Publications by authors named "Alexander L Lazarides"

46 Publications

Extent of tumor fibrosis/hyalinization and infarction following neoadjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

Cancer Med 2021 Nov 27. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Introduction: Current standard of care for most intermediate and high-grade soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) includes limb-preserving surgical resection with either neoadjuvant radiation therapy (NRT) or adjuvant radiation therapy. To date, there have been a few studies that attempt to correlate histopathologic response to NRT with oncologic outcomes in patients with STS.

Methods: Using our institutional database, we identified 58 patients who received NRT followed by surgical resection for primary intermediate or high-grade STS and 34 patients who received surgical resection without NRT but did receive adjuvant radiation therapy or did not receive any radiation therapy. We analyzed four histologic parameters of response to therapy: residual viable tumor, fibrosis/hyalinization, necrosis, and infarction (each ratiometrically determined). Data were stratified into two binary groups. Unadjusted, 5- and 10-year overall survival, and relapsed-free survival (RFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Analysis of pathologic characteristics showed that patients treated with NRT demonstrate significantly higher tumor infarction, higher tumor fibrosis/hyalinization, and a lower percent viable tumor compared with patients not treated with NRT (p < 0.0001). Based on Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and multivariate cox proportional hazard model for OS and RFS, patients treated with NRT and showing >12.5% tumor fibrosis/hyalinization have significantly higher overall survival and recurrence-free survival at 5 and 10 years.

Discussion And Conclusion: We have identified three histopathologic characteristics-fibrosis, hyalinization, and infarction-that may serve as predictive biomarkers of response to NRT for STS patients. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4428DOI Listing
November 2021

Why Do Patients Undergoing Extremity Prosthetic Reconstruction for Metastatic Disease Get Readmitted?

J Arthroplasty 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Orthopedic oncology patients are particularly susceptible to increased readmission rates and poor surgical outcomes, yet little is known about readmission rates. The goal of this study is to identify factors independently associated with 90-day readmission for patients undergoing oncologic resection and subsequent prosthetic reconstruction for metastatic disease of the hip and knee.

Methods: This is a retrospective comparative cohort study of all patients treated from 2013 to 2019 at a single tertiary care referral institution who underwent endoprosthetic reconstruction by an orthopedic oncologist for metastatic disease of the extremities. The primary outcome measure was unplanned 90-day readmission.

Results: We identified 112 patients undergoing 127 endoprosthetic reconstruction surgeries. Metastatic disease was most commonly from renal (26.8%), lung (23.6%), and breast (13.4%) cancer. The most common type of skeletal reconstruction performed was simple arthroplasty (54%). There were 43 readmissions overall (33.9%). When controlling for confounding factors, body mass index >40, insurance status, peripheral vascular disease, and longer hospital length of stay were independently associated with risk of readmission (P ≤ .05).

Conclusion: Readmission rates for endoprosthetic reconstructions for metastatic disease are high. Although predicting readmission remains challenging, risk stratification presents a viable option for helping minimize unplanned readmissions.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.10.019DOI Listing
November 2021

The Utility of Chest Imaging for Surveillance of Atypical Lipomatous Tumors.

Sarcoma 2021 11;2021:4740924. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, atypical lipomatous tumors (ALTs) are thought to have a low propensity for metastasis. Despite this, a standard of care for pulmonary metastasis (PM) surveillance has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of chest imaging for PM surveillance following ALT excision.

Methods: This was a multi-institution, retrospective review of all patients with primary ALTs of the extremities or superficial torso who underwent excision between 2006 and 2018. Minimum follow-up was two years. Long-term survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: 190 patients with ALT were included. Average age was 61.7 years and average follow-up was 58.6 months (24 to 180 months). MDM2 testing was positive in 88 patients (46.3%), and 102 (53.7%) did not receive MDM2 testing. 188 patients (98.9%) had marginal excision, and 127 (66.8%) had marginal or positive margins. Patients received an average of 0.9 CT scans and 1.3 chest radiographs over the surveillance period. 10-year metastasis-free survival was 100%, with no documented deaths from disease.

Conclusions: This study suggests that chest imaging does not have a significant role in PM surveillance following ALT excision, but advanced local imaging and chest surveillance may be considered in cases of local recurrence or concern for dedifferentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4740924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8523289PMC
October 2021

Identifying Modifiable and Non-modifiable Risk Factors of Readmission and Short-Term Mortality in Chondrosarcoma: A National Cancer Database Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Limited data are available to inform the risk of readmission and short-term mortality in musculoskeletal oncology. The goal of this study was to identify factors independently associated with 30-day readmission and 90-day mortality following surgical resection of chondrosarcoma.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 6653 patients following surgical resection of primary chondrosarcoma in the National Cancer Database (2004-2017). Both demographic and clinicopathologic variables were assessed for correlation with readmission and short-term mortality utilizing univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling.

Results: Of 220 readmissions (3.26%), risk factors independently associated with an increased risk of unplanned 30-day readmission included Charlson-Deyo Comorbidity Index (CDCC) (odds ratio [OR] 1.31; p = 0.027), increasing American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (OR 1.31; p = 0.004), undergoing major amputation (OR 2.38; p = 0.001), and axial skeletal location (OR 1.51; p = 0.028). A total of 137 patients died within 90 days of surgery (2.25%). Risk factors associated with increased mortality included the CDCC (OR 1.60; p = 0.001), increasing age (OR 1.06; p < 0.001), having Medicaid insurance status (OR 3.453; p = 0.005), living in a zip code with a higher educational attainment (OR 1.59; p = 0.003), increasing AJCC stage (OR 2.32; p < 0.001), longer postoperative length of stay (OR 1.015; p = 0.033), and positive surgical margins (OR 2.75; p = 0.001). Although a majority of the cohort did not receive radiation therapy (88.8%), receiving radiotherapy (OR 0.132; p = 0.010) was associated with a decreased risk of short-term mortality.

Conclusions: Several tumor, treatment, and patient factors can help inform the risk of readmission and short-term mortality in patients with surgically treated chondrosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10802-8DOI Listing
September 2021

The Efficacy of Peroxide Solutions in Decreasing Cutibacterium acnes Burden Around the Shoulder.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Cutibacterium acnes is a common pathogen associated with surgical site infection after shoulder surgery; current standard of care products are largely ineffective at reducing C acnes bacterial burden before surgery. The purpose of this systematic meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of peroxide-containing solutions (PCS) in decreasing the C acnes burden on the shoulder.

Methods: This was a systematic review of all level I and II studies investigating the effect of peroxidase-containing products for skin preparation. We extracted data regarding demographics, treatment details and timing, study methodology, and culture positivity. Forest plots were used to determine the pooled efficacy of peroxide solutions versus control.

Results: Seven studies with 412 patients were eligible for inclusion. Notable heterogeneity was observed in the manner and timing of peroxide application. Two studies applied PCS at the time of surgery; four studies applied PCS in the 24- to 72-hour period leading up to culture acquisition. Compared with the placebo, peroxide significantly diminished C acnes culture positivity (Hazard Ratio 0.174, P = 0.009). When considering using peroxide-containing products in the period leading up to surgery or at the time of surgery, in addition to standard preparation, the addition of peroxide significantly diminished C acnes culture positivity (HR 0.467, P = 0.004). Owing to study heterogeneity, we could not make notable comparisons based on the timing or duration of benzoyl peroxides application.

Conclusions: Despite heterogeneity in study design, pooled results of high-quality data suggest that the addition of PCS can markedly reduce C acnes bioburden. This review was not able to identify the ideal regimen for the utilization of PCS for reduction of C acnes burden.

Level Of Evidence: Level II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-21-00457DOI Listing
August 2021

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus: a systematic review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Nov 15;30(11):e647-e658. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) for reconstruction of the proximal humerus after oncologic resection. However, the indications and outcomes of oncologic rTSA remain unclear.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that reported outcomes of patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. Extracted data included demographic characteristics, indications, operative techniques, outcomes, and complications. Weighted means were calculated according to sample size.

Results: Twelve studies were included, containing 194 patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. The mean patient age was 48 years, and 52% of patients were male. Primary malignancies were present in 55% of patients; metastatic disease, 30%; and benign tumors, 9%. The mean humeral resection length was 12 cm. The mean postoperative Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 78%; Constant score, 60; and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score, 77%. The mean complication rate was 28%, with shoulder instability accounting for 63% of complications. Revisions were performed in 16% of patients, and the mean implant survival rate was 89% at a mean follow-up across studies of 53 months.

Conclusions: Although the existing literature is of poor study quality, with a high level of heterogeneity and risk of bias, rTSA appears to be a suitable option in appropriately selected patients undergoing oncologic resection and reconstruction of the proximal humerus. The most common complication is instability. Higher-quality evidence is needed to help guide decision making on appropriate implant utilization for patients undergoing oncologic resection of the proximal humerus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.06.004DOI Listing
November 2021

Identifying Modifiable and Non-modifiable Risk Factors of Readmission and Short-Term Mortality in Osteosarcoma: A National Cancer Database Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 20;28(12):7961-7972. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: There are limited data to inform risk of readmission and short-term mortality in musculoskeletal oncology. The goal of this study was to identify factors independently associated with 30-day readmission and 90-day mortality following surgical resection of osteosarcoma.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients (n = 5293) following surgical resection of primary osteosarcoma in the National Cancer Database (2004-2015). Univariate and multivariate methods were used to correlate variables with readmission and short-term mortality.

Results: Of 210 readmissions (3.97%), risk factors independently associated with unplanned 30-day readmission included comorbidity burden (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, p = 0.042), Medicare insurance (OR 1.9, p = 0.021), and axial skeleton location (OR 1.5, p = 0.029). A total of 91 patients died within 90 days of their surgery (1.84%). Risk factors independently associated with mortality included age (hazard ratio 1.1, p < 0.001), increasing comorbidity burden (OR 6.6, p = 0.001), higher grade (OR 1.7, p = 0.007), increasing tumor size (OR 2.2, p = 0.03), metastatic disease at presentation (OR 8.5, p < 0.001), and amputation (OR 2.0, p = 0.04). Chemotherapy was associated with a decreased risk of short-term mortality (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Several trends were clear: insurance status, tumor location and comorbidity burden were independently associated with readmission rates, while age, amputation, grade, tumor size, metastatic disease, and comorbidity burden were independently associated with short-term mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10099-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Physician burnout and professional satisfaction in orthopedic surgeons during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Work 2021 ;69(1):15-22

Background: Burnout and professional satisfaction is an often an overlooked component for healthcare outcomes; the COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented stressor that could contribute to higher levels of burnout.

Objectives: Our primary objective was to evaluate the association of a battery of fulfillment, job satisfaction change, COVID-19 concerns, and coping measures. Our secondary objective was to determine whether the fulfillment and coping measures differed by gender and by experience levels among a battery of physician specialties.

Methods: The study was a purposive sample of convenience. Study participants included all trainees and attending orthopedic surgeons from our academic institution; all participants were invited to complete a survey built around a validated measure of professional fulfillment aimed at assessing response to acute change and stressors. We performed univariate statistics and a matrix correlational analysis to correlate different survey domains with variables of interest.

Results: The survey was sent electronically to 138 individuals; 63 surveys were completed (response rate = 45.7%). Twenty-seven (42.8%) individuals met the threshold criteria for fulfillment whereas 10 (15.9%) met the threshold for burnout. We found that surgeon perspectives on COVID-19 were not associated with burnout or professional fulfillment. Burnout was inversely associated with professional fulfillment (R = -0.35). Support seeking was noted to be correlated with professional fulfillment (R = 0.37).

Conclusions: Stressors related to COVID-19 pandemic were not correlated with physician burnout and fulfillment. This held true even when stratifying by gender and by attending vs. trainee. Continued efforts should be implemented to protect against physician burnout and ensure professional fulfillment for Orthopedic surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-205288DOI Listing
June 2021

Next-generation sequencing not superior to culture in periprosthetic joint infection diagnosis.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jan;103-B(1):26-31

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Aims: Use of molecular sequencing methods in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis and organism identification have gained popularity. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potentially powerful tool that is now commercially available. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NGS, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), conventional culture, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, and the recently proposed criteria by Parvizi et al in the diagnosis of PJI.

Methods: In this retrospective study, aspirates or tissue samples were collected in 30 revision and 86 primary arthroplasties for routine diagnostic investigation for PJI and sent to the laboratory for NGS and PCR. Concordance along with statistical differences between diagnostic studies were calculated.

Results: Using the MSIS criteria to diagnose PJI as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of NGS were 60.9% and 89.9%, respectively, while culture resulted in sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 95.3%. PCR had a low sensitivity of 18.4%. There was no significant difference based on sample collection method (tissue swab or synovial fluid) (p = 0.760). There were 11 samples that were culture-positive and NGS-negative, of which eight met MSIS criteria for diagnosing infection.

Conclusion: In our series, NGS did not provide superior sensitivity or specificity results compared to culture. PCR has little utility as a standalone test for PJI diagnosis with a sensitivity of only 18.4%. Currently, several laboratory tests for PJI diagnosis should be obtained along with the overall clinical picture to help guide decision-making for PJI treatment. Cite this article: 2021;103-B(1):26-31.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.103B1.BJJ-2020-0017.R3DOI Listing
January 2021

A Comparative Oncology Drug Discovery Pipeline to Identify and Validate New Treatments for Osteosarcoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 11;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: Osteosarcoma is a rare but aggressive bone cancer that occurs primarily in children. Like other rare cancers, treatment advances for osteosarcoma have stagnated, with little improvement in survival for the past several decades. Developing new treatments has been hampered by extensive genomic heterogeneity and limited access to patient samples to study the biology of this complex disease.

Methods: To overcome these barriers, we combined the power of comparative oncology with patient-derived models of cancer and high-throughput chemical screens in a cross-species drug discovery pipeline.

Results: Coupling in vitro high-throughput drug screens on low-passage and established cell lines with in vivo validation in patient-derived xenografts we identify the proteasome and CRM1 nuclear export pathways as therapeutic sensitivities in osteosarcoma, with dual inhibition of these pathways inducing synergistic cytotoxicity.

Conclusions: These collective efforts provide an experimental framework and set of new tools for osteosarcoma and other rare cancers to identify and study new therapeutic vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696249PMC
November 2020

Limb salvage versus amputation in patients with osteosarcoma of the extremities: an update in the modern era using the National Cancer Database.

BMC Cancer 2020 Oct 14;20(1):995. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Hospital, 311 Trent Drive, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Background: Historically, amputation was the primary surgical treatment for osteosarcoma of the extremities; however, with advancements in surgical techniques and chemotherapies limb salvage has replaced amputation as the dominant treatment paradigm. This study assessed the type of surgical resection chosen for osteosarcoma patients in the twenty-first century.

Methods: Utilizing the largest registry of primary osteosarcoma, the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we retrospectively analyzed patients with high grade osteosarcoma of the extremities from 2004 through 2015. Differences between patients undergoing amputation and patients undergoing limb salvage are described. Unadjusted five-year overall survival between patients who received limb salvage and amputation was assessed utilizing Kaplan Meier curves. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model and propensity matched analysis was used to determine the variables independently correlated with survival.

Results: From a total of 2442 patients, 1855 underwent limb salvage and 587 underwent amputation. Patients undergoing amputation were more likely to be older, male, uninsured, and live in zip codes associated with lower income. Patients undergoing amputation were also more likely to have larger tumors, more comorbid conditions, and metastatic disease at presentation. After controlling for confounders, limb salvage was associated with a significant survival benefit over amputation (HR: 0.70; p < 0.001). Although this may well reflect underlying biases impacting choice of treatment, this survival benefit remained significant after propensity matched analysis of all significantly different independent variables (HR: 0.71; p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Among patients in the NCDB, amputation for osteosarcoma is associated with advanced age, advanced stage, larger tumors, greater comorbidities, and lower income. Limb salvage is associated with a significant survival benefit, even when controlling for significant confounding variables and differences between cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07502-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557006PMC
October 2020

Commercially Available Polymerase Chain Reaction Has Minimal Utility in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

Orthopedics 2020 Nov 1;43(6):333-338. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

The use of genetic sequencing modalities in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and the identification of organisms has gained popularity recently. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers timely results for common organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of broad-range PCR, conventional culture, the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, and the recently proposed criteria by Parvizi et al in the diagnosis of PJI. In this retrospective study, aspirate or tissue samples were collected in 104 revision and 86 primary arthroplasties for routine diagnostic workup for PJI and sent to the laboratory for PCR. Concordance along with statistical differences between diagnostic studies were calculated using chi-square test for categorical data. On comparison with the MSIS criteria, concordance was significantly lower for PCR at 64.7% compared with 86.3% for culture (P<.001). There was no significant difference based on diagnosis of prior infection (P=.706) or sample collection method (tissue swab or synovial fluid) (P=.316). Of the 87 patients who met MSIS criteria, only 20 (23.0%) PCR samples had an organism identified. In this series, PCR had little utility as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of PJI, with a sensitivity of only 23.0% when using MSIS criteria as the gold standard. Polymerase chain reaction also appears to be significantly less accurate than culture in the diagnosis of PJI. Currently, several laboratory tests used for either criteria for PJI diagnosis should be obtained along with the overall clinical picture to help guide decision-making for PJI treatment. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):333-338.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200923-01DOI Listing
November 2020

The Calpain Gene is Correlated With Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement Failures.

J Arthroplasty 2021 01 30;36(1):236-241.e3. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty is associated with unacceptable failure rates secondary to metal ion reactions. Efforts to identify which patients will go on to failure have been limited; recently, there has been a suggestion for a potential genetic basis for the increased risk of revision in MOM hip replacements (MOMHRs). The purpose of this study is to determine whether certain immunologic genotypes are predictive of the need for revision in patients with MOM total hip implants.

Methods: This is a case-control study of all patients undergoing primary MOMHR between September 2002 and January 2012 with a minimum of 5-year follow-up. Our investigational "case" cohort was comprised of patients who underwent revision for MOMHR for a reason other than infection. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis was performed to identify a potential genetic basis for failure.

Results: Thirty-two patients (15 case and 17 control) were included in our analysis. All patients in the revision group had a chief complain of pain; revision patients were more likely to have a posterior approach (P = .01) and larger head size (P = .04) than nonrevision patients. No patient or implant characteristics were independently associated with revision in a multivariate analysis. Patients with SNP kgp9316441 were identified as having an increased odds of revision for MOM failure (P < .001).

Conclusion: This study identified an SNP, kgp9316441, encoding proteins associated with inflammation and macrophage activation. This SNP was associated with significantly increased odds of revision for MOMHR. Future studies are warranted to validate this gene target both in vitro and in vivo.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2020.07.054DOI Listing
January 2021

Defining a textbook surgical outcome for patients undergoing surgical resection of intermediate and high-grade soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 21;122(5):884-896. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Quality measures for the surgical management soft tissue sarcoma of the extremity are limited. The purpose of this study was to define a textbook surgical outcome (TO) for soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities (STS-E) and to examine its associations with hospital volume and overall survival.

Methods: All patients in the National Cancer Database undergoing resection of primary STS-E between 2004 and 2015 were identified. The primary outcome was a TO, defined as: hospital length of stay (LOS) <75th percentile, survival >90 days from the date of surgery, no readmission within 30 days of discharge, and negative surgical margins (R0 resection).

Results: Overall, 7658 patients met criteria for inclusion; a TO was achieved in 4291 (56%) patients. Of patients who did not achieve TOs, 51.9% (n = 1748) had an extended LOS, and 47.3% (n = 1591) did not have negative margins. Older age, more medical comorbidities, and non-white or black race were independently associated with not receiving a TO (P = .034). With respect to tumor and treatment characteristics, larger tumor size, lower extremity location and higher grade were independently associated with not receiving a TO (P < .001). Hospital volume was not associated with a TO. TOs conferred a significant survival benefit (hazrds ratio = 0.71 [0.65-0.78], P < .001). A TO was associated with a 27.5% longer survival time (P < .001).

Conclusions: This study defined a TO in intermediate and high-grade STS-E and demonstrated that this outcome measure is associated with overall survival. Facility volume was not associated with a TO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26087DOI Listing
October 2020

Intraoperative Fire Risk: Evaluating the 3-Minute Wait After Chlorhexidine-Alcohol Antiseptic Scrub.

J Orthop Trauma 2021 01;35(1):e31-e33

Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC.

Objective: We sought to determine the flammability of the skin at different time intervals after chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub application, to provide evidence for hospital protocols recommending a 3-minute drying time.

Methods: Swine feet, which contain the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, and bone, were used for an experimental cohort. The skin was prepped with chlorhexidine-alcohol solution. Attempted ignition with an open flame was then performed in the presence of visible pooling, as well as at time points 0, 30, 60, and 90 seconds after application, in addition to when the skin appeared visibly dry. Six samples were used for each time point tested.

Results: At time 0 seconds and with gross pooling, ignition was achieved with all samples tested. However, at 30 seconds, only 2 of 6 samples were ignited (which appeared wet). No samples after 60 or 90 seconds were flammable. Samples appeared dry after an average of 40.5 seconds and were not able to ignite.

Conclusions: Although our findings do support that a chlorhexidine-alcohol antiseptic scrub is a potentially flammable surgical prep solution, we found little support for a 3-minute time cutoff. More importantly, the presence of pooling and persistently wet appearing prep is a more important fire risk than the time elapsed after prep application. Caution should be used when working with any flammable solution, and efforts to minimize chemical burns and combustion should be sought based on evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000001885DOI Listing
January 2021

Does facility volume influence survival in patients with primary malignant bone tumors of the vertebral column? A comparative cohort study.

Spine J 2020 07 4;20(7):1106-1113. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background Context: Facility volume has been correlated with survival in many cancers. This relationship has not been established in primary malignant bone tumors of the vertebral column (BTVC).

Purpose: To investigate whether facility patient volume is associated with overall survival in patients with primary malignant BTVCs.

Study Design: Retrospective comparative cohort.

Patient Sample: Adult patients with chordomas, chondrosarcomas, or osteosarcomas of the mobile spine.

Outcome Measures: Five-year survival.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 733 patients with primary malignant BTVCs in the national cancer database from 2004 through 2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to correlate specific outcome measures with facility volume. Volume was stratified based on cumulative martingale residuals to determine the inflection point of negative to positive impact on survival based on the patient cohort. Long-term survival was compared between patients treated at high and low volume using the Kaplan-Meier method. Only patients with malignant primary tumors were considered eligible for inclusion; patients with incomplete treatment data or benign tumors were excluded.

Results: Patients treated at high-volume centers (HVCs) were younger (p=.0003) and more likely to be insured (p<.0001). There were no significant differences in tumor characteristics. Patients treated at high-volume facilities had improved 5-year survival of 71% versus 58% at low-volume centers (p<.0001). Patients treated at HVCs were more likely to receive surgical treatment (91% vs. 80%, p<.0001); if surgery was performed, they were more likely to undergo an en bloc resection (48% vs. 30%, p<.0001). However, there were no differences in margin status or utilization of radiotherapy or chemotherapy between HVCs and low-volume centers. In a multivariate analysis, facility volume was independently associated with improved survival overall (HR 0.75 [0.58-0.97], p=.03).

Conclusions: Primary malignant BTVCs are rare, even for HVCs. Despite this, patient survival was significantly improved when treatment was performed at HVCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2020.02.020DOI Listing
July 2020

The Role of Radiotherapy for Chordoma Patients Managed With Surgery: Analysis of the National Cancer Database.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jun;45(12):E742-E751

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Study Design: Retrospective review.

Objective: To determine if adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) improves overall survival (OS) following surgical resection of chordomas.

Summary Of Background Data: The role of RT for the treatment of chordomas remains incompletely described. Previous studies have not found adjuvant RT to improve OS, but these studies did not group patients based on surgical margin status or radiation dose or modality. We used the National Cancer Database to investigate the role of RT in chordomas following surgical resection.

Methods: Patients were stratified based on surgical margin status (positive vs. negative). Utilizing the Kaplan-Meier method, OS was compared between treatment modalities (surgical resection alone, therapeutic RT alone, and surgical resection plus therapeutic RT). OS was subsequently compared between patients treated with palliative dose (<40 Gy), low dose (40-65 Gy), and high dose (>65 Gy) RT. Similarly, OS was compared between advanced RT modalities including proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). A multivariable model was used to determine adjusted variables predictive of mortality.

Results: One thousand four hundred seventy eight chordoma patients were identified; skull base (n = 567), sacral (n = 551), and mobile spine (n = 360). Surgical resection and therapeutic adjuvant RT improved 5-year survival in patients with positive surgical margins (82% vs. 71%, P = 0.03). No clear survival benefit was observed with the addition of adjuvant RT in patients with negative surgical margins. High dose RT was associated with improved OS compared with palliative and low dose RT (P < 0.001). Advanced RT techniques and SRS were associated with improved OS compared with EBRT. In the multivariate analysis high dose advanced RT (>65 Gy) was superior to EBRT.

Conclusion: Patients with positive surgical margins benefit from adjuvant RT. Optimal OS is associated with adjuvant RT administered with advanced techniques and cumulative dose more than 65 Gy.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649561PMC
June 2020

Revisiting the Role of Radiation Therapy in Chondrosarcoma: A National Cancer Database Study.

Sarcoma 2019 13;2019:4878512. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, 2301 Erwin Rd, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Background: Although chondrosarcomas (CS) are mostly considered radioresistant, advancements in radiotherapy have brought attention to its use in these patients. Using the largest registry of primary bone tumors, the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we sought to better characterize the current use of radiotherapy in CS patients and identify any potential survival benefit with higher radiation doses and advanced radiation therapies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed CS patients in the NCDB from 2004 to 2015 who underwent radiotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier method with statistical comparisons was used to identify which individual variables related to dosage and delivery modality were associated with improved 5-year survival rates. Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of survival.

Results: Of 5,427 patients with a histologic diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, 680 received a form of radiation therapy (13%). The multivariate proportional hazards analysis controlling for various patient, tumor, and treatment variables, including RT dose and modality, demonstrated that while overall radiation therapy (RT) was not associated with improved survival (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76-1.20), when examining just the patient cohort with positive surgical margins, RT trended towards improved survival (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.58-1.13). When comparing advanced and conventional RT modalities, advanced RT was associated with significantly decreased mortality (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.80). However, advanced modality and high-dose RT both trended only toward improved survival compared to patients who did not receive any RT (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.52-1.06 and HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.71-1.21, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite the suggested radioresistance of CS, modern radiotherapies may present a treatment option for certain patients. Our results support a role for high-dose, advanced radiation therapies in selected high-risk CS patients with tumors in surgically challenging locations or unplanned positive margins. While there is an associated survival rate benefit, further, prospective studies are needed for validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4878512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815626PMC
October 2019

Tibiotalocalcaneal Arthrodesis Using a Novel Retrograde Intramedullary Nail.

Foot Ankle Spec 2020 Dec 23;13(6):463-469. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

. Tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis is a common treatment option for complex hindfoot pathology. Overall union rates range from 50% to 86% but can be even lower in certain populations. A novel retrograde intramedullary nail has recently been developed. The purpose of this study was to report fusion rates, time to weight-bearing, and complications with the use of the A3 Fusion Nail. . All patients 18 years or older who underwent TTC arthrodesis with an A3 Fusion Nail at a single institution from 2010 to 2015 with a minimum 3-month follow-up were included in this study. Rates of successful fusion, time to union, time to weight-bearing, and complications were evaluated. A total of 20 patients with an average age of 58.1 years and an average follow-up of 12.5 months met inclusion criteria. . Successful TTC arthrodesis was achieved in 14 of 20 patients (70%) overall. Average time to union was 8.1 months, and average time to weight-bearing was 6.8 weeks. Of 20 patients, 17 (85%) required femoral head allograft for bulk bone defects, and the union rate in this subset of patients was 76.5%. The rates of revision surgery (10%) and complications were low. . The A3 Fusion Nail demonstrated a favorable safety profile and achieved TTC arthrodesis at a rate consistent with historical data despite being used in a patient population at high risk for nonunion. In patients with bulk bone defects at high risk for nonunion, the A3 Fusion Nail demonstrated superior rates of fusion (76.5%) to those reported in the literature (50%). Level III: Retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938640019883138DOI Listing
December 2020

Epidemiologic and survival trends in adult primary bone tumors of the spine.

Spine J 2019 12 12;19(12):1941-1949. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background Context: Malignant primary spinal tumors are rare making it difficult to perform large studies comparing epidemiologic, survival, and treatment trends. We investigated the largest registry of primary bone tumors, the National Cancer Database (NCDB), to compare epidemiologic and survival trends among these tumors.

Purpose: To use the NCDB to describe current epidemiologic trends, treatment modalities, and overall survival rates in patients with chordomas, osteosarcomas, chondrosarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas of the mobile spine. The secondary objective was to determine prognostic factors that impact overall survival rates.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Patient Sample: A total of 1,011 patients with primary bone tumors of the spine (377 chordomas, 223 chondrosarcomas, 278 Ewing sarcomas, and 133 osteosarcomas).

Outcome Measures: Five-year survival.

Methods: We reviewed the records of 1,011 patients in the NCDB from 2004 through 2015 with histologically confirmed primary osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, or chordoma of the spine. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were compiled and compared using chi-squared tests and ANOVA. Long-term survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method with statistical comparisons based on the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine survival determinants.

Results: Surgical resection was the primary mode of treatment for chondrosarcoma (90%), chordoma (84%), and osteosarcoma (80%). The treatment for Ewing sarcoma was multimodal involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection. Five-year survival rates varied significantly with chordomas and chondrosarcomas having the greatest survival (70% and 69%), osteosarcomas having the worse survival (38%), and Ewing having intermediate 5-year survival at 62% (overall log-rank p<.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significantly improved 5-year survival rates with younger age at diagnosis, private insurance status, lower comorbidity score, lower tumor grade, smaller tumor size, surgical resection, and negative surgical margin. Radiation therapy only improved survival for Ewing sarcoma.

Conclusions: This study provides the most comprehensive description of the epidemiologic, treatment, and survival trends of primary bone tumors of the mobile spine. Second, patient and tumor characteristics associated with improved 5-year survival were identified using a multivariate model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2019.07.003DOI Listing
December 2019

Prior Hip Arthroscopy Increases Risk for Perioperative Total Hip Arthroplasty Complications: A Matched-Controlled Study.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Aug 1;34(8):1707-1710. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Arthroscopic hip surgery is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement and labral tears. Reports of outcomes of hip arthroscopy converted to total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been limited by small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prior hip arthroscopy on THA complications.

Methods: We queried our institutional database from January 2005 and December 2017 and identified 95 hip arthroscopy conversion THAs. A control cohort of 95 primary THA patients was matched by age, gender, and American Society of Anesthesiologists score. Patients were excluded if they had undergone open surgery on the ipsilateral hip. Intraoperative complications, estimated blood loss, operative time, postoperative complications, and need for revision were analyzed. Two separate analyses were performed. The first being intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications through 90-day follow-up and a second separate subanalysis of long-term outcomes on patients with minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: Average time from hip arthroscopy to THA was 29 months (range 2-153). Compared with primary THA controls, conversion patients had longer OR times (122 vs 103 minutes, P = .003). Conversion patients had a higher risk of any intraoperative complication (P = .043) and any postoperative complication (P = .007), with a higher rate of wound complications seen in conversion patients. There was not an increased risk of transfusion (P = .360), infection (P = 1.000), or periprosthetic fracture between groups (P = .150). When comparing THA approaches independent of primary or conversion surgery, there was no difference in intraoperative or postoperative complications (P = .500 and P = .790, respectively).

Conclusion: Conversion of prior hip arthroscopy to THA, compared with primary THA, resulted in increased surgical times and increased intraoperative and postoperative complications. Patients should be counseled about the potential increased risks associated with conversion THA after prior hip arthroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.066DOI Listing
August 2019

Traditional Laboratory Markers Hold Low Diagnostic Utility for Immunosuppressed Patients With Periprosthetic Joint Infections.

J Arthroplasty 2019 07 12;34(7):1441-1445. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Although predictive laboratory markers and cutoffs for immunocompetent patients are well-studied, similar reference ranges and decision thresholds for immunosuppressed patients are less understood. We investigated the utility of typical laboratory markers in immunosuppressed patients undergoing aspiration of a prosthetic hip or knee joint.

Methods: A retrospective review of adult patients with an immunosuppressed state that underwent primary and revision total joint arthroplasty with a subsequent infection at our tertiary, academic institution was conducted. Infection was defined by Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria. A multivariable analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with acute (<90 days) and chronic (>90 days) infection. Area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) was used to determine the best supported laboratory cut points for identifying infection.

Results: We identified 90 patients with immunosuppression states totaling 172 aspirations. Mean follow-up from aspiration was 33 months. In a multivariate analysis, only synovial fluid cell count and synovial percent neutrophils were found to be independently correlated with both acute and chronic infection. A synovial fluid cell count cutoff value of 5679 nucleated cells/mm maximized the AUC (0.839) for predicting acute infection, while a synovial fluid cell count cutoff value of 1293 nucleated cells/mm maximized the AUC (0.931) for predicting chronic infection.

Conclusion: Physicians should be aware of lower levels of synovial nucleated cell count and percentage of neutrophils in prosthetic joint infections of the hip or knee in patients with immunosuppression. Further investigation is necessary to identify the best means of diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.013DOI Listing
July 2019

E-Cadherin Represses Anchorage-Independent Growth in Sarcomas through Both Signaling and Mechanical Mechanisms.

Mol Cancer Res 2019 06 12;17(6):1391-1402. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

CDH1 (also known as E-cadherin), an epithelial-specific cell-cell adhesion molecule, plays multiple roles in maintaining adherens junctions, regulating migration and invasion, and mediating intracellular signaling. Downregulation of E-cadherin is a hallmark of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and correlates with poor prognosis in multiple carcinomas. Conversely, upregulation of E-cadherin is prognostic for improved survival in sarcomas. Yet, despite the prognostic benefit of E-cadherin expression in sarcoma, the mechanistic significance of E-cadherin in sarcomas remains poorly understood. Here, by combining mathematical models with wet-bench experiments, we identify the core regulatory networks mediated by E-cadherin in sarcomas, and decipher their functional consequences. Unlike carcinomas, E-cadherin overexpression in sarcomas does not induce a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). However, E-cadherin acts to reduce both anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation of sarcoma cells. Ectopic E-cadherin expression acts to downregulate phosphorylated CREB1 (p-CREB) and the transcription factor, TBX2, to inhibit anchorage-independent growth. RNAi-mediated knockdown of TBX2 phenocopies the effect of E-cadherin on CREB levels and restores sensitivity to anchorage-independent growth in sarcoma cells. Beyond its signaling role, E-cadherin expression in sarcoma cells can also strengthen cell-cell adhesion and restricts spheroid growth through mechanical action. Together, our results demonstrate that E-cadherin inhibits sarcoma aggressiveness by preventing anchorage-independent growth. IMPLICATIONS: We highlight how E-cadherin can restrict aggressive behavior in sarcomas through both biochemical signaling and biomechanical effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-0763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548594PMC
June 2019

Algorithm for Management of Periprosthetic Ankle Fractures.

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Jun 27;40(6):615-621. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

1 Department of Orthopaedics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Evidence on the management of and outcomes from periprosthetic fractures about a total ankle replacement (TAR) are limited. The purpose of this study was to develop an algorithm for the management of patients with postoperative periprosthetic fractures about a TAR.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing a TAR from 2007 through 2017 with a subsequent periprosthetic fracture >4 weeks from index surgery. Implant stability was defined radiographically and intraoperatively where appropriate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify differences in outcomes. Thirty-two patients were identified with a remote TAR periprosthetic fracture with an average follow-up of 26 months (range, 3-104 months).

Results: Most fractures were located about the medial malleolus (62.5%); the majority of fractures (75%) were deemed to have stable implants. Fractures of the talus always had unstable implants and always required revision TAR surgery (100%, P = .0002). There was no difference in patient-reported outcomes between stable and unstable fractures at an average of 36 months. In a multivariate analysis, fracture location (talus), less time to fracture, and implant type were found to be predictive of unstable implants ( P < .001). Implant stability was independently associated with the need for revision surgery ( P < .049). Nonoperative treatment was independently associated with treatment failure ( P < .001).

Conclusion: The majority of stable fractures about a TAR required operative fixation. Management with immobilization was fraught with a high rate of subsequent surgical intervention. We found that fractures about the talus required revision TAR surgery or arthrodesis.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719834542DOI Listing
June 2019

Arthroscopic Remplissage for Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review of Clinical and Biomechanical Studies.

Arthroscopy 2019 02 3;35(2):617-628. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Midwest Orthopedics at Rush, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Purpose: To examine the clinical outcomes and biomechanical data supporting the use of the remplissage procedure.

Methods: A query of the Embase, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines from 2000 to 2017. Data were extracted from included studies for a qualitative review of both clinical and biomechanical outcomes.

Results: After review, 18 clinical and 10 biomechanical studies were available for analysis; 10 of 18 clinical studies (55.6%) were Level IV evidence. Within the clinical studies, there were 567 patients (570 shoulders) evaluated with follow-up ranging from 6 to 180 months. Overall, 5.8% of shoulders (33 of 570) displayed recurrent instability after arthroscopic remplissage. Of the shoulders with recurrent instability, 42.4% of shoulders (14 of 33) underwent further surgical management. In all studies evaluating pre- and postoperative patient-reported outcomes, the arthroscopic remplissage procedure improved patient-reported outcomes a statistically significant amount postoperatively. Within individual clinical studies, external rotation with the arm in neutral was the most consistently limited range of motion (ROM) parameter, with deficits compared with the contralateral shoulder ranging from 9° to 14°. Biomechanical analysis appeared to corroborate the clinical results, although significant conclusions were limited by heterogeneity of reporting.

Conclusions: Arthroscopic remplissage performed in conjunction with arthroscopic Bankart repair is a safe and effective procedure for patients with engaging Hill-Sachs lesions and subcritical glenoid bone loss. Although both the included clinical and biomechanical studies would suggest minimal changes in glenohumeral ROM following the remplissage procedure, strong conclusions are limited by the heterogeneity in reporting ROM data and lack of comparative studies.

Level Of Evidence: IV, systematic review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2018.09.029DOI Listing
February 2019

Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremities: What Is the Value of Treating at High-volume Centers?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 04;477(4):718-727

A. L. Lazarides, B. E. Brigman, W. C. Eward, Department of Orthopedics Surgery, Duke Medical Center, Durham, NC J. A. Somarelli, Department of Medicine, Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC D. L. Kerr, R. T. Kreulen, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC D. P. Nussbaum, D. G. Blazer, Department of General Surgery, Duke Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: For many cancer types, survival is improved when patients receive management at treatment centers that encounter high numbers of patients annually. This correlation may be more important with less common malignancies such as sarcoma. Existing evidence, however, is limited and inconclusive as to whether facility volume may be associated with survival in soft tissue sarcoma.

Questions/purposes: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between facility volume and overall survival in patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities. In investigating this aim, we sought to (1) examine differences in the treatment characteristics of high- and low-volume facilities; (2) estimate the 5-year survival by facility volume; and (3) examine the association between facility volume and of traveling a further distance to a high-volume center and overall survival when controlling for confounding factors.

Methods: The largest sarcoma patient registry to date is contained within the National Cancer Database (NCDB) and captures > 70% of new cancer diagnoses annually. We retrospectively analyzed 25,406 patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities in the NCDB from 1998 through 2012. Patients were stratified based on per-year facility sarcoma volume and we used univariate comparisons and multivariate proportional hazards analyses to correlate survival measures with facility volume and various other patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors. First, we evaluated long-term survival for all variables using the Kaplan-Meier method with statistical comparisons based on the log-rank test. Multiple patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were compared between the two facility-volume groups and then included them in the multivariate proportional hazards model. Of the 25,406 patients analyzed, 3310 were treated at high-volume centers (≥ 20 patients annually) and 22,096 were treated at low-volume centers. Patient demographics were generally not different between both patient cohorts, although patients treated at high-volume centers were more likely to have larger and higher grade tumors (64% versus 56% size ≥ 5 cm, 28% versus 14% undifferentiated grade, p < 0.001).

Results: When controlling for patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics in a multivariate proportional hazards analysis, patients treated at high-volume facilities had an overall lower risk of mortality than those treated at low-volume centers (hazard ratio, 0.81 [0.75-0.88], p < 0.001). Patients treated at high-volume centers were also less likely to have positive margins (odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [0.52-0.68], p < 0.001) and in patients who received radiation, those treated at high-volume centers were more likely to have radiation before surgery (40.5% versus 21.7%, p < 0.001); there was no difference in the type of surgery performed (resection versus amputation) (OR, 1.01 [0.84-1.23], p = 0.883).

Conclusions: With the largest patient cohort to date, this database review suggests that certain patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities, particularly those with large high-grade tumors, may benefit from treatment at high-volume centers. Further investigation is necessary to help improve the referral of appropriate patients to high-volume sarcoma centers and to increase the treatment capacity of and access to such centers.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000533623.60399.1bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437385PMC
April 2019

Advanced Patellar Tendinopathy Is Associated With Increased Rates of Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft Failure at Early Follow-up After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Nov 19;6(11):2325967118807710. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be potentially devastating for a patient. As such, it is important to identify prognostic factors that place patients at an increased risk for graft failure. There are no data on the effects of patellar tendinopathy on failure of ACL reconstruction when using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of patellar tendinopathy with the risk of graft failure in primary ACL reconstruction when using a BPTB autograft. The hypothesis was that patellar tendinopathy would result in higher rates of graft failure when using a BPTB autograft for primary ACL reconstruction.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: All patients undergoing ACL reconstruction at a single institution from 2005 to 2015 were examined. A total of 168 patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with a BPTB autograft were identified. Patients' magnetic resonance imaging scans were reviewed for the presence and grade of patellar tendinopathy by 2 musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologists; both were blinded to the aim of the study, patient demographics, surgical details, and outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups: failure (defined as presence of symptomatic laxity or graft insufficiency) and success of the ACL graft. Statistical analyses were run to examine the association of patellar tendinopathy with failure of ACL reconstruction using a BPTB autograft.

Results: At a mean follow-up of 18 months, there were 7 (4.2%) patients with graft failure. Moderate or severe patellar tendinopathy was associated with ACL graft failure ( = .011). Age, sex, and side of reconstruction were not associated with the risk of graft failure, although the majority of patients who failed were younger than 20 years. The use of patellar tendons with moderate to severe tendinopathy was associated with a relative risk of ruptures of 6.1 (95% CI, 1.37-27.34) as compared with autograft tendons without tendinopathy.

Conclusion: Moderate or severe patellar tendinopathy significantly increases the risk of graft failure when using a BPTB autograft for primary ACL reconstruction. Patellar tendinopathy should be considered when determining the optimal graft choice for patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with autograft tendons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118807710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243419PMC
November 2018
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