Publications by authors named "Alexander Kaszubiak"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of radiation therapy on the oncolytic adenovirus dl520: implications on the treatment of glioblastoma.

Radiother Oncol 2008 Mar 29;86(3):419-27. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

Institute of Experimental Oncology, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Background And Purpose: Viral oncolytic therapy is emerging as a new form of anticancer therapy and has shown promising preclinical results, especially in combination with radio- and chemotherapy. We recently reported that nuclear localization of the human transcription factor YB-1 in multidrug-resistant cells facilitates E1-independent adenoviral replication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined treatment of the conditionally-replicating adenovirus dl520 and radiotherapy in glioma cell lines in vitro and in human tumor xenografts. Furthermore, the dependency of YB-1 on dl520 replication was verified by shRNA directed down regulation of YB-1.

Methods And Material: Localization of YB-1 was determined by immunostaining. Glioma cell lines LN-18, U373 and U87 were infected with dl520. Induction of cytopathic effect (CPE), viral replication, viral yield and viral release were determined after viral infection, radiation therapy and the combination of both treatment modalities. The capacity of treatments alone or combined to induce tumor growth inhibition of subcutaneous U373 tumors was tested also in nude mice.

Results: Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that the shRNA-mediated down regulation of YB-1 is leading to a dramatic decrease in adenoviral replication of dl520. Immunostaining analysis showed that the YB-1 protein was predominantly located in the cytoplasm in the perinuclear space and less abundant in the nucleus. After irradiation we found an increase of nuclear YB-1. The addition of radiotherapy increased the oncolytic effect of dl520 with enhanced viral replication, viral yield and viral release. The oncolytic activity of dl520 plus radiation inhibited the growth of subcutaneous U373 tumors in a xenograft mouse model.

Conclusions: Radiation mediated increase of nuclear YB-1 in glioma cells enhanced the oncolytic potential of adenovirus dl520.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2007.10.009DOI Listing
March 2008

Complete in vivo reversal of the multidrug resistance phenotype by jet-injection of anti-MDR1 short hairpin RNA-encoding plasmid DNA.

Mol Ther 2008 Jan 18;16(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Sep 18.

1Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Triggering the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway by inducing the expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules has become a promising tool for efficient silencing of a given gene in gene therapy applications. In this study, shRNA encoding DNA was utilized to reverse the classical MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in vivo. For the first time, the nonviral jet-injection technology was applied for delivering naked shRNA-vector constructs for direct intratumoral in vivo transfer. The highly efficient anti-MDR1 shRNA expression vectors were applied twice in the human MDR1/P-gp overexpressing MaTu/ADR cancer xenograft-bearing mice, and twice in the corresponding drug-sensitive parental MaTu tumor xenograft bearing mice as well. Two days after anti-MDR1 shRNA vector injection, the expression level of the MDR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was decreased by more than 90% and the corresponding MDR1/P-gp protein was no longer detectable in the tumors. Two jet-injections of anti-MDR1 shRNA vectors into the tumors, combined with two intravenous (IV) administrations of doxorubicin, were sufficient to achieve complete reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. The data show that jet-injection delivery of shRNA-expressing vectors is effective in reversing MDR1/P-gp-mediated MDR in vivo, and is therefore a promising strategy for making tumors with an MDR1/Pgp-dependent MDR phenotype revert to a drug-sensitive state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mt.6300304DOI Listing
January 2008

Overcoming the classical multidrug resistance phenotype by adenoviral delivery of anti-MDR1 short hairpin RNAs and ribozymes.

Int J Oncol 2007 Aug;31(2):419-30

Institute of Pathology, Charité Campus Mitte, Humboldt University Berlin, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.

Simultaneous resistance of cancer cells to multiple cytotoxic drugs, multidrug resistance (MDR), is the major limitation to the successful chemotherapeutic treatment of disseminated neoplasms. The 'classical' MDR phenotype is conferred by MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) that is expressed in almost 50% of human cancers. Recent developments in the use of small interfering RNAs for specific inhibition of gene expression have highlighted their potential use as therapeutic agents. DNA cassettes encoding RNA polymerase III promoter-driven siRNA-like short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) allow long-term expression of therapeutic RNAs in targeted cells. A variety of viral vectors have been used to deliver such cassettes to mammalian cells. In this study, the construction of different adenoviruses for anti-MDR1/P-gp shRNA delivery in different human multidrug-resistant cancer cells was investigated. The efficiency of the shRNAs was compared to adenoviral delivery of an anti-MDR1/P-gp ribozyme construct. It could be demonstrated that MDR1/P-gp mRNA and protein expression could be completely inhibited by adenoviral delivery of anti-MDR1/P-gp shRNAs. This downregulation in mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by a complete inhibition of the pump activity of MDR1/P-gp and a reversal of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. By application of adenoviral encoded anti-MDR1/P-gp ribozyme construct merely weak effects on gene expression were observed. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that adenoviral delivery of shRNAs can chemosensitize human cancer cells, that adenoviral delivery of shRNAs is much more effective than adenoviral delivery of ribozymes, and that adenovirus-based vectors can be very effective agents for efficient delivery of therapeutic RNA molecules.
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August 2007

Regulation of MDR1 gene expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells is independent from YB-1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007 May 2;357(1):295-301. Epub 2007 Apr 2.

Charité Campus Mitte, Institute of Pathology, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.

The MDR1 gene encoded transmembrane ABC-transporter MDR1/P-glycoprotein can mediate the phenotype of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle in the clinical management of cancer patients. It was hypothesized that YB-1 is a fundamental regulatory factor of the MDR1 gene in tumor cells and can therewith enhance drug resistance. To analyze the potential impact of YB-1 in MDR cancer cells, two specific anti-YB-1 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were designed for transient triggering the gene-silencing RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in the MDR cell lines EPG85-257RDB and EPP85-181RDB as well as in their drug-sensitive counterparts EPG85-257P and EPP85-181P. Since both siRNAs showed biological activity, for stable inhibition of YB-1 corresponding tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-encoding expression vectors were designed. By treatment of the cancer cells with these constructs, the expression of the targeted YB-1 encoding mRNA and protein was completely inhibited following tetracycline exposure. These gene-silencing effects were not accompanied by modulation of the MDR1 expression or by reversal of the drug-resistant phenotype. In conclusion, the data demonstrate the utility of the analyzed RNAs as powerful laboratory tools and indicate that YB-1 is not involved in the regulation of the MDR1 gene or the development of the drug-resistant phenotype in MDR cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.03.145DOI Listing
May 2007

Inhibition of the multidrug-resistant phenotype by targeting YB-1 with a conditionally oncolytic adenovirus: implications for combinatorial treatment regimen with chemotherapeutic agents.

Cancer Res 2006 Jul;66(14):7195-202

Institute of Experimental Oncology and Department of Urology, Technical University of Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Germany.

Bearing in mind the limited success of available treatment modalities for the therapy of multidrug-resistant tumor cells, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. It is known that the transcriptional activation of genes, such as MDR1 and MRP1, which play a major role in the development of a multidrug-resistant phenotype in tumor cells, involves the Y-box protein YB-1. Thus, YB-1 is a promising target for new therapeutic approaches to defeat multidrug resistance. In addition, it has been reported previously that YB-1 is an important factor in adenoviral replication because it activates transcription from the adenoviral E2-late promoter. Here, we report that an oncolytic adenovirus, named Xvir03, expressing the viral proteins E1B55k and E4orf6, leads to nuclear translocation of YB-1 and in consequence to viral replication and cell lysis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we show that Xvir03 down-regulates the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, indicating that recruiting YB-1 to the adenoviral E2-late promoter for viral replication is responsible for this effect. Thus, nuclear translocation of YB-1 by Xvir03 leads to resensitization of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs. These data reveal a link between chemotherapy and virotherapy based on the cellular transcription factor YB-1 and provide the basis for formulating a model for a novel combined therapy regimen named Mutually Synergistic Therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2339DOI Listing
July 2006

Specific inhibition of AKT2 by RNA interference results in reduction of ovarian cancer cell proliferation: increased expression of AKT in advanced ovarian cancer.

Cancer Lett 2007 Feb 3;246(1-2):190-200. Epub 2006 Apr 3.

Institute of Pathology, Charité University Hospital Berlin, Campus Mitte, Schumannstr 20/21, D-10117 Berlin, Germany.

The protein kinase AKT is involved in several signaling pathways that are important for tumor development and progression, suggesting that AKT might be an interesting target for a molecular tumor therapy. In this study, we investigated the AKT expression in ovarian carcinomas and the role of the AKT isoforms to ovarian cancer cell proliferation. We observed an increased AKT expression in 58% of the primary ovarian carcinomas as compared to normal ovaries by immunohistochemistry. AKT expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node status (P=0.002) and advanced FIGO stage (P=0.009). In western blot analysis, total AKT was expressed in all ovarian cancer cell lines and HOSE cells, while phosphorylated AKT was only observed in OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 cells. The isoforms AKT1 and AKT2 were expressed at the mRNA level in all cell lines, while no relevant AKT3 mRNA levels were detected by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR. To determine the effects on cell proliferation, we used the unselective PI3K-inhibitor LY294002 as well as RNA interference to selectively inhibit the AKT isoforms. Treatment with LY294002 and the AKT2 siRNA reduced proliferation of OVCAR-3 cells. Our results show that AKT is expressed in a subpopulation of advanced ovarian carcinomas suggesting a role for this protein in the progression of this entity. Deactivation of AKT, especially AKT2 can result in reduction of cell growth. Accordingly, AKT is an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2006.02.018DOI Listing
February 2007