Publications by authors named "Alexander Filippi"

2 Publications

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Oxygenated and Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air-Levels, Phase Partitioning, Mass Size Distributions, and Inhalation Bioaccessibility.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 03 11;54(5):2615-2625. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz 55128, Germany.

Among the nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs) are some of the most hazardous substances to public health, mainly because of their carcinogenicity and oxidative potential. Despite these concerns, the concentrations and fate of NPAHs and OPAHs in the atmospheric environment are largely unknown. Ambient air concentrations of 18 NPAHs, 5 quinones, and 5 other OPAHs were determined at two urban and one regional background sites in central Europe. At one of the urban sites, the total (gas and particulate) concentrations of ΣOPAHs were 10.0 ± 9.2 ng/m in winter and 3.5 ± 1.6 ng/m in summer. The gradient to the regional background site exceeded 1 order of magnitude. ΣNPAH concentrations were typically 1 order of magnitude lower than OPAHs. Among OPAHs, 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone were the most abundant species, accompanied by benzanthrone in winter. (9,10)-Anthraquinone represented two-thirds of quinones. We found that a large fraction of the target substance particulate mass was carried by submicrometer particles. The derived inhalation bioaccessibility in the PM size fraction is found to be ≈5% of the total ambient concentration of OPAHs and up to ≈2% for NPAHs. For 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone, up to 86 and 18%, respectively, were found at the rural site. Our results indicate that water solubility could function as a limiting factor for bioaccessibility of inhaled particulate NPAHs and OPAHs, without considerable effect of surfactant lipids and proteins in the lung lining fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b06820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307896PMC
March 2020

Radical Formation by Fine Particulate Matter Associated with Highly Oxygenated Molecules.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Nov 7;53(21):12506-12518. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics Faculty of Science , University of Helsinki , FI-00014 Helsinki , Finland.

Highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) play an important role in the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). However, the abundance of HOMs in different environments and their relation to the oxidative potential of fine particulate matter (PM) are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relative HOM abundance and radical yield of laboratory-generated SOA and fine PM in ambient air ranging from remote forest areas to highly polluted megacities. By electron paramagnetic resonance and mass spectrometric investigations, we found that the relative abundance of HOMs, especially the dimeric and low-volatility types, in ambient fine PM was positively correlated with the formation of radicals in aqueous PM extracts. SOA from photooxidation of isoprene, ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene, and fine PM from tropical (central Amazon) and boreal (Hyytiälä, Finland) forests exhibited a higher HOM abundance and radical yield than SOA from photooxidation of naphthalene and fine PM from urban sites (Beijing, Guangzhou, Mainz, Shanghai, and Xi'an), confirming that HOMs are important constituents of biogenic SOA to generate radicals. Our study provides new insights into the chemical relationship of HOM abundance, composition, and sources with the yield of radicals by laboratory and ambient aerosols, enabling better quantification of the component-specific contribution of source- or site-specific fine PM to its climate and health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b05149DOI Listing
November 2019