Publications by authors named "Alexander J Robinson"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neurite outgrowth inhibitory levels of organophosphates induce tissue transglutaminase activity in differentiating N2a cells: evidence for covalent adduct formation.

Arch Toxicol 2020 11 4;94(11):3861-3875. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK.

Organophosphate compounds (OPs) induce both acute and delayed neurotoxic effects, the latter of which is believed to involve their interaction with proteins other than acetylcholinesterase. However, few OP-binding proteins have been identified that may have a direct role in OP-induced delayed neurotoxicity. Given their ability to disrupt Ca homeostasis, a key aim of the current work was to investigate the effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory levels of OPs on the Ca-dependent enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2). At 1-10 µM, the OPs phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) had no effect cell viability but induced concentration-dependent decreases in neurite outgrowth in differentiating N2a neuroblastoma cells. The activity of TG2 increased in cell lysates of differentiating cells exposed for 24 h to PSP and chlorpyrifos oxon CPO (10 µM), as determined by biotin-cadaverine incorporation assays. Exposure to both OPs (3 and/or 10 µM) also enhanced in situ incorporation of the membrane permeable substrate biotin-X-cadaverine, as indicated by Western blot analysis of treated cell lysates probed with ExtrAvidin peroxidase and fluorescence microscopy of cell monolayers incubated with FITC-streptavidin. Both OPs (10 µM) stimulated the activity of human and mouse recombinant TG2 and covalent labelling of TG2 with dansylamine-labelled PSP was demonstrated by fluorescence imaging following SDS-PAGE. A number of TG2 substrates were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry, including cytoskeletal proteins, chaperones and proteins involved protein synthesis and gene regulation. We propose that the elevated TG2 activity observed is due to the formation of a novel covalent adduct between TG2 and OPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02852-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603472PMC
November 2020

Magnetically sensitive light-induced reactions in cryptochrome are consistent with its proposed role as a magnetoreceptor.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Mar 14;109(13):4774-9. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Centre for Advanced Electron Spin Resonance, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3QR, United Kingdom.

Among the biological phenomena that fall within the emerging field of "quantum biology" is the suggestion that magnetically sensitive chemical reactions are responsible for the magnetic compass of migratory birds. It has been proposed that transient radical pairs are formed by photo-induced electron transfer reactions in cryptochrome proteins and that their coherent spin dynamics are influenced by the geomagnetic field leading to changes in the quantum yield of the signaling state of the protein. Despite a variety of supporting evidence, it is still not clear whether cryptochromes have the properties required to respond to magnetic interactions orders of magnitude weaker than the thermal energy, k(B)T. Here we demonstrate that the kinetics and quantum yields of photo-induced flavin-tryptophan radical pairs in cryptochrome are indeed magnetically sensitive. The mechanistic origin of the magnetic field effect is clarified, its dependence on the strength of the magnetic field measured, and the rates of relevant spin-dependent, spin-independent, and spin-decoherence processes determined. We argue that cryptochrome is fit for purpose as a chemical magnetoreceptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1118959109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3323948PMC
March 2012

Protein surface interactions probed by magnetic field effects on chemical reactions.

J Am Chem Soc 2010 Feb;132(5):1466-7

Centre for Advanced Electron Spin Resonance, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA, UK.

Here we have employed the effects of weak static magnetic fields (not exceeding 46 mT) on radical recombination reactions to investigate protein-substrate interactions. Pulsed laser excitation of an aqueous solution of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS(2-)) and either hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) produces the triplet state of the radical pair (T)[AQDS(3-*) Trp(*)] by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction from tryptophan residues. Time-resolved absorption techniques were employed to study the recombination characteristics of these radical pairs at different static magnetic fields and ionic strengths. The experimental data in connection with the simulated curves unequivocally show that the radical pair has a lifetime of the order of microseconds in both systems (HEWL and BSA). However, the radical pair is embedded within a binding pocket of the BSA protein, while the (otherwise identical) radical pair, being subject to attractive Coulomb forces, resides on the protein surface in the HEWL system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja908988uDOI Listing
February 2010

Montelukast inhibition of resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under flow conditions appears independent of cysLT(1)R antagonism.

J Leukoc Biol 2008 Jun 10;83(6):1522-9. Epub 2008 Mar 10.

School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.

Montelukast (MLK) is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 (cysLT(1)R) antagonist with inhibitory effects on eosinophils, key proinflammatory cells in asthma. We assessed the effect of MLK on resting and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to recombinant human (rh)VCAM-1 at different flow rates using our novel microflow system. At 1 or 2 dyn cm(-2), shear-stress unstimulated eosinophils tethered immediately to rhVCAM-1, "rolled" along part of the channel until they tethered, or rolled without tethering. At flow rates greater than 2 dyn cm(-2), adherent eosinophils began to be displaced from rhVCAM-1. MLK (10 nM and 100 nM) gave partial ( approximately 40%) but significant (P<0.05) inhibition of unstimulated eosinophil adhesion to rhVCAM-1 at 1 or 2 dyn cm(-2) shear stress. Once adhered, unstimulated eosinophils did not exhibit morphological changes, and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion under flow was characterized by greater cell flattening with significant (P<0.05) inhibition of adherent cell numbers by 100 nM MLK observed. This effect appeared specific for MLK, as the analog (E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]phenyl]-[[3-dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid, sodium salt, had no significant effect on eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1. The possibility that LTC(4), released from unstimulated or GM-CSF-treated eosinophils, contributed to their adhesion to VCAM-1 was excluded as the LT biosynthesis inhibitor 3-[1-(p-Chlorobenzyl)-5-(isopropyl)-3-t-butylthioindol-2-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid had no inhibitory effect, and exogenously added LTC(4) did not enhance eosinophil adhesion. In contrast, LTD(4) enhanced eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1, an effect blocked by MLK (10 and 100 nM). These findings demonstrate that MLK-mediated inhibition of unstimulated and GM-CSF-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 under shear-stress conditions appears independent of cysLT(1)R antagonism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.1007717DOI Listing
June 2008
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