Publications by authors named "Alexander M Benison"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Changes in Neuronal Activity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Primary Somatosensory Cortex With Nonlinear Burst and Tonic Spinal Cord Stimulation.

Neuromodulation 2020 Jul 6;23(5):594-604. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Although nonlinear burst and tonic SCS are believed to treat neuropathic pain via distinct pain pathways, the effectiveness of these modalities on brain activity in vivo has not been investigated. This study compared neuronal firing patterns in the brain after nonlinear burst and tonic SCS in a rat model of painful radiculopathy.

Methods: Neuronal activity was recorded in the ACC or S1 before and after nonlinear burst or tonic SCS on day 7 following painful cervical nerve root compression (NRC) or sham surgery. The amplitude of nonlinear burst SCS was set at 60% and 90% motor threshold to investigate the effect of lower amplitude SCS on brain activity. Neuronal activity was recorded during and immediately following light brush and noxious pinch of the paw. Change in neuron firing was measured as the percent change in spikes post-SCS relative to pre-SCS baseline.

Results: ACC activity decreases during brush after 60% nonlinear burst compared to tonic (p < 0.05) after NRC and compared to 90% nonlinear burst (p < 0.04) and pre-SCS baseline (p < 0.03) after sham. ACC neuron activity decreases (p < 0.01) during pinch after 60% and 90% nonlinear burst compared to tonic for NRC. The 60% of nonlinear burst decreases (p < 0.02) ACC firing during pinch in both groups compared to baseline. In NRC S1 neurons, tonic SCS decreases (p < 0.01) firing from baseline during light brush; 60% nonlinear burst decreases (p < 0.01) firing from baseline during brush and pinch.

Conclusions: Nonlinear burst SCS reduces firing in the ACC from a painful stimulus; a lower amplitude nonlinear burst appears to have the greatest effect. Tonic and nonlinear burst SCS may have comparable effects in S1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.13116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771032PMC
July 2020

Progression of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures during epileptogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

J Neurophysiol 2018 05 14;119(5):1818-1835. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado , Boulder, Colorado.

Although convulsive seizures occurring during pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis have received considerable attention, nonconvulsive seizures have not been closely examined, even though they may reflect the earliest signs of epileptogenesis and potentially guide research on antiepileptogenic interventions. The definition of nonconvulsive seizures based on brain electrical activity alone has been controversial. Here we define and quantify electrographic properties of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures in the context of the acquired epileptogenesis that occurs after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Lithium-pilocarpine was used to induce the prolonged repetitive seizures characteristic of SE; when SE was terminated with paraldehyde, seizures returned during the 2-day period after pilocarpine treatment. A distinct latent period ranging from several days to >2 wk was then measured with continuous, long-term video-EEG. Nonconvulsive seizures dominated the onset of epileptogenesis and consistently preceded the first convulsive seizures but were still present later. Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures had similar durations. Postictal depression (background suppression of the EEG) lasted for >100 s after both convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures. Principal component analysis was used to quantify the spectral evolution of electrical activity that characterized both types of spontaneous recurrent seizures. These studies demonstrate that spontaneous nonconvulsive seizures have electrographic properties similar to convulsive seizures and confirm that nonconvulsive seizures link the latent period and the onset of convulsive seizures during post-SE epileptogenesis in an animal model. Nonconvulsive seizures may also reflect the earliest signs of epileptogenesis in human acquired epilepsy, when intervention could be most effective. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Nonconvulsive seizures usually represent the first bona fide seizure following a latent period, dominate the early stages of epileptogenesis, and change in severity in a manner consistent with the progressive nature of epileptogenesis. This analysis demonstrates that nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures have different behavioral outcomes but similar electrographic signatures. Alternatively, epileptiform spike-wave discharges fail to recapitulate several key seizure features and represent a category of electrical activity separate from nonconvulsive seizures in this model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00721.2017DOI Listing
May 2018

Safety signals mitigate the consequences of uncontrollable stress via a circuit involving the sensory insular cortex and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

Biol Psychiatry 2011 Sep;70(5):458-64

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Background: Safety signals exert a powerful buffering effect when provided during exposure to uncontrollable stressors. We evaluated the role of the sensory insular cortex (Si) and the extend amygdala in this "safety signal effect."

Methods: Rats were implanted with microinjection cannula, exposed to inescapable tailshocks either with or without a safety signal, and later tested for anxiety-like behavior or neuronal Fos expression.

Results: Exposure to the uncontrollable stressor reduced later social exploration but not when safety signals were present. Temporary inhibition of Si during stressor exposure but not during later behavioral testing blocked the safety signal effect on social exploration. The stressor induced Fos in all regions of the amygdala, but safety signals significantly reduced the number of Fos immunoreactive cells in the basolateral amygdala and ventrolateral region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTlv). Inhibition of BNSTlv neuronal activity during uncontrollable stressor exposure prevented the later reduction in social exploration. Finally, safety signals reduced the time spent freezing during uncontrollable stress.

Conclusions: These data suggest that safety signals inhibit the neural fear or anxiety response that normally occurs during uncontrollable stressors and that inhibition of the BNSTlv is sufficient to prevent later anxiety. These data lend support to a growing body of evidence that chronic fear is mediated in the basolateral amygdala and BNSTlv and that environmental factors that modulate fear during stress will alter the long-term consequences of the stressor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3159417PMC
September 2011

Caudal granular insular cortex is sufficient and necessary for the long-term maintenance of allodynic behavior in the rat attributable to mononeuropathy.

J Neurosci 2011 Apr;31(17):6317-28

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0345, USA.

Mechanical allodynia, the perception of innocuous tactile stimulation as painful, is a severe symptom of chronic pain often produced by damage to peripheral nerves. Allodynia affects millions of people and remains highly resistant to classic analgesics and therapies. Neural mechanisms for the development and maintenance of allodynia have been investigated in the spinal cord, brainstem, thalamus, and forebrain, but manipulations of these regions rarely produce lasting effects. We found that long-term alleviation of allodynic manifestations is produced by discreetly lesioning a newly discovered somatosensory representation in caudal granular insular cortex (CGIC) in the rat, either before or after a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. However, CGIC lesions alone have no effect on normal mechanical stimulus thresholds. In addition, using electrophysiological techniques, we reveal a corticospinal loop that could be the anatomical source of the influence of CGIC on allodynia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0076-11.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089761PMC
April 2011

The sensory insular cortex mediates the stress-buffering effects of safety signals but not behavioral control.

J Neurosci 2008 Dec;28(50):13703-11

Department of Psychology, Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

Safety signals are learned cues that predict stress-free periods whereas behavioral control is the ability to modify a stressor by behavioral actions. Both serve to attenuate the effects of stressors such as uncontrollable shocks. Internal and external cues produced by a controlling behavior are followed by a stressor-free interval, and so it is possible that safety learning is fundamental to the effect of control. If this is the case then behavioral control and safety should recruit the same neural machinery. Interestingly, safety signals that prevented a behavioral outcome of stressor exposure that is also blocked by control (reduced social exploration) failed to inhibit activity in the dorsal raphé nucleus or use the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the mechanisms by which behavioral control operates. However, bilateral lesions to a region of posterior insular cortex, termed the "sensory insula," prevented the effect of safety but not of behavioral control, providing a double-dissociation. These results indicate that stressor-modulators can recruit distinct neural circuitry and imply a critical role of the sensory insula in safety learning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4270-08.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2667691PMC
December 2008

Auditory, somatosensory, and multisensory insular cortex in the rat.

Cereb Cortex 2008 Dec 18;18(12):2941-51. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

Compared with other areas of the forebrain, the function of insular cortex is poorly understood. This study examined the unisensory and multisensory function of the rat insula using high-resolution, whole-hemisphere, epipial evoked potential mapping. We found the posterior insula to contain distinct auditory and somatotopically organized somatosensory fields with an interposed and overlapping region capable of integrating these sensory modalities. Unisensory and multisensory responses were uninfluenced by complete lesioning of primary and secondary auditory and somatosensory cortices, suggesting a high degree of parallel afferent input from the thalamus. In light of the established connections of the posterior insula with the amygdala, we propose that integration of auditory and somatosensory modalities reported here may play a role in auditory fear conditioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583160PMC
December 2008

Hemispheric mapping of secondary somatosensory cortex in the rat.

J Neurophysiol 2007 Jan 27;97(1):200-7. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Campus Box 345, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

This study used high-resolution hemispheric mapping of somatosensory evoked potentials to determine the number and organization of secondary somatosensory areas (SII) in rat cortex. Two areas, referred to as SII and PV (parietoventral), revealed complete (SII) or nearly complete (PV) body maps. The vibrissa and somatic representation of SII was upright, rostrally oriented, and immediately lateral to primary somatosensory cortex (SI), with a dominant face representation. Vibrissa representations in SII were highly organized, with the rows staggered rostrally along the mediolateral axis. Area PV was approximately one fifth the size of SII, and located rostral and lateral to auditory cortex. PV had a rostrally oriented and inverted body representation that was dominated by the distal extremities, with little representation of the face or vibrissae. These data support the conclusion that in the rat, as in other species, SII and PV represent anatomically and functionally distinct areas of secondary somatosensory cortex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00673.2006DOI Listing
January 2007

Two-dimensional coincidence detection in the vibrissa/barrel field.

J Neurophysiol 2006 Oct 21;96(4):1981-90. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

Coincidence detection in visual and auditory cortex may also be critical for feature analysis in somatosensory cortex. We examined its role in the rat posteromedial barrel subfield (PMBSF) using high-resolution arrays of epipial electrodes. Five vibrissae, forming an arc, row, or diagonal, were simultaneously or asynchronously stimulated to simulate contact with a straight edge of different angles at natural whisking velocities. Results indicated supralinear responses for both slow-wave and fast oscillations (FOs, about 350 Hz) at intervibrissa delays <2 ms. FO represented the earliest and most precisely tuned response to coincident vibrissa displacement. There was little difference in the spatiotemporal pattern of slow-wave or FO responses in the row, arc, or diagonal. This equivalence of function suggests that the PMBSF may be capable of working as a two-dimensional integrative array, processing spatial features based on coincidence detection despite the direction that the vibrissae pass across an object.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00404.2006DOI Listing
October 2006

Temporal patterns of field potentials in vibrissa/barrel cortex reveal stimulus orientation and shape.

J Neurophysiol 2006 Apr 4;95(4):2242-51. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

During environmental exploration, rats rhythmically whisk their vibrissae along the rostrocaudal axis. Each forward extension of the vibrissa array establishes rapid spatiotemporal contact with an object under investigation. This contact presumably produces equally rapid spatiotemporal patterns of population responses in the vibrissa representation of somatosensory cortex [the posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF)] reflecting features of a stimulus. We used extracellular mapping to identify object features based on spatiotemporal patterns of evoked potentials. Spatiotemporal modeling of evoked potential patterns accurately reconstructed linear versus curved stimuli and detected orientation changes as small as 5 degrees. Whiskers forming arcs in the PMBSF, essential for this reconstruction, may represent a fundamental processing module. We propose that the PMBSF may function as a spatial frequency analyzer, with intrarow processing integrating a complementary set of spatial frequencies from the arcs in a single whisk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01034.2005DOI Listing
April 2006

Intracortical pathways mediate nonlinear fast oscillation (>200 Hz) interactions within rat barrel cortex.

J Neurophysiol 2005 May 8;93(5):2934-9. Epub 2004 Dec 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, UCB 345, Boulder, CO 80309-0345, USA.

Whisker evoked fast oscillations (FOs; >200 Hz) within the rodent posteromedial barrel subfield are thought to reflect very rapid integration of multiwhisker stimuli, yet the pathways mediating FO interactions remain unclear and may involve interactions within thalamus and/or cortex. In the present study using anesthetized rats, a cortical incision was made between sites representing the stimulated whiskers to determine how intracortical networks contributed to patterns of FOs. With cortex intact, simultaneous stimulation of a pair of whiskers aligned in a row evoked supralinear responses between sites separated by several millimeters. In contrast, stimulation of a nonadjacent pair of whiskers within an arc evoked FOs with no evidence for nonlinear interactions. However, stimulation of an adjacent pair of whiskers in an arc did evoke supralinear responses. After a cortical cut, supralinear interactions associated with FOs within a row were lost. These data indicate a distinct bias for stronger long-range connectivity that extends along barrel rows and that horizontal intracortical pathways exclusively mediate FO-related integration of tactile information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01101.2004DOI Listing
May 2005