forces. As certain falling mechanisms are related to knee injury, which is the most common severe injury in alpine skiing, this testing method can be used to develop related displacement movements in future. This movements do not necessarily accord with the directional release mechanics of safety ski bindings. The authors specify the developed testing apparatus as device for force measurements in 3D with an accuracy of ± 0.5% in boot-sole-plane. The intention behind this development is to enable faster, more versatile and adaptive testing procedures in R&D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.585775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902770PMC
February 2021

Potential of Brewer's Spent Grain as a Potential Replacement of Wood in pMDI, UF or MUF Bonded Particleboard.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 20;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Forest Products Technology and Timber Construction Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Markt 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the richest by-product (85%) of the beer-brewing industry, that can be upcycled in a plentiful of applications, from animal feed, bioethanol production or for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. The aim of this research is to investigate the mechanical, physical and structural properties of particleboard manufactured with a mixture of wood particles and BSG gradually added/replacement in 10%, 30% and 50%, glued with polymeric diisocyanate (pMDI), urea-formaldehyde (UF) and melamine urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives. The density, internal bond, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, screw withdrawal resistance, thickness swelling and water absorption were tested. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy anaylsis was carried out to analyze the structure of the panels after the internal bond test. Overall, it was shown that the adding of BSG decreases the mechanical performance of particleboard, due to reduction of the bonding between wood and BSG particles. This decrease has been associated with the structural differences proven by SEM inspection. Interaction of particles with the adhesive is different for boards containing BSG compared to those made from wood. Nevertheless, decrease in the mechanical properties was not critical for particleboards produced with 10% BSG which could be potentially classified as a P2 type, this means application in non-load-bearing panel for interior use in dry conditions, with high dimensional stability and stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13030319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863943PMC
January 2021

Larch Bark as a Formaldehyde Scavenger in Thermal Insulation Panels.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 10;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Forest Products Technology and Timber Construction Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Markt 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

The aim of this study is to investigate the formaldehyde content and emissions of bark-based insulation panels bonded with three types of adhesives: urea formaldehyde, melamine urea-formaldehyde, and tannin-based adhesives. These panels were produced at two levels of density-300 and 500 kg/m-and a thickness of 20 mm, and the influence of the adhesive amount and type on the formaldehyde emissions and content was measured. Other mechanical and physical properties such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bond, and dimensional stability were also scrutinized. With one exception, all the panels belonged to the super E0 classification for free formaldehyde content (perforator value ≤1.5 mg/100 g oven dry mass of panels). The measurements using the desiccator method for formaldehyde emissions assigned all the testing specimens in the F **** category for low-emission panels according to the Japanese International Standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12112632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697591PMC
November 2020

Tannin-Based Hybrid Materials and Their Applications: A Review.

Molecules 2020 Oct 23;25(21). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Salzburg Center for Smart Materials, Jakob-Haringer-Straße 2a, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Tannins are eco-friendly, bio-sourced, natural, and highly reactive polyphenols. In the past decades, the understanding of their versatile properties has grown substantially alongside a continuously broadening of the tannins' application scope. In particular, recently, tannins have been increasingly investigated for their interaction with other species in order to obtain tannin-based hybrid systems that feature advanced and/or novel properties. Furthermore, in virtue of the tannins' chemistry and their high reactivity, they either physicochemically or physically interact with a wide variety of different compounds, including metals and ceramics, as well as a number of organic species. Such hybrid or hybrid-like systems allow the preparation of various advanced nanomaterials, featuring improved performances compared to the current ones. Consequently, these diverse-shaped materials have potential use in wastewater treatment or catalysis, as well as in some novel fields such as UV-shielding, functional food packaging, and biomedicine. Since these kinds of tannin-based hybrids represent an emerging field, thus far no comprehensive overview concerning their potential as functional chemical building blocks is available. Hence, this review aims to provide a structured summary of the current state of research regarding tannin-based hybrids, detailed findings on the chemical mechanisms as well as their fields of application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660623PMC
October 2020

Water-Resistant Casein-Based Adhesives for Veneer Bonding in Biodegradable Ski Cores.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Aug 5;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Forest Products Technology and Timber Construction Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciecnces, Markt 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of casein-based adhesives for the bonding of ash ( spp.) veneers for the manufacture of biodegradable skis. Different formulations containing casein powder, water, lime, sodium silicate, and various glue amounts were tested for shear strength after water storage, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity, water absorption, and thickness swelling. Two other classic wood adhesives, namely epoxy and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) type D4 were used as control. The highest efficiency of both mechanical and physical properties was recorded for the samples glued with caseins and an increased amount of lime. There was also an affinity between casein adhesive distribution and physical and mechanical plywood performance. Moreover, the developed casein-based glues were also used to bond the plywood for ski cores and tested in real-life winter conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12081745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465168PMC
August 2020

Mitigation of Ammonia Emissions from Cattle Manure Slurry by Tannins and Tannin-Based Polymers.

Biomolecules 2020 04 10;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Höhere Bundeslehranstalt für Landwirtschaft Ursprung, Ursprungstraße 4, Elixhausen 5161, Austria.

With the extensive use of nitrogen-based fertilizer in agriculture, ammonia emissions, especially from cattle manure, are a serious environmental threat for soil and air. The European community committed to reduce the ammonia emissions by 30% by the year 2030 compared to 2005. After a moderate initial reduction, the last report showed no further improvements in the last four years, keeping the 30% reduction a very challenging target for the next decade. In this study, the mitigation effect of different types of tannin and tannin-based adsorbent on the ammonia emission from manure was investigated. Firstly, we conducted a template study monitoring the ammonia emissions registered by addition of the tannin-based powders to a 0.1% ammonia solution and then we repeated the experiments with ready-to-spread farm-made manure slurry. The results showed that all tannin-based powders induced sensible reduction of pH and ammonia emitted. Reductions higher than 75% and 95% were registered for ammonia solution and cattle slurry, respectively, when using flavonoid-based powders. These findings are very promising considering that tannins and their derivatives will be extensively available due to the increasing interest on their exploitation for the synthesis of new-generation "green" materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10040581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225981PMC
April 2020

Synthesis and Characterization of High-Performing Sulfur-Free Tannin Foams.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Mar 4;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Forest Products Technology & Timber Constructions Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Marktstrasse 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Tannin foams are green lightweight materials that have attracted industrial interest for the manufacturing of sandwich panels for insulation purposes. However, the dimensions of the cells and the presence of sulfur in the formulation developed until now have discouraged their upscaling. In this work, we present the synthesis and the characterization of the more promising small cell and sulfur-free materials. It was observed that, with respect to standard ones, foams catalyzed with nitric acid present similar physical properties and more phenolic character, which favors the absorption of ionic pollutants. Conversely, the foams blown with aliphatic solvents and surfactants present smaller pores, and higher mechanical and insulating properties, without affecting the chemical properties or the heating value. The combined foam produced with nitric acid as a catalyst and petroleum ether as a blowing agent result in sulfur-free and small cell material with overall improved features. These foams have been produced at 30 × 30 × 3 cm, with high homogeneity and, to date, they represent the most suitable formulation for industrial upscaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12030564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182868PMC
March 2020

Larch Wood Residues Valorization through Extraction and Utilization of High Value-Added Products.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Feb 6;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Forest Products Technology & Timber Constructions, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Many of current bio-based materials are not fully or partly used for material utilization, as the composition of their raw materials and/or possible applications are unknown. This study deals with the analysis of the wood extractives from three different tissue of larch wood: Sapwood mainly from outer part of the log, and sound knotwood as well as dead knotwood. The extractions were performed with an accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) using hexane and acetone/water. The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Three various vibrational spectroscopy (FT-RAMAN, FT-IR and FT-NIR) methods reflect the information from the extracts to the chemical composition of the types of wood before the extraction processes. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra was used to obtain a better insight into possible classification methods. Taxifolin and kaempferol were found in larger amount in sound knotwood samples compared to larch wood with high percentage of sapwood and dead knotwood samples. While the extractions of dead knotwood samples yielded more larixol and resin acids than the other larch wood samples used. Based on the chemical composition, three lead compounds were defined for the classification of the different wood raw materials. The vibrational spectroscopy methods were applied to show their potential for a possible distinction of the three types of larch wood tissue. This new insight into the different larch wood extracts will help in the current efforts to use more environmentally friendly raw materials for innovative applications. The connection between the raw materials and extraction yields of the target values is important to transform the results from the laboratory to industry and consumer applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12020359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077389PMC
February 2020

Analysis of Larch-Bark Capacity for Formaldehyde Removal in Wood Adhesives.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 25;17(3). Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, T. G. Masaryka 24, SK-960 01 Zvolen, Slovak Republic.

Ecofriendly wood-based materials are required by consumers at present. Decorative panels are part of a large group of wood-composite materials, and their environmental properties must not be neglected. More environmentally friendly decorative panels can be achieved by various methods. This paper describes a method of production from larch bark. Tree bark, as a byproduct of the wood industry, is one of the research topics that have gained interest in the last decade, especially for its applications in biobased lignocomposites, with regard to the shrinkage of wood resources. In the present work, the formaldehyde content of decorative boards based on larch bark (0.6 g/cm³) was analyzed when bonded with five different types of adhesive systems: urea-formaldehyde, polyvinyl acetate, the mixture of 70% urea-formaldehyde + 30% polyvinyl acetate, polyurethane, and tannin-based adhesive. A self-agglomerated board was also analyzed. The formaldehyde content of the larch-bark samples was determined with the perforator method (EN 120:2011), and findings showed that all tested samples reached the E1 classification (≤8 mg/100 oven dry). Moreover, 75% of the values of the corrected formaldehyde content were included in the super-E0 class (≤1.5 mg/100 oven dry). In the case of boards bonded with tannin-based adhesive, this natural polymer acted as a formaldehyde scavenger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037390PMC
January 2020

Furfuryl Alcohol and Lactic Acid Blends: Homo- or Co-Polymerization?

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Sep 20;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Forest Products Technology & Timber Constructions Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Furfuryl alcohol (FA) and lactic acid (LA) are two of the most interesting biomolecules, easily obtainable from sugars and hence extremely attractive for green chemistry solutions. These substances undergo homopolymerization and they have been rarely considered for copolymerization. Typically, FA homopolymerizes exothermically in an acid environment producing inhomogeneous porous materials, but recent studies have shown that this reaction can be controlled and therefore we have implemented this process to trigger the copolymerization with LA. The mechanical tests have shown that the blend containing small amount of FA were rigid and the fracture showed patterns more similar to the one of neat polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA). This LA-rich blend exhibited higher chloroform and water resistances, while thermal analyses (TG and DSC) also indicated a higher furanic character than expected. These observations suggested an intimate interconnection between precursors which was highlighted by the presence of a small band in the ester region of the solid state C-NMR, even if the FT-IR did not evidence any new signal. These studies show that these bioplastics are basically constituted of PLA and PFA homopolymers with some small portion of covalent bonds between the two moieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11101533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835956PMC
September 2019

Pollutant Absorption as a Possible End-Of-Life Solution for Polyphenolic Polymers.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 May 20;11(5). Epub 2019 May 20.

Forest Products Technology & Timber Constructions Department, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Marktstraße 136a, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Tannin- and lignin-furanic foams are natural porous materials that have attracted high interest in the scientific and industrial communities for their high thermal and fire-resistant properties. However, no interesting solutions have been proposed for the management of their end-life as yet. In this study, the phenolic-furanic powders derived from the foams were analyzed for their capacity to remove different pollutants like neutral, cationic, and anionic organic molecules from wastewater. It was observed that the macromolecules produced from initially bigger fractions were more suitable to remove methylene blue and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) while contained absorptions were observed for riboflavin. Acidified tannin powders were also prepared to understand the role of the flavonoid in the absorption mechanism. The latter showed outstanding absorption capacity against all of the tested pollutants, highlighting the key-role of the flavonoid fraction and suggesting the limited contribution of the furanic part. All adsorbents were investigated through FT-IR and solid state C-NMR. Finally, the powders were successfully regenerated by simple ethanol washing, showing almost complete absorption recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11050911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6571598PMC
May 2019

Sustainable Phenolic Fractions as Basis for Furfuryl Alcohol-Based Co-Polymers and Their Use as Wood Adhesives.

Polymers (Basel) 2016 Nov 14;8(11). Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Department Forest Product Technology & Timber Construction, Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, 5431 Kuchl, Austria.

Furfuryl alcohol is a very interesting green molecule used in the production of biopolymers. In the present paper, the copolymerization in acid environment with natural, easily-available, phenolic derivatives is investigated. The processes of polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol with: (i) spent-liquor from the pulping industry and (ii) commercial tannin from acacia mimosa were investigated though viscometry and IR-spectroscopy. The curing kinetics of the formulations highlighted the importance of the amount of furfuryl alcohol and catalyst as well as the effect of temperature for both phenolic-furanic polymers. Evidence of covalent copolymerization has been observed through infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed with additional solubility tests. These bio-based formulations were applied as adhesives for solid wood and particleboards with interesting results: at 180 °C, the spent-liquor furanic formulations allow wood bonding slightly with lower performance than PVA in dry conditions, while mixed formulations allow the gluing of particleboard with only satisfactory internal bonding tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym8110396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431995PMC
November 2016

A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy.

Materials (Basel) 2015 Jun 25;8(7):3831-3853. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Department of Prosthetics-, Biomechanic- and Biomaterial Research, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Strubergasse 21, Salzburg A-5020, Austria.

The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT), through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms) in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma8073831DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5455664PMC
June 2015

Sinus elevation with a cortical bone graft block: a patient-specific three-dimensional finite element study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2012 Mar-Apr;27(2):359-68

Prosthetics, Biomechanics, and Biomaterial Research, Salzburg, Austria.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to perform a finite element (FE) analysis of a modified sinus elevation procedure involving additional implantation of a cortical bone graft block for stabilization of an implant. A secondary aim was to compare the modified sinus augmentation with the standard technique and to determine whether the FE model to replace a dental implant can be simplified into a cylinder without compromising the accuracy of the outcome.

Materials And Methods: Based on computed tomography data, three-dimensional FE models of half of a maxilla were created. A basic model was generated to analyze a conventional sinus elevation procedure and another was created for the modified version, which involved insertion of a cortical bone graft block. Two implant models were used in the premolar region: a typical threaded endosseous dental implant and a simplified 4 x 10-mm cylinder. Occlusal loads were applied in axial, mediotrusive, and laterotrusive directions, and perfect bonding was assumed to be present at all interfaces.

Results: The maximum von Mises stresses were significantly lower for the sinus graft models with added cortical bone than for the conventional sinus elevation under all types of loads. No significant difference was observed between the use of threaded implants and the simplified implant cylinders.

Conclusion: The addition of a cortical bone graft may be a useful approach to decrease stresses around implants placed into the grafted sinus.
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September 2012